Liberalism in Turkey
This article gives an overview of liberalism in Turkey. On 30 May 1876, Murad V became the Sultan, he was influenced by French culture and was a liberal. He reigned for 93 days before being deposed on the grounds that he was mentally ill in 31 August 1876; as a result, he was unable to deliver the Constitution. Constitutionalism was introduced in the Ottoman Empire by liberal intellectuals who tried to modernize their society by promoting development and liberal values; the Tanzimât meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. Although the motives for the implementation of Tanzimât were burocratic, it was impulsed by liberals ministers and intellectuals like Dimitrios Zambakos Pasha, Kabuli Mehmed Pasha, the secret society Young Ottomans, Midhat Pasha, often considered as one of the founders of the Ottoman Parliament. Many changes were made to improve civil liberties, but many Muslims saw them as foreign influence on the world of Islam.
That perception complicated reformist efforts made by the state. A policy called Ottomanism was meant to unite all the different peoples living in Ottoman territories, "Muslim and non-Muslim and Greek, Armenian and Jewish and Arab"; the policy began with the Edict of Gülhane of 1839, declaring equality before the law for both Muslim and non-Muslim Ottomans. The Tanzimât reforms began under Sultan Mahmud II. On November 3, 1839, Sultan Abdülmecid issued a hatt-i sharif or imperial edict called the Edict of Gülhane or Tanzimât Fermânı; this was followed by several statutes enacting its policies. In the edict the Sultan stated that he wished "to bring the benefits of a good administration to the provinces of the Ottoman Empire through new institutions." Among the reforms were the abolition of slavery and slave trade. The Young Ottomans were a secret society established in 1865 by a group of Ottoman Turkish intellectuals who were dissatisfied with the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire, which they believed did not go far enough, wanted to end the autocracy in the empire.
Young Ottomans sought to transform Ottoman society by preserving the empire and modernizing along the European tradition of adopting a constitutional government. Though the Young Ottomans were in disagreement ideologically, they all agreed that the new constitutional government should continue to be somewhat rooted in Islam to emphasize "the continuing and essential validity of Islam as the basis of Ottoman political culture." However, they sincreticize islamic idealism with modern liberalism and parliamentary democracy, to them the European parliamentary liberalism was a model to follow, in accordance with the tenets of Islam and "attempted to reconcile Islamic concepts of government with the ideas of Montesquieu, Danton and contemporary European Scholars and statesmen." Namık Kemal, influential in the formation of the society, admired the constitution of the French Third Republic, he summed up the Young Ottomans' political ideals as "the sovereignty of the nation, the separation of powers, the responsibility of officials, personal freedom, freedom of thought, freedom of press, freedom of association, enjoyment of property, sanctity of the home".
The Young Ottomans believed that one of the principal reasons for the decline of the empire was abandoning Islamic principles in favor of imitating European modernity with unadvised compromises to both and they sought to unite the two in a way that they believed would best serve the interests of the state and its people. They sought to revitalize the empire by incorporating certain Europeans models of government, while still retaining the Islamic foundations the empire was founded on. Among the prominent members of this society were writers and publicists such as İbrahim Şinasi, Namık Kemal, Ali Suavi, Ziya Pasha, Agah Efendi. In 1876, the Young Ottomans had their defining moment when Sultan Abdülhamid II reluctantly promulgated the Ottoman constitution of 1876, the first attempt at a constitution in the Ottoman Empire, ushering in the First Constitutional Era. Although this period was short lived, with Abdülhamid suspending the constitution and parliament in 1878 in favor of a return to absolute monarchy with himself in power, the legacy and influence of the Young Ottomans continued to endure until the collapse of the empire.
