Unitarian Universalist Association
Unitarian Universalist Association is a liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalist congregations. It was formed in 1961 by the consolidation of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America. Both of these predecessor organizations began as Christian denominations of the Unitarian and Universalist varieties respectively. However, modern Unitarian Universalists see themselves as a separate religion with its own beliefs and affinities, they define themselves as non-creedal, draw wisdom from various religions and philosophies, including humanism, Christianity, Buddhism, Judaism and Earth-centered spirituality. Thus, the UUA is a syncretistic religious group with liberal leanings. In the United States, Unitarian Universalism grew by 15.8% between 2000 and 2010 to include 211,000 adherents nationwide. Most of the member congregations of the UUA are in the United States and Canada, but the UUA has admitted congregations from Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and Pakistan.
Until 2002 all member congregations of the Canadian Unitarian Council were members of the UUA and most services to CUC member congregations were provided by the UUA. However, after an agreement between the UUA and the CUC, since 2002 most services have been provided by the CUC to its own member congregations, with the UUA continuing to provide ministerial settlement services. Since 2002, some Canadian congregations have continued to be members of both the UUA and CUC while others are members of only the CUC; the Church of the Larger Fellowship is a member church of the Unitarian Universalist Association providing denominational services to persons unable to attend a physical congregation because of distance or mobility, or who wish to belong to a congregation other than their local congregation. Many of these are Unitarian Universalists in other countries, members of the military, prisoners or non-mobile elderly; the Unitarian Universalist Association is headquartered at 24 Farnsworth Street, within Boston, Massachusetts.
This serves as the historical center of Unitarianism in the U. S; as of 2009, the UUA comprised 19 Districts, 1,041 congregations with 164,656 certified members and 61,795 church school enrollees served by 1,623 ministers. However, as of 2011 the UUA had 54,671 church school enrollees; this shows a decline of 1,860 members and 7,124 enrollees in church school since 2008. The UUA has, for the first time reported decline in average weekly attendance to 100,693 people; this is a drop of 1.5% on the 2010 reported figure. Many atheists and humanists are a part of the various congregations of the Unitarian Universalist Association; the UUA was given corporate status in May 1961 under special acts of legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the State of New York. See Chapter 148 of the acts of 1960 of the Massachusetts legislature and Chapter 827 of the Acts of 1960 of the New York legislature. Copies of said acts are attached to the minutes of the organizing meeting of the association held in Boston, Massachusetts, in May 1961 and are printed in the 1961–62 directory of the association.
The UUA is not a denomination in the traditional sense. It is the congregations that have authority over the larger body, through the annual General Assembly of the Unitarian Universalist Association. Since the general public understands denomination much more than association of congregations, the distinction is omitted in conversation; because of this relationship between the congregations and the association, Unitarian Universalist congregations have a congregationalist polity of governance. However, day-to-day decisions are made by the president, the moderator, the Board of Trustees. In its role as a national organization representing the congregations, the UUA is a member of various organizations, both religious and secular; the UUA does not have a central creed in which members are required to believe, but they have found it useful to articulate their common values in what has become known as the Principles and Purposes. The first version of the principles was adopted in 1960, the modern form was adopted in 1984.
They were amended once again in 1995 to include the 6th source. Both of these were added to explicitly include members with Neopagan, Native American, other natural theist spiritualities; the principles as published in church literature and on the UUA website: The principles and purposes of the Unitarian Universalist Association"We, the member congregations of the Unitarian Universalist Association, covenant to affirm and promote" The inherent worth and dignity of every person.
Rowe is a town in Franklin County, United States. The population was 393 at the 2010 census, it is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. Rowe was the site of foraging for local Native American tribes; the area was first visited by white settlers in 1744, was the site of a fort to guard against raids. In 1762, the town lands were purchased by the Rev. Cornelius Jones, who named it "Myrifield" after the Greek word for "thousand"; the town had enough settlers by 1785 to have it incorporated as a town, renamed by the Massachusetts General Court after John Rowe, a prominent Boston merchant. The town of Rowe grew around mills on the river, but had other industries, including sulfur and soapstone mining; this was nowhere more evident than in the now abandoned settlement at the Davis Mine. In the late 1880s, with the addition of the railroad along the river, the area had become somewhat of a small resort town. But, by the advent of the 1900s, most industry had begun to dry up, leaving the town rural until the 1950s.
