The Liberal Party of Australia known as the South Australian Liberals, is the South Australian Division of the Liberal Party of Australia. It was the Liberal and Country League, formed in 1932, before changing its name in 1974, it is one of two major parties in the bicameral Parliament of South Australia, the other being the Australian Labor Party. The party has been led by Premier of South Australia Steven Marshall since the 2018 state election. During its 42-year existence as the Liberal and Country League, it spent 34 years in government due to an electoral malapportionment scheme known as the Playmander; the Playmander was named after LCL leader Sir Tom Playford, the Premier of South Australia for 27 years from 1938 until his election loss in 1965. The Playmander was dismantled through an electoral reform in 1968, with the 1970 election marking the beginning of democratic proportional representation. Since the electoral reform, the party has won only 4 of the 15 state elections: 1979, 1993, 1997 and 2018.
The Liberal and Country League had its roots in the Emergency Committee of South Australia, which ran as the main non-Labor party in South Australia at the 1931 federal election landslide. In the House of Representatives, it took an additional two seats to hold six of the state's seven seats. In the bloc-voting winner-take-all Senate, it took the three seats up for election. Encouraged by this success, the Liberal Federation and the SA Country Party merged to form the LCL on 9 June 1932, with former Liberal Federation leader Richard Layton Butler as its first leader. Liberal Federation itself was preceded by Liberal Union with the latter created from a tri-merger between the Liberal and Democratic Union, the Farmers and Producers Political Union and the National Defence League. In its first electoral test, the 1933 state election, the LCL took advantage of a three-way split in the state Labor government to win a smashing victory, taking 29 seats versus only 13 for the three Labor factions combined.
Butler became the Premier of South Australia. Traditionally a conservative party, the LCL contained three distinct factions whose ideologies conflicted: Farmers and rural property owners; the Adelaide Establishment of old money families and those fortunate enough, through marriage, to have been accepted by the Establishment. The urban middle classThe urban middle class continued to support the party although they had little say in its running. Indeed, it was not until the election of Robin Millhouse in 1955 that someone from this third faction was elected to parliament. Millhouse considered during his term as the most progressive member of the LCL, was expelled in 1973 for his continued criticism of the conservative wing of the party, going on to join the splinter Liberal Movement party; the Butler LCL introduced the electoral malapportionment scheme known as the Playmander in 1936. The House of Assembly was reduced from 46 members elected from multi-member districts to 39 members elected from single-member electorates.
The electorates consisted of rural districts enjoying a 2-to-1 advantage in the state parliament though they contained less than half of the population. Two-thirds of seats were to be located in rural areas; this arrangement was retained as Adelaide, the state capital, grew to two-thirds of the state's population. Allowing for a smaller chamber, the LCL suffered heavy losses at the 1938 election, winning just 15 of 39 seats. However, Labor picked up only a small number of additional seats. In an unprecedented result, the crossbench swelled massively, with no less than 14 independents elected from a combined independent primary vote of 40 percent, higher than either major party. Butler and the LCL had to rely on the crossbench for supply to remain in government. Only months Butler resigned in favour of Tom Playford to make an unsuccessful attempt to enter federal politics. From the 1941 election onward, the Playford LCL would regain and keep a parliamentary majority, albeit narrowly. Additionally, turnout crashed to a record-low 50 percent in 1941, triggering the Playford LCL to introduce compulsory voting from the 1944 election.
In 1945, the Liberal and Country League became the South Australian division of the newly-formed Liberal Party of Australia. However, the SA division continued to be known as the LCL. Under the scheme, a vote in a low-population rural seat had anywhere from double to ten times the value of a vote in a high-population metropolitan seat. For example, at the 1968 election the rural seat of Frome had 4,500 formal votes, while the metropolitan seat of Enfield had 42,000 formal votes; the scheme allowed LCL to win sufficient parliamentary seats when it lost the two-party vote to Labor opposition by comprehensive margins at several elections: 1944, 1953, 1962 and 1968. For instance, in the 1944 and 1953 elections, Labor took 53 percent of the two-party vote, which would have been enough to deliver a solid majority for the Labor leader–Robert Richards in 1944 and Mick O'Halloran in 1953. However, on both occasions, the LCL managed to just hold onto power. By the 1950s, a number of Labor figures had despaired of winning power.