Several decades another group of reform-minded Ottomans, namely the Young Turks, repeated the Young Ottomans' efforts, leading to the Young Turk Revolution in 1908 and the beginning of the Second Constitutional Era. 1911: As a reaction to dictatorial tendencies, the liberal Freedom and Accord Party is founded. 1913: The party is banned. 1918: Fethi Okyar founded in 1918 the Ottoman Liberal People's Party. 1920: The party disappeared. 1930: In an attempt to allow a legal opposition party, Atatürk encouraged Okyar to found the Freedom Party rendered as Liberal Republican Party. 1930: The party attracted huge number of dissident people of the Kemalist bureaucracy's harsh policies. The founder of the party, dissolved his own party, fearing that it
Liberalism in Hong Kong
Liberalism has a long tradition in Hong Kong as an economic philosophy and has become a major political trend since the 1980s represented the pro-democracy camp, apart from conservatism which constitutes the pro-Beijing camp. Although economic freedom was celebrated since the establishment of Hong Kong as a free trade port under the British rule, several attempted liberal reforms received little success in the racially segregated and politically closed colony. However, many western-educated Chinese who were influenced by liberal thinkers became the most vocal reformists and revolutionaries in the late Qing dynasty, including Ho Kai, Yeung Ku-wan and Sun Yat-sen. Reformist political groups mushroomed in the early post-war period in response to Governor Mark Aitchison Young's proposed constitutional reform. Liberal movements revived again in the 1980s in the midst of the Sino-British negotiations over Hong Kong sovereignty, where the liberals demanded for an autonomous democratic Hong Kong under Chinese rule.
The liberals engaged in electoral politics when the colonial government carried out massive democratic reform towards the end of the colonial rule. The liberals won landslide victories in the last Legislative Council elections in 1991 and 1995; the liberal influence were curbed under the Chinese rule after 1997 due to the indirect elected elements in the legislature. However due to the unpopular Tung Chee-hwa administration in the first years of the SAR administration, the liberal movement regained its momentum after the historic 1 July demonstration; as the Beijing government tightened its grip on Hong Kong, the civil movements grew larger and more confrontational in the early 2010s. The 79-day occupy protests, referred as the "Umbrella Revolution" broke out after the Beijing government laid out the restrictive framework on constitutional reform proposal gained international coverage; the cession of Hong Kong under the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 was overseen by the British Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston.
Lord Palmerston was a prime figure of precceedor of the Liberal Party. The aims of the Opium War was to open up the Chinese market in the name of free trade; as the British free port of Hong Kong, taking advantage as the gateway to the vast Chinese market, Hong Kong merchants, the so-called compradors, had taken the leading role in investment and trading opportunities by serving as middlemen between European and indigenous population in China and Hong Kong, in the principles of laissez-faire classical liberalism, which has since dominated the discourse of the economic philosophy of Hong Kong. Sir John Bowring, Governor of Hong Kong, disciple of liberal philosopher Jeremy Bentham, for instance, was a chief campaigner of free trade at the time, he believed that "Jesus Christ is Free Trade and Free Trade is Jesus Christ." In 1858, Bowring proudly claimed that "Hongkong presents another example of elasticity and potency of unrestricted commerce." For that reason, Hong Kong has been rated the world's freest economy for the past 18 years, a title bestowed on it by the Heritage Foundation, a conservative Washington think tank, was admired by libertarian economist Milton Friedman.
Compared to economic liberalism, political liberalism remained marginal in Hong Kong. However, as the debate over Chinese modernisation got fiercer in the end of the 20th century, Hong Kong became the home of Chinese reformists and revolutionaries, namely Sir Ho Kai, inspired by classical liberal thinkers such as John Locke, Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, he was an advocate of constitutional monarchy in China and sympathiser of the revolutionary cause, his protege, Sun Yat-sen, who had studied in Hong Kong and had stated that he got his revolutionary and modern ideas in Hong Kong. One of the earliest revolutionary organisations, Furen Literary Society, was set up in Hong Kong by Yeung Ku-wan in 1892; the society met in Pak Tsz Lane, Hong Kong, released books and papers discussing the future of China and advocating the overthrow of the Qing dynasty government and establishment of a republic in China. The society was merged into the Revive China Society. There were little liberal reforms carried out by the colonial governance towards the end of the 19th century.