At that point, with the "baby boom" underway, Rowe became the site of Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station, the first nuclear power plant in New England, near the Sherman Dam along the Vermont border. The plant was in operation from 1960 to 1992, the plant is now decommissioned, with the nuclear waste set to be transported to Yucca Mountain's containment facilities upon their completion in 2020; the following are locally known neighborhood/village areas within the Rowe town borders: Camp Rowe 42.690°N 72.898°W / 42.690. Rowe lies along the northern border of Franklin County and Massachusetts, bordered by Windham County, Vermont, to the north and Berkshire County to the west; the town is bordered by Whitingham, Vermont, to the north, Heath to the east, Charlemont to the south, Florida and Monroe to the west. Rowe is located 23 miles west-northwest of Greenfield, 53 miles north-northwest of Springfield, 112 miles west-northwest of Boston. Rowe lies along the eastern bank of the Deerfield River, dammed near the Vermont border to form the Sherman Reservoir.
The town has two other large bodies of water, the Upper Bear Swamp Reservoir and Pelham Lake, which feeds Pelham Brook, a tributary of the river. The town is hilly, with two main ridges on either side of Pelham Brook. Near the southwest corner of town is Negus Mountain, along the western ridge, along the eastern ridge lies Todd Mountain and Adams Mountain, the highest point in town. Much of the land southeast of Pelham Lake is part of Pelham Lake Park, which extends to the mountains. There are two small units of Monroe State Forest in town. Rowe is one of a handful of small towns in Massachusetts; the nearest state highways are Massachusetts Route 8A, which runs through neighboring Heath, Route 2, which runs through Charlemont and Florida. The nearest expressway, Interstate 91, passes through the center of the county, near the junction of the Deerfield River and the Connecticut River. A short section of railroad tracks leading westward to the Hoosac Tunnel passes through the southwest corner of town, but the town is otherwise not served by rail, bus or air service.
The nearest bus and small air service is in North Adams, the nearest Amtrak service is in Pittsfield, the nearest national air service can be reached at Albany International Airport in New York. At the 2000 census, there were 351 people, 154 households and 105 families residing in the town. By population, Rowe ranks 24th out of the 26 cities and towns in Franklin County, 344th out of the 351 cities and towns in Massachusetts; the population density was 14.9 per square mile, which ranks 24th in the county and 345th in the Commonwealth. There were 209 housing units at an average density of 8.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.72 % 0.28 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.14% of the population. There were 154 households of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.8% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.75. 19.7% of the population were under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 21.1% from 25 to 44, 36.2% from 45 to 64, 18.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.2 males. The median household income was $41,944 and the median family income was $53,750. Males had a median income of $32,143 compared with $28,438 for females; the per capita income for the town was $28,134. None of the families and 2.8% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 3.1% of those over 64. Rowe employs the open town meeting form of government, is led by a board of selectmen; the town has a police station, which patrols neighboring Monroe, as well as a fire station, a library connected to the regional library network, a pos
Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one person, as opposed to the Trinity which in many other branches of Christianity defines God as three persons in one being: the Father and Holy Spirit. Unitarian Christians, believe that Jesus was inspired by God in his moral teachings, he is a savior, but he was not a deity or God incarnate. Unitarianism does not constitute one single Christian denomination, but rather refers to a collection of both extant and extinct Christian groups, whether related to each other or not, which share a common theological concept of the oneness nature of God. While the uncompromising theological monotheism at the heart of Christian Unitarianism distinguishes it from the major Christian denominations which subscribe to Trinitarian theology, Christian Unitarianism is analogous to the more austere monotheistic understandings of God in Judaism, nearer to the concept of the oneness of God in Islam. Unitarianism is known for the rejection of several other Western Christian doctrines, including the doctrines of original sin and the infallibility of the Bible.