O'Halleran, for instance, felt he needed to maintain a cordial relationship with Playford in hopes of getting Labor-friendly legislation through the House of Assembly. Playford had become synonymous with the LCL over his record 27-year tenure as Premier of South Australia; the LCL became so identified with Playford that
2013 BP73, provisional designation 2013 BP73, is a sub-kilometer asteroid, classified as a near-Earth object and hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group 310 meters in diameter. From discovery until August 2013 when Sentry updated to planetary ephemeris, it had the 4th highest impact threat on the Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale, it was discovered on 22 January 2013 by the Mount Lemmon Survey at an apparent magnitude of 21 using a 1.5-meter reflecting telescope. It has an estimated diameter of 310 meters. Six Precovery images from April 2003 have been located, it was removed from the Sentry Risk Table on 3 January 2014. It has an observation arc of 10 years with an uncertainty parameter of 2. Perturbations by Earth and Mercury will increase the orbital uncertainty over time; when the asteroid only had an observation arc of 52 days, virtual clones of the asteroid that fit the uncertainty region in the known trajectory showed a 1 in 588,000 chance that the asteroid could impact Earth on 11 December 2096.
With a 2096 Palermo Technical Scale of −3.42, the odds of impact by 2013 BP73 in 2096 were about 2630 times less than the background hazard level of Earth impacts, defined as the average risk posed by objects of the same size or larger over the years until the date of the potential impact. Using the nominal orbit, JPL Horizons shows that the asteroid will be 0.9 AU from Earth on 11 December 2096. 2013 BP73 will make a close approach to Earth on 17 December 2018 that should allow a refinement to the known trajectory. This minor planet was numbered by the Minor Planet Center on 25 December 2015; as of 2018, it has not been named. List of the Potentially Hazardous Asteroids, Minor Planet Center PHA Close Approaches To The Earth, Minor Planet Center List Of Apollo Minor Planets, Minor Planet Center Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 2013 BP73 at NeoDyS-2, Near Earth Objects—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Obs prediction · Orbital info · MOID · Proper elements · Obs info · Close · Physical info · NEOCC 2013 BP73 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Iron & Wine live at the Bonnaroo Music Festival, Manchester, TN, June 11, 2005. "Sunset Soon Forgotten" "Jezebel" "Woman King" "Free Until They Cut Me Down" "Cinder and Smoke" "Evening on the Ground" "Love and Some Verses" "Bird Stealing Bread" "Mr. Soul" "The Night Descending" "Naked as We Came" "Fever Dream" "On Your Wings" "Freedom Hangs Like Heaven" "Upward Over the Mountain" "Teeth in the Grass" "Southern Anthem" "My Lady's House" "The Trapeze Swinger"
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Gray graph is an undirected bipartite graph with 54 vertices and 81 edges. It is a cubic graph: every vertex touches three edges, it was discovered by Marion C. Gray in 1932 discovered independently by Bouwer 1968 in reply to a question posed by Jon Folkman 1967; the Gray graph is interesting as the first known example of a cubic graph having the algebraic property of being edge but not vertex transitive. The Gray graph has chromatic number 2, chromatic index 3, radius 6 and diameter 6, it is a 3-vertex-connected and 3-edge-connected non-planar graph. The Gray graph can be constructed from the 27 points of a 3 × 3 × 3 grid and the 27 axis-parallel lines through these points; this collection of points and lines forms a projective configuration: each point has three lines through it, each line has three points on it. The Gray graph is the Levi graph of this configuration; this construction generalizes to any dimension n ≥ 3, yielding an n-valent Levi graph with algebraic properties similar to those of the Gray graph.