For instance, Sir John Bowring proposed that election to the Legislative Council be based on property and not racial qualification. He believed that voting rights for the Chinese would "associate them with the action of the government", opposed by the local European community and the Colonial Office. Sir John Pope Hennessy, Governor of Hong Kong was a liberal-minded governor who attempted to break the racial segregation in the colony, received strong resistance within the colonial establishment. Hennessy proposed to abollish flogging as a punishment, which received a widespread opposition from the community, who held a public protest meeting against his proposal. There were voices for political liberalisation in Hong Kong from time to time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. One of the examples was the Constitutional Reform Association of Hong Kong, formed by expatriate British business community in 1917. Headed by Henry Pollock and P. H. Holyoak, It submitted a proposal of introducing unofficial majority in the Legislative Council to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom through member of parliament Colonel John Ward but was rejected by the Colonial Office.
Without any success, the Constitutional Reform Association ceased to exist by October 1923. The liberal movement revived after the return of British rule in 1945, following a 3-year and 8 month Japanese occupation of Hong Kong. Governor Mark Aitchison Young announced the plan for constitutional changes on da
Liberalism in Egypt
Liberalism in Egypt or Egyptian liberalism is a political ideology that traces its beginnings to the 19th century. Rifa'a al-Tahtawi was an Egyptian writer, translator and renaissance intellectual. In 1831, Tahtawi was part of the statewide effort to modernize the Egyptian infrastructure and education, he undertook a career in writing and translation, founded the School of Languages in 1835, which become part of Ain Shams University in 1973. The School of Languages graduated the earliest modern Egyptian intellectual milieu, which formed the basis of the emerging grassroots mobilization against British colonialism in Egypt. Three of his published volumes were works of moral philosophy, they introduced his Egyptian audience to Enlightenment ideas such as secular authority and political rights and liberty. Tahtawi's work was the first effort in what became an Egyptian renaissance that flourished in the years between 1860–1940. Tahtawi is considered one of the early adapters to Islamic Modernism. Islamic Modernists attempted to integrate Islamic principles with European social theories.
In 1826, Al-Tahtawi was sent to Paris by Mehmet Ali. Tahtawi studied at an educational mission for five years, returning in 1831. Tahtawi was appointed director of the School of Languages. At the school, he worked translating European books into Arabic. Tahtawi was instrumental in translating military manuals and European history. In total, al-Tahtawi supervised the translation of over 2,000 foreign works into Arabic. Al-Tahtawi made favorable comments about French society in some of his books. Tahtawi stressed. In his piece, The Extraction of Gold or an Overview of Paris, Tahtawi discusses the patriotic responsibility of citizenship. Tahtawi uses Roman civilization as an example for. At one point all Romans are split into East and West. After splitting, the two nations see “all its wars ended in defeat, it retreated from a perfect existence to nonexistence.” Tahtawi understands that if Egypt is unable to remain united, it could fall prey to outside invaders. Tahtawi stresses the importance of citizens defending the patriotic duty of their country.
One way to protect one's country according to Tahtawi, is to accept the changes that come with a modern society. Muhammad Abduh was an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, regarded as one of the key founding figures of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism, he broke the rigidity of the Muslim ritual and family ties. He wrote, among other things, "Treatise on the Oneness of God", a commentary on the Qur'an. Muhammad Abduh argued that Muslims could not rely on the interpretations of texts provided by medieval clerics, they needed to use reason to keep up with changing times, he said that in Islam man was not created to be led by a bridle, man was given intelligence so that he could be guided by knowledge. According to Abduh, a teacher’s role was to direct men towards study, he believed that Islam encouraged men to detach from the world of their ancestors and that Islam reproved the slavish imitation of tradition. He said that the two greatest possessions relating to religion that man was graced with were independence of will and independence of thought and opinion.
It was with the help of these tools. He believed, he thought that Europeans were roused to act after a large number of them were able to exercise their choice and to seek out facts with their minds. In his works, he portrays God as educating humanity from its childhood through its youth and on to adulthood. According to him, Islam is the only religion, he was against thought that it was an archaic custom. He believed in a form of Islam that would liberate men from enslavement, provide equal rights for all human beings, abolish the religious scholar’s monopoly on exegesis and abolish racial discrimination and religious compulsion. Muhammad Abduh claimed in his book "Al-Idtihad fi Al-Nasraniyya wa Al-Islam" that no one had exclusive religious authority in the Islamic world, he argued that the Caliph did not represent religious authority, because he was not infallible nor was the Caliph the person whom the revelation was given to. ʿAbduh argued. Mohammad Abduh made great efforts to preach harmony between Shias.