Unitarians in previous centuries accepted the doctrine of punishment in an eternal hell, but few do today. Unitarianism might be considered a part of Protestantism, depending on one's stance or viewpoint, some exclude it from that term due to its Nontrinitarian nature. Despite common origins during the Protestant Reformation, some scholars call it a part of Nontrinitarianism, while others consider it both Protestant and Nontrinitarian, seeing no contradiction between those two terms. None of the three views are universally accepted; the Unitarian movement is tied to the more radical critiques of the Reformation. First organized in Eastern Europe during the Reformation, Unitarian communities have developed in Britain, South Africa, Canada, the United States, Jamaica and Japan. Unitarians began simultaneously in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and in Transylvania in the mid-16th century. Among the adherents were a significant number of Italians who took refuge in Poland. In the 17th century, significant repression in Poland led many Unitarians to flee or be killed for their faith, notably Katarzyna Weiglowa.
From the 16th to 18th centuries, Unitarians in Britain faced significant political persecution, including John Biddle, Mary Wollstonecraft, Theophilus Lindsey. In England, the first Unitarian Church was established in 1774 on Essex Street, where today's British Unitarian headquarters are still located. In the United States, different schools of Unitarian theology first spread in New England and the mid-Atlantic states; the first official acceptance of the Unitarian faith on the part of a congregation in America was by King's Chapel in Boston, from where James Freeman began teaching Unitarian doctrine in 1784, was appointed rector and revised the prayer book according to Unitarian doctrines in 1786. In India, three different schools of Unitarian thought influenced varying movements, including the Brahmo Samaj, the Unitarian Church of the Khasi Hills, the Unitarian Christian Church of Chennai, in Madras, founded in 1795. Unitarians place emphasis on the ultimate role of reason in interpreting sacred scriptures, thus freedom of conscience and freedom of the pulpit are core values in the tradition.
Reformation is an ongoing process. Constant study and new experiences can lead to new insights for teachings and community practice. In varying contexts, Unitarians seek to affirm the use of reason in religion and freedom of conscience. In J. Gordon Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions, the Unitarian tradition is classified among "the'liberal' family of churches". Unitarianism is a proper noun and follows the same English usage as other theologies that have developed within a religious movement; the term existed shortly before it became the name of a religious movement, thus it is used as a common noun that would describe any understanding of Jesus Christ that denies the Trinity or which believes that God is only one person. In that case, it would be a nontrinitarian belief system not associated with the Unitarian religious movement. For example, the Unitarian movement has never accepted the Godhood of Jesus, therefore does not include those nontrinitarian belief systems that do, such as Oneness Pentecostalism, United Pentecostal Church International and the True Jesus Church and the writings of Michael Servetus, all of which maintain that Jesus is God as a single person.
Although these groups are unitarians in the common sense, they are not in the proper sense. To avoid confusion, this article is about Unitarianism as a religious movement. For the generic form of unitarianism, see Nontrinitarianism; some religious groups have adopted the 19th-century term biblical unitarianism to distinguish their theology from Unitarianism. These have no direct relation to the Unitarian movement; the term Unitarian is sometimes applied today to those who belong to a Unitarian church but do not hold a Unitarian theological belief. In the past, the vast majority of members of Unitarian churches were Unitarians in theology. Over time, some Unitarians and Unitarian Universalists moved away from the traditional Christian roots of Unitarianism. For example, in the 1890s the American Unitarian Association began to allow non-Christian and non-theistic churches and individuals to be part of their fellowship; as a result, people who held no Unitarian belief began to be called Unitarians because they
International Council of Unitarians and Universalists
The International Council of Unitarians and Universalists is an umbrella organization founded in 1995 bringing together many Unitarian and Unitarian Universalist organizations. The size of the affiliated organizations varies widely; some groups represent only a few hundred people. The original initiative for its establishment was contained in a resolution of the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches in 1987; this led to the establishment of the Advocates for the Establishment of an International Organization of Unitarians, which worked towards creating the council. However, the General Assembly resolution provided no funding; the Unitarian Universalist Association became interested in the establishment of a council when it had to deal with an increasing number of applications for membership from congregations outside North America. It had granted membership to congregations in Adelaide, the Philippines and Pakistan, congregations in Sydney and Spain had applied for membership.