In, the Gray graph appears as a different sort of Levi graph for the edges and triangular faces of a certain locally toroidal abstract regular 4-polytope. It is therefore the first in an infinite family of constructed cubic graphs; as with other Levi graphs, it is a bipartite graph, with the vertices corresponding to points on one side of the bipartition and the vertices corresponding to lines on the other side. Marušič and Pisanski give several alternative methods of constructing the Gray graph; as with any bipartite graph, there are no odd-length cycles, there are no cycles of four or six vertices, so the girth of the Gray graph is 8. The simplest oriented surface on which the Gray graph can be embedded has genus 7; the Gray graph is Hamiltonian and can be constructed from the LCF notation: 9. As a Hamiltonian cubic graph, it has chromatic index three; the automorphism group of the Gray graph is a group of order 1296. It acts transitively on the edges the graph but not on its vertices: there are symmetries taking every edge to any other edge, but not taking every vertex to any other vertex.
The vertices that correspond to points of the underlying configuration can only be symmetric to other vertices that correspond to points, the vertices that correspond to lines can only be symmetric to other vertices that correspond to lines. Therefore, the Gray graph is a semi-symmetric graph, the smallest possible cubic semi-symmetric graph; the characteristic polynomial of the Gray graph is x 16 6 12. Bouwer, I. Z. "An edge but not vertex transitive cubic graph", Bulletin of the Canadian Mathematical Society, 11: 533–535, doi:10.4153/CMB-1968-063-0. Bouwer, I. Z. "On edge but not vertex transitive regular graphs", Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series B, 12: 32–40, doi:10.1016/0095-895690030-5. Folkman, J. "Regular line-symmetric graphs", Journal of Combinatorial Theory, 3: 533–535, doi:10.1016/S0021-980080069-3. Marušič, Dragan. CO. Marušič, Dragan. Monson, B.. MathWorld; the Gray Graph Is the Smallest Graph of Its Kind, from MathWorld
Tiffany is the debut studio album by American recording pop singer Tiffany. Prior to signing a recording contract with MCA records in 1987, Tiffany Darwish had begun working with manager/producer George Tobin several years earlier with some of the tracks recorded as early when she was 12 years old. "Danny" was her first single released from her self-titled studio album. To support the album and create a buzz for herself, Tiffany embarked on a shopping mall tour entitled “The Beautiful You: Celebrating the Good Life Shopping Mall Tour ‘87”. Tiffany's tour included the singer performing in shopping malls across the United States; as her popularity grew during her tour radio stations began to play Tiffany's cover version of Tommy James & the Shondells hit "I Think We're Alone Now". The song was released as the album's second single; the album's follow-up single "Could've Been" became the singer's second No. 1 hit on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and her first on the Adult Contemporary chart. With the help of those two singles, the album climbed to No. 1 on Billboard’s Top Pop Albums chart.
At the age of 16 years, Tiffany became the youngest female artist to earn a No.1 album and the youngest to have two back-to-back No.1 singles. Tiffany’s rendition of the Beatles’ "I Saw Her Standing There" retitled "I Saw Him Standing There" provided a final hit from the album; the album was certified quadruple platinum by Recording Industry Association of America. The album's final single, "Feelings of Forever" failed to reprise the success of Tiffany's three previous singles. "No Rules" "The Heart of Love" "Mr. Mambo" "Gotta Be Love" "Out of My Heart" "Heart Don't Break Tonight" "Can't Stop a Heartbeat" Wasn't a B-Side to any US single on this album. Tiffany - lead and backing vocals Chuck Yamek - guitars Dann Huff - guitars Carl Verheyen - guitar John Duarte - keyboards, synthesizer bass, drum programming Richard Elliot - saxophone Steve Rucker - acoustic piano and synthesizers Willie Arnelas - drums Production Produced by George Tobin Arranged by John Duarte Production coordination: Brenda Farrell Engineers: John Kerns, Bill Smith Assistant engineers: Steve Holroyd, David Means, Bryan Rutter Mixing: John Kerns, Bill Smith, George Tobin Mastering: Steve Hall
The Battle of France known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War. On 3 September 1939 France had declared war following the invasion of its ally Poland. In early September 1939, France launched the Saar Offensive. By mid October, French troops had been withdrawn to their original start positions. In six weeks from 10 May 1940, German forces defeated Allied forces by mobile operations and conquered France, Belgium and the Netherlands, bringing land operations on the Western Front to an end until the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944. Italy invaded France over the Alps. In Fall Gelb, German armoured units made a surprise push through the Ardennes, along the Somme valley, cutting off and surrounding the Allied units that had advanced into Belgium to meet the expected German invasion; when British and French forces were pushed back to the sea by the mobile and well-organised German operation, the British evacuated the British Expeditionary Force and French divisions from Dunkirk in Operation Dynamo.