Broadly speaking, he preached brotherhood between all schools of thought in Islam. Abduh called for better friendship between religious communities; as Christianity was the second biggest religion in Egypt, he devoted special efforts towards friendship between Muslims and Christians. He had many Christian friends and many a time he stood up to defend Copts. Egyptian self-government and the continued plight of Egypt's peasant majority deteriorated most under British occupation. An organized national movement for independence began to form. In its beginnings, it took the form of an Azhar-led religious reform movement, more concerned with the social conditions of Egyptian society, it gathered momen
Liberalism in India
This article gives an overview of liberalism in India. The strengthening of British influence in Bengal with the Battle of Plassey in 1757 coincided with significant developments of thought in England and in the United States; the English language came to India in 1603 in Akbar's time but there was no pressing economic reason for Indian people to learn English. It was only after the consolidation of Bengal by Robert Clive and the extension of the East India Company into the Indian political landscape, that the demand for learning English began to grow. By 1835, Indians were paying serious money to be taught English, as it gave them job openings in the Company; as Thomas Babington Macaulay noted in his famous Minute: “the natives” had become “desirous to be taught English” and were no longer “desirous to be taught Sanskrit or Arabic”. Further, those who wished to, seemed to picked up English well: "it is unusual to find in the literary circles of the Continent, any foreigner who can express himself in English with so much facility and correctness as we find in many Hindoos.".
Those who learnt English became aware of its literature, including the rapid evolution of Western political thought. This greater awareness of the advances in freedom laid the seeds for the demand for self-rule. While people like Raja Ram Mohan Roy were beginning to articulate elements of these political arguments, no one was in a position to explore and articulate new insights; however they did catch up with key liberal ideas and began implementing some of these advances thought through their new demands for greater freedom in India. While the West was embedding its new political institutions, or contesting the growing forces of socialism, the Indian intelligentsia was grappling with the challenge of the first major task ahead of it, namely independence. In the Portuguese colony of Goa, Francisco Luís Gomes advocated freedom, self-rule, political unity for India, his outstanding contributions towards the fields of liberal philosophy and economics led him to be hailed as "The Prince of Intellectuals" in Europe.
As well as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, other contributors to political thought on freedom in 19th century India included Dadabhai Naoroji, Mahadeo Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Pherozeshah Mehta. Theory led to an independence movement in India. Mahatma Gandhi demonstrated through a humane, non-violent, dignified protest, that all humans were equal and should be treated including their being given the opportunity to govern themselves; this was a major advance in the theory and practice of freedom and can be argued to have had a major effect in ending the age of imperialism and the age of racial discrimination. Jawaharlal Nehru, well-educated and aware of the history of liberalism, seems to have had little faith in an individual's ability to think and take responsibility for himself or herself. Nehru did not emphasize the importance of each individual undertaking self-reflection and choosing among ethical alternatives. In his view, making these ethical choices was too difficult for the common man.
He believed that these choices were best directed through state level dictates laid down by governing elites. Through planning. In any event, he veered toward collectivist and socialist thinking where decision making power is concentrated in the State. Decentralization, where power and freedom vests with people at the lowest levels, was anathema to Nehru, he stated in his Autobiography, "socialism is... for me not an economic doctrine which I favour. Indian industrialists sided with Nehru on a socialist pattern based on the Soviet Five-Year Plan model. Despite the environment in which socialist thought was flourishing, India was fortunate to enjoy at least a few liberties before independence; the advances made in political institutions in England as a result of liberalism were imported and embedded into India over the decades by British rulers. Things like the right of assembly and protest under reasonable circumstances, the right to property, freedom of expression – with a free press, became a part and parcel of Indian political landscape before independence.