Rather than admit congregations from all over the world, the UUA hoped that they would join a world council instead. The UUA thus became willing to provide funding for the council's establishment; as a result, the council was established at a meeting in Essex, United States on 23–26 March 1995. The Preamble to the Constitution of the International Council of Unitarians and Universalists reads: We, the member groups of the International Council of Unitarians and Universalists, affirming our belief in religious community based on: liberty of conscience and individual thought in matters of faith, the inherent worth and dignity of every person. Justice and compassion in human relations, responsible stewardship in human relations, our commitment to democratic principles,declare our purposes to be: to serve the Infinite Spirit of Life and the human community by strengthening the worldwide Unitarian and Universalist faith, to affirm the variety and richness of our living traditions, to facilitate mutual support among member organizations, to promote our ideals and principles around the world, to provide models of liberal religious response to the human condition which upholds our common values.
Australian and New Zealand Unitarian Universalist Association, 500 members Brazilian Unitarian Association Burundi Unitarian Church Canadian Unitarian Council, 5,150 Czech Republic: Náboženská společnost českých unitářů Denmark: Unitarisk Kirkesamfund, 55 families European Unitarian Universalists, 120 members across Europe Finland: Unitarian Universalist Society of Finland, 22 members Germany: Unitarier - Religionsgemeinschaft freien Glaubens Hungary: Unitarian Church of Hungary, 25,000 members India: The Indian Council of Unitarian Churches, which includes the Khasi Unitarian Union, 9,000 members, the Unitarian Christian Church of Madras, 225 members Indonesia Global Church of God, around 200 members Netherlands: Vrijzinnige Geloofsgemeenschap NPB, 4,385 members, 60 congregations Nigeria: First Unitarian Church of Nigeria and Ijo Isokan Gbogbo Eda Norwegian Unitarian Church Philippines: Unitarian Universalist Church of the Philippines founded 1954, 2000 members Romania: Unitarian Church of Transylvania, 80,000 members South Africa: Unitarian Church of South Africa, 110 members Spain: Unitarian Universalist Society of Spain, 55 members UK: General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, 6,000 members USA: Unitarian Universalist Association, 162,796 Kosciol Unitarianski, 80 attendees and friends.
Polish Unitarians have reported a need for a period of reorganization, that at this time they are unable to maintain the level of activity needed to be full Council members, be it moved that membership of these groups be suspended. This action is taken with regret and the ICUU looks forward to welcoming Poland back into membership at the earliest possible date. Churches and religious associations which have expressed their will to become members of the Council may be admitted as "Provisional Members" for a period of time, until the Council decides that they have shown their organizational stability, affinity with the ICUU principles and commitment to deserve becoming Full Members of the Council. Provisional Members can not vote. Kenyan Unitarians According to the Bylaws of the ICUU, Emerging Groups are "applicants that are deemed to be reasonable prospects for membership, but do not fulfil the conditions of either Provisional membership or Full Membership"; these groups may be designated as Emerging Groups by the Executive Committee upon its sole discretion.
Emerging Groups may be invited as observers to General Meetings. The current list of Emerging Groups after the last meeting of the Executive Committee is as follows: Congo Unitarians French Unitarians Unitarian Universalists Hong Kong—Hong Kong Italian Unitarians Mexico Organizations with beliefs and purposes akin to those of ICUU but which by nature of their constitution are not eligible for full membership or which do not wish to become full members now or in the foreseeable future, may become Associates of the ICUU; the application must be approved by the ICUU Council Meeting. Peace and Harmony Center—Ushuaia, Argentina Christian Unitarian Church of Argentina—Buenos
Raymond Kurzweil is an American inventor and futurist. He is involved in fields such as optical character recognition, text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, electronic keyboard instruments, he has written books on health, artificial intelligence, the technological singularity, futurism. Kurzweil is a public advocate for the futurist and transhumanist movements, gives public talks to share his optimistic outlook on life extension technologies and the future of nanotechnology and biotechnology. Kurzweil received the 1999 National Medal of Technology and Innovation, the United States' highest honor in technology, from President Clinton in a White House ceremony, he was the recipient of the $500,000 Lemelson-MIT Prize for 2001. And in 2002 he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame, established by the U. S. Patent Office, he has received 21 honorary doctorates, honors from three U. S. presidents. The Public Broadcasting Service included Kurzweil as one of 16 "revolutionaries who made America" along with other inventors of the past two centuries.