German forces began Fall Rot on 5 June. The sixty remaining French divisions and two British divisions made a determined resistance but were unable to overcome the German air superiority and armoured mobility. German tanks outflanked the Maginot Line and pushed deep into France, occupying Paris unopposed on 14 June. After the flight of the French government and the collapse of the French army, German commanders met with French officials on 18 June to negotiate an end to hostilities. On 22 June, the Second Armistice at Compiègne was signed by Germany; the neutral Vichy government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain superseded the Third Republic and Germany occupied the north and west coasts of France and their hinterlands. Italy took control of a small occupation zone in the south-east and the Vichy regime retained the unoccupied territory in the south, known as the zone libre. In November 1942, the Germans and Italians occupied the zone under Case Anton, until the Allied liberation in 1944. During the 1930s, the French built fortifications along the border with Germany.
The line was intended to economise on manpower and deter a German invasion across the Franco–German border by diverting it into Belgium, which could be met by the best divisions of the French Army. The war would take place outside French territory; the main section of the Maginot Line ended at Longwy. General Philippe Pétain declared the Ardennes to be "impenetrable" as long as "special provisions" were taken to destroy an invasion force as it emerged from the Ardennes by a pincer attack; the French commander-in-chief, Maurice Gamelin believed the area to be safe from attack, noting it "never favoured large operations". French war games held in 1938, of a hypothetical German armoured attack through the Ardennes, left the army with the impression that the region was still impenetrable and that this, along with the obstacle of the Meuse River, would allow the French time to bring up troops into the area to counter an attack. In 1939, Britain and France offered military support to Poland in the case of a German invasion.
In the dawn of 1 September 1939, the German Invasion of Poland began. France and the United Kingdom declared war on 3 September, after an ultimatum for German forces to withdraw their forces from Poland was not answered. Following this, New Zealand, South Africa and Canada declared war on Germany. While British and French commitments to Poland were met politically, the Allies were not in a position to render meaningful military assistance to the Poles in a timely manner. If Allied military intervention in Poland had been feasible, it would have come at the risk of drawing the Soviet Union into the war on Germany's side due to the signed German-Soviet non-aggression pact and subsequent Soviet invasion of eastern Poland; as a result, the Allies settled on a long-war strategy and mobilised for defensive land operations against Germany, while a trade blockade was imposed and the pre-war re-armament was accelerated, ready for an eventual invasion of Germany. On 7 September, in accordance with their alliance with Poland, France began the Saar Offensive with an advance from the Maginot Line 5 km into the Saar.
France had mobilised 98 divisions and 2,500 tanks against a German force consisting of 43 divisions and no tanks. The French advanced until they met the thin and undermanned Siegfried Line. On 17 September, Gamelin gave the order to withdraw French troops to their starting positions. Following the Saar Offensive, a period of inaction called the Phoney War set in between the belligerents. Adolf Hitler had hoped that France and Britain would acquiesce in the conquest of Poland and make peace. On 6 October, he made a peace offer to both Western powers. On 9 October, Hitler issued a new "Führer-Directive Number 6". Hitler recognised the necessity of military campaigns to defeat the Western European nations, preliminary to the conquest of territory in Eastern Europe, to avoid a two-front war but these intentions were absent from Directive N°6; the plan was based on the more realistic assumption that German military strength would have to be built up for several years