The 1949 Constitution gave to Indians some of the liberal rights that the British and Americans had come to expect by then. In addition, India extended franchise to everyone: all adults had the right to vote in the republic; that was earlier than most developed countries had provided to their citizens at that time. But on most political issues, India adopted Nehru’s socialist model, that included a significant dilution in property rights, among others; the government entered businesses as its primary activity, to help it achieve the ‘commanding heights of the economy.’ Government factories sprung up and began churning out shirts, fridges, bicycles, milk and cheese. Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari, the second Governor-General of India and a Bharat Ratna, Minoo Masani, economists like B. R. Shenoy advocated greater freedom. However, they were unable to over-ride the Indian fascination with socialism. Rajagopalachari was a close colleague of Nehru during the independence movement, but soon after independence he began to see the risks to India of letting Nehru's fervour with socialism go unchallenged.
Despite having fought for independence by Nehru's side, and
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they support limited government, individual rights, democracy, gender equality, racial equality, freedom of speech, freedom of the press and freedom of religion. Liberalism became a distinct movement in the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among Western philosophers and economists. Liberalism sought to replace the norms of hereditary privilege, state religion, absolute monarchy, the divine right of kings and traditional conservatism with representative democracy and the rule of law. Liberals ended mercantilist policies, royal monopolies and other barriers to trade, instead promoting free markets. Philosopher John Locke is credited with founding liberalism as a distinct tradition, arguing that each man has a natural right to life and property, adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract.
While the British liberal tradition has emphasised expanding democracy, French liberalism has emphasised rejecting authoritarianism and is linked to nation-building. Leaders in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789 used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of royal tyranny. Liberalism started to spread especially after the French Revolution; the 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe and South America, whereas it was well-established alongside republicanism in the United States. In Victorian Britain, it was used to critique the political establishment, appealing to science and reason on behalf of the people. During 19th and early 20th century, liberalism in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Al-Nahda as well as the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism; these changes, along with other factors, helped to create a sense of crisis within Islam, which continues to this day, leading to Islamic revivalism.
Before 1920, the main ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism faced major ideological challenges from new opponents: fascism and communism. However, during the 20th century liberal ideas spread further—especially in Western Europe—as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars. In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state. Today, liberal parties continue to wield influence throughout the world. However, liberalism still has challenges to overcome in Asia; the fundamental elements of contemporary society have liberal roots. The early waves of liberalism popularised economic individualism while expanding constitutional government and parliamentary authority. Liberals sought and established a constitutional order that prized important individual freedoms, such as freedom of speech and freedom of association. Waves of modern liberal thought and struggle were influenced by the need to expand civil rights.
Liberals have advocated gender and racial equality in their drive to promote civil rights and a global civil rights movement in the 20th century achieved several objectives towards both goals. Continental European liberalism is divided between moderates and progressives, with the moderates tending to elitism and the progressives supporting the universalisation of fundamental institutions, such as universal suffrage, universal education and the expansion of property rights. Over time, the moderates displaced the progressives as the main guardians of continental European liberalism. Words such as liberal, liberty and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means "free". One of the first recorded instances of the word liberal occurs in 1375, when it was used to describe the liberal arts in the context of an education desirable for a free-born man; the word's early connection with the classical education of a medieval university soon gave way to a proliferation of different denotations and connotations.
Liberal could refer to "free in bestowing" as early as 1387, "made without stint" in 1433, "freely permitted" in 1530 and "free from restraint"—often as a pejorative remark—in the 16th and the 17th centuries. In 16th century England, liberal could have positive or negative attributes in referring to someone's generosity or indiscretion. In Much Ado About Nothing, William Shakespeare wrote of "a liberal villaine" who "hath confest his vile encounters". With the rise of the Enlightenment, the word acquired decisively more positive undertones, being defined as "free from narrow prejudice" in 1781 and "free from bigotry" in 1823. In 1815, the first use of the word "liberalism" appeared in English. In Spain, the liberales, the first group to use the liberal label in a political context, fought for decades for the implementation of the 1812 Constitution. From 1820 to 1823 during the Trienio Liberal, King Ferdinand VII was compelled by the liberales to swear to uphold the Constitution. By the middle of the 19th century, liberal was used as a politicised term for parties and movements worldwide.