Inc. magazine ranked him #8 among the "most fascinating" entrepreneurs in the United States and called him "Edison's rightful heir". Kurzweil has written seven books; the Age of Spiritual Machines has been translated into 9 languages and was the #1 best-selling book on Amazon in science. Kurzweil's book The Singularity Is Near was a New York Times bestseller, has been the #1 book on Amazon in both science and philosophy. Kurzweil speaks to audiences both public and private and delivers keynote speeches at industry conferences like DEMO, SXSW, TED, he maintains the news website KurzweilAI.net. Kurzweil has been employed by Google since 2012, where he is a "director of engineering". Ray Kurzweil grew up in the New York City borough of Queens, he attended NYC Public Education Kingsbury Elementary School PS188. He was born to secular Jewish parents who had emigrated from Austria just before the onset of World War II, he was exposed via Unitarian Universalism to a diversity of religious faiths during his upbringing.
His Unitarian church had the philosophy of many paths to the truth – the religious education consisted of studying a single religion for six months before moving on to the next. His father, Fredric was a concert pianist, a noted conductor, a music educator, his mother, Hannah was a visual artist. He has his sister Enid. Kurzweil decided; as a young boy, Kurzweil had an inventory of parts from various construction toys he'd been given and old electronic gadgets he'd collected from neighbors. In his youth, Kurzweil was an avid reader of science fiction literature. At the age of eight and ten, he read the entire Tom Swift Jr. series. At the age of seven or eight, he built robotic game, he was involved with computers by the age of 12, when only a dozen computers existed in all of New York City, built computing devices and statistical programs for the predecessor of Head Start. At the age of fourteen, Kurzweil wrote a paper detailing his theory of the neocortex, his parents were involved with the arts, he is quoted in the documentary Transcendent Man as saying that the household always produced discussions about the future and technology.
Kurzweil attended Martin Van Buren High School. During class, he held onto his class textbooks to participate, but instead, focused on his own projects which were hidden behind the book, his uncle, an engineer at Bell Labs, taught young Kurzweil the basics of computer science. In 1963, at age 15, he wrote his first computer program, he created pattern-recognition software that analyzed the works of classical composers, synthesized its own songs in similar styles. In 1965, he was invited to appear on the CBS television program I've Got a Secret, where he performed a piano piece, composed by a computer he had built; that year, he won first prize in the International Science Fair for the invention. These activities collectively impressed upon Kurzweil the belief that nearly any problem could be overcome. While in high school, Kurzweil had corresponded with Marvin Minsky and was invited to visit him at MIT, which he did. Kurzweil visited Frank Rosenblatt at Cornell, he obtained a B. S. in computer science and literature in 1970 at MIT.
He went to MIT to study with Marvin Minsky. He took all of the computer programming courses offered at MIT in a half. In 1968, during his sophomore year at MIT, Kurzweil started a company that used a computer program to match high school students with colleges; the program, called the Select College Consulting Program, was designed by him and compared thousands of different criteria about each college with questionnaire answers submitted by each student applicant. Around this time, he sold the company to Brace & World for $100,000 plus royalties. In 1974, Kurzweil founded Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc. and led development of the first omni-font optical character recognition system, a computer program capable of recognizing text written in any normal font. Before that time, scanners had only been able to read text written in a few fonts, he decided that the best application of this technology would be to create a reading machine, which
Jerome John Garcia was an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, best known for his work as the lead guitarist and as a vocalist with the band Grateful Dead, which came to prominence during the counterculture era in the 1960s. Although he disavowed the role, Garcia was viewed by many as the leader or "spokesman" of the group. One of its founders, Garcia performed with the Grateful Dead for their entire 30-year career. Garcia founded and participated in a variety of side projects, including the Saunders–Garcia Band, the Jerry Garcia Band, Old & In the Way, the Garcia/Grisman acoustic duo, Legion of Mary, the New Riders of the Purple Sage, he released several solo albums, contributed to a number of albums by other artists over the years as a session musician. He was well known for his distinctive guitar playing, was ranked 13th in Rolling Stone's "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" cover story in 2003. Garcia was renowned for his musical and technical ability his ability to play a variety of instruments, his ability to sustain long improvisations with The Grateful Dead.
Garcia believed that improvisation took stress away from his playing and allowed him to make spur of the moment decisions that he would not have made intentionally. In an interview with Rolling Stone, Garcia noted that "my own preferences are for improvisation, for making it up as I go along; the idea of picking, of eliminating possibilities by deciding, that’s difficult for me". Garcia's improvisation techniques were lauded for their ability to span genres, as well as his ability to employ modal guitar playing, he was a proponent of using the Mixolydian mode, a scale which utilised a flattened 7th note. He used various exotic scales and chromatic playing to add exotic flavours to Grateful Dead work on 1975's Blues for Allah Later in life, Garcia was sometimes ill because of his diabetes, in 1986, he went into a diabetic coma that nearly cost him his life. Although his overall health improved somewhat after that, he continued to struggle with obesity and longstanding heroin and cocaine addictions.
He was staying in a California drug rehabilitation facility when he died of a heart attack in August 1995 at the age of 53. Garcia's ancestors on his father's side were from Galicia in northwest Spain, his mother's ancestors were Swedish. He was born in the Excelsior District of San Francisco, California, on August 1, 1942, to Jose Ramon "Joe" Garcia and Ruth Marie "Bobbie" Garcia, herself born in San Francisco, his parents named him after composer Jerome Kern. Jerome John was their second child, preceded by Clifford Ramon "Tiff", born in 1937. Shortly before Clifford's birth, their father and a partner leased a building in downtown San Francisco and turned it into a bar in response to Jose being blackballed from a musicians' union for moonlighting. Garcia was influenced by music at an early age, his father was his mother enjoyed playing the piano. His father's extended family—who had emigrated from Spain in 1919—would sing during reunions. At age four, while the family was vacationing in the Santa Cruz Mountains, two-thirds of Garcia's right middle finger was accidentally cut off.
Garcia and his brother Tiff were chopping wood. Jerry steadied a piece of wood with his finger, but Tiff miscalculated and the axe severed most of Jerry's middle finger. After his mother wrapped his hand in a towel, Garcia's father drove him over 30 miles to the nearest hospital. A few weeks Garcia — who had not looked at his finger since the accident — was surprised to discover most of it missing when the bandage he was wearing came off during a bath. Garcia confided that he used it to his advantage in his youth, showing it off to other children in his neighborhood. Less than a year after he lost most of his finger, his father died. Vacationing with his family near Arcata in Northern California in 1947, Garcia's father went fly fishing in the Trinity River, part of the Six Rivers National Forest. Not long after entering the river, Garcia's father slipped on a rock, lost his balance and was swept away by the river's rapids, he drowned. Although Garcia claimed he saw his father fall into the river, Dennis McNally, author of the book A Long Strange Trip: The Inside Story of the Grateful Dead, argues Garcia formed the memory after hearing others repeat the story.