Over time, the meaning of the word liberalism began to diverge in different parts of the world. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica: "In the United States, liberalism is associated with the welfare-state policies of the New Deal programme of the Democratic administration of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, where
A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
Politics of Cyprus
The Republic of Cyprus is a unitary presidential representative republic, whereby the President of Cyprus is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in the parliament; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. Cyprus has been a divided island since 1974 when Turkey invaded the north in response to a military coup on the island, backed by the Athens government. Since the internationally recognized Republic of Cyprus has controlled the south two-thirds, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, only recognized by Turkey, the northern one-third; the Government of the Republic of Cyprus has continued as the sole internationally recognized authority on the island, though in practice its power extends only to the government-controlled area. Cyprus operates under a multi-party system, with communist AKEL and right-leaning Democratic Rally in the forefront. Centrist DIKO and lesser parties form a coalition with the President's party and are allotted a number of ministries.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated the Cyprus as "flawed democracy" in 2016. The 1960 Cypriot Constitution provided for a presidential system of government with independent executive and judicial branches, as well as a complex system of checks and balances including a weighted power-sharing ratio designed to protect the interests of the Turkish Cypriots; the executive, for example, was headed by a Greek Cypriot president, Archbishop Makarios III, a Turkish Cypriot vice president, Dr Fazıl Küçük, elected by their respective communities for 5-year terms and each possessing a right of veto over certain types of legislation and executive decisions. The House of Representatives was elected on the basis of separate voters' rolls. Since 1964, following clashes between the two communities, the Turkish Cypriot seats in the House remained vacant, while the Greek Cypriot Communal Chamber was abolished; the responsibilities of the chamber were transferred to the newfounded Ministry of Education.
By 1967, when a military junta had seized power in Greece, the political impetus for enosis had faded as a result of the non-aligned foreign policy of Cypriot President Makarios. Enosis remained an ideological goal, despite being pushed further down the political agenda. Dissatisfaction in Greece with Makarios convinced the Greek colonels to sponsor the 1974 coup in Nicosia. Turkey responded by launching a military operation on Cyprus in a move not approved by the other two international guarantor powers and the United Kingdom, claiming that this was for the protection of the Turkish minority from Greek militias; the invasion is called "Cyprus Peace Operation" by the Turkish side. Turkish forces captured the northern part of the island. Many thousands of others, from both sides, left the island entirely. In addition to many of the Greek Cypriot refugees, many Turkish Cypriots moved to the UK. Subsequently, the Turkish Cypriots established their own separatist institutions with a popularly elected de facto President and a Prime Minister responsible to the National Assembly exercising joint executive powers.
In 1983, the Turkish Cypriots declared an independent state called the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, an action opposed by the United Nations Security Council. In 1985, the TRNC held its first elections. In 1974, following a coup sponsored by the Greek military junta of 1967-1974 and executed by the Cypriot National Guard the invasion of troops from Turkey, the Turkish Cypriots formally set up their own institutions with a popularly elected president and a prime minister, responsible to the National Assembly, exercising joint executive powers. Cyprus has been divided, de facto, into the Greek Cypriot controlled southern two-thirds of the island and the Turkish-occupied northern third; the Republic of Cyprus is the internationally recognised government of the Republic of Cyprus, that controls the southern two-thirds of the island. Aside from Turkey, all foreign governments and the United Nations recognise the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus over the whole island of Cyprus. Turkey, which does not recognise the Republic of Cyprus, the Turkish Cypriot administration of the northern part of the island, do not accept the Republic's rule over the whole island and refer to it not by its international name, but as the "Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus".
Its territory, a result of the Turkish invasion of 1974 and whose status remains disputed, extends over the northern third of the island. The north proclaimed its independence in 1975. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriots declared an independent "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus", which has never been recognized by any country except Turkey. In 1985, they adopted a constitution and held elections—an arrangement recognized only by Turkey. For information pertaining to this, see Politics of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus; the Organisation of the Islamic Conference granted it observer member status under the name of "Turkish Cypriot State". The division of Cyprus has remained an intractable political problem plaguing relations between Greece and Turkey, drawing in NATO, of which both Greece and Turkey are members, latterly the European Union, which has admitted Greece and Cyprus and which Turkey has been seeking to join for over twenty years; the most recent developments on the island have included the reopening of the border between the two sides, the failure of an