Blair Jackson, who wrote Garcia: An American Life, lends weight to McNally's claim. Jackson's evidence was that a local newspaper article describing Jose's death failed to mention Jerry was present when he died. Following the accident, Garcia's mother took over her husband's bar, buying out his partner for full ownership; as a result, Ruth Garcia began working full-time, sending Jerry and his brother to live nearby with her parents and William Clifford. During the five-year period in which he lived with his grandparents, Garcia enjoyed a large amount of autonomy and attended Monroe Elementary School. At the school, Garcia was encouraged in his artistic abilities by his third grade teacher: through her, he discovered that "being a creative person was a viable possibility in life." According to Garcia, it was around this time that he was opened up to country and to bluegrass by his grandmother, whom he recalled enjoyed listening to the Grand Ole Opry. His elder brother, however, staunchly believed the contrary, insisting that Garcia was "fantasizing all... she'd been to Opry, b
A counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ from those of mainstream society in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. A countercultural movement expresses the ethos and aspirations of a specific population during a well-defined era; when oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes. Prominent examples of countercultures in Europe and North America include Romanticism, the more fragmentary counterculture of the Beat Generation, followed by the globalized counterculture of the 1960s associated with the hippie subculture and the diversified punk subculture of the 1970s and 1980s. John Milton Yinger originated the term "contraculture" in his 1960 article in American Sociological Review. Yinger suggested the use of the term contraculture "wherever the normative system of a group contains, as a primary element, a theme of conflict with the values of the total society, where personality variables are directly involved in the development and maintenance of the group's values, wherever its norms can be understood only by reference to the relationships of the group to a surrounding dominant culture."
Some scholars have attributed the counterculture to Theodore Roszak, author of The Making of a Counter Culture. It became prominent in the news media amid the social revolution that swept the Americas, Western Europe, Japan and New Zealand during the 1960s. Scholars differ in the characteristics and specificity they attribute to "counterculture". "Mainstream" culture is of course difficult to define, in some ways becomes identified and understood through contrast with counterculture. Counterculture might oppose middle-class culture and values. Counterculture is sometimes conceptualized in terms of generational conflict and rejection of older or adult values. Counterculture may not be explicitly political, it involves criticism or rejection of powerful institutions, with accompanying hope for a better life or a new society. It does not look favorably on authoritarianism. Cultural development can be affected by way of counterculture. Scholars such as Joanne Martin and Caren Siehl, deem counterculture and cultural development as "a balancing act, some core values of a counterculture should present a direct challenge to the core values of a dominant culture".
Therefore, a prevalent culture and a counterculture should coexist in an uneasy symbiosis, holding opposite positions on valuable issues that are important to each of them. According to this theory, a counterculture can contribute a plethora of useful functions for the prevalent culture, such as "articulating the foundations between appropriate and inappropriate behavior and providing a safe haven for the development of innovative ideas". A "fringe culture" expands and grows into a counterculture by defining its own values in opposition to mainstream norms. Countercultures tend to peak go into decline, leaving a lasting impact on mainstream cultural values, their life cycles include phases of rejection, partial acceptance and absorption into the mainstream. During the late 1960s, hippies became the largest and most visible countercultural group in the United States; the "cultural shadows" left by the Romantics, Bohemians and Hippies remain visible in contemporary Western culture. According to Sheila Whiteley, "recent developments in sociological theory complicate and problematize theories developed in the 1960s, with digital technology, for example, providing an impetus for new understandings of counterculture".
Andy Bennett writes that "despite the theoretical arguments that can be raised against the sociological value of counterculture as a meaningful term for categorising social action, like subculture, the term lives on as a concept in social and cultural theory… become part of a received, mediated memory". However, "this involved not the utopian but the dystopian and that while festivals such as those held at Monterey and Woodstock might appear to embrace the former, the deaths of such iconic figures as Brian Jones, Jimi Hendrix, Jim Morrison and Janis Joplin, the nihilistic mayhem at Altamont, the shadowy figure of Charles Manson cast a darker light on its underlying agenda, one that reminds us that ‘pathological issues still much at large in today's world"; the counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s generated its own unique brand of notable literature, including comics and cartoons, sometimes referred to as the underground press. In the United States, this includes the work of Robert Crumb and Gilbert Shelton, includes Mr. Natural.
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, these comics and magazines were available for purchase in head shops along with items like beads, cigarette papers, tie-dye clothing, Day-Glo posters, etc. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, some of these shops selling hippie items became cafés where hippies could hang out, smoke marijuana, read books, etc. e.g. Gandalf's Garden in the King's Road, which published a magazine of the same name. Another such hippie/anarchist bookshop was Mushroom Books, tucked away in the Lace Market area of Nottingham; some genres tend to challenge societies with their content, meant to outright question the norms within cultures and create change towards a more modern way of thought. More than not, sour