National Monument (Amsterdam)
The National Monument on Dam Square is a 1956 monument in Amsterdam, Netherlands. A national Remembrance of the Dead ceremony is held at the monument every year on 4 May to commemorate the casualties of World War II and subsequent armed conflicts. Dam Square is the historic centre of the Dutch national capital of Amsterdam; until 1914 another national monument stood on the Dam, De Eendracht or popularly Naatje van de Dam, commemorating the Ten Days' Campaign. Shortly after the end of World War II in 1945, a liberty pole was erected on Dam Square; the Dutch government proposed. While planning was ongoing, a temporary monument was erected on the Dam in 1947, designed by A. J. van de Steur and Auke Komter. It consisted of 11 urns with soil from World War II execution grounds and war cemeteries in each of the Dutch provinces. Three years a twelfth urn was added with soil from the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia. Meanwhile, a private initiative to erect a World War II monument had started. John Rädecker was commissioned to design the monument, his designs were exhibited in 1946 at the Stedelijk Museum.
Mayor Arnold Jan d'Ailly decided to consolidate the plans and build the funded monument on Dam Square, using Rädecker's designs. The architect Jacobus Oud was contracted to work together with Rädecker on the monument; the final design was approved by the Dutch government in 1952. Rädecker suffered from worsening health, his sons Han and Jan Willem Rädecker stepped in to complete the project; the National Monument was revealed on 4 May 1956 by Queen Juliana of the Netherlands. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the National Monument, which dominates the eastern half of Dam Square, became a gathering place for hippies, who saw the monument as a symbol of liberty; every night, a sizeable crowd of people slept around the monument in sleeping bags. On 24 August 1970, the municipal government banned Damslapen; this incited rioting on Dam Square which continued until the next day, when the square was cleared by off-duty marines. The hippies relocated to the Vondelpark; the monument has undergone two restorations, in 1965 and in 1997–1998.
During the restoration in the 1990s, the entire monument was disassembled, the brick interior of the central pillar was replaced with concrete. In 2007 a wheelchair ramp was added to the monument. On 14 August 2009, the monument gained Rijksmonument status; the monument was designed by Dutch architect Jacobus Oud. The reliefs are by the sculptor Paul Grégoire; the central element of the monument is a concrete conical pillar 22 metres in height, covered by white travertine stone. On the front of the pillar is a relief entitled De Vrede, consisting of four chained male figures, representing the suffering endured during the war. To either side of these central figures are two male sculptures representing members of the Dutch resistance, the left figure symbolizing the resistance by the intelligentsia and the right figure symbolizing the resistance by the working classes. Weeping dogs are at their feet, representing loyalty. Above the central relief is a sculpture of a woman with a child in her arms and doves flying around her, representing victory and new life.
A relief of the back side of the pillar shows doves ascending into the sky, symbolizing the liberation. The monument is placed on a series of concentric rings. In front of the monument, on either side, are two sculptures of lions on circular pedestals, symbolizing the Netherlands. A semicircular wall surrounds the back side of the monument; the wall contains eleven urns with soil from World War II execution grounds and war cemeteries in each of the Dutch provinces. And a twelfth urn with soil from present-day Indonesia; the pillar carries an inscription in Latin: Hic ubi cor patriae monumentum cordibus intusquod gestant cives spectet ad astra dei. The wall behind the pillar carries a Dutch-language inscription, a text by the poet Adriaan Roland Holst. On the back side of the wall is an inscription of a verse of Dutch poetry by Anthonie Donker, a pseudonym of Nico Donkersloot. World War II memorials and cemeteries in the Netherlands
Zwolle is a city and municipality in the northeastern Netherlands serving as Overijssel's capital. With a population of 125,806, it is the second-largest municipality of the province after Enschede. Archaeological findings indicate that the area surrounding Zwolle has been inhabited for a long time. A woodhenge, found in the Zwolle-Zuid suburb in 1993 was dated to the Bronze Age period. During the Roman era, the area was inhabited by Salian Franks; the modern city was founded around 800 CE by Frisian troops of Charlemagne. The name Zwolle is derived from the word Suolle, which means "hill"; this refers to an incline in the landscape between the four rivers surrounding the city, IJssel, Vecht, Aa and Zwarte Water. The hill was the only piece of land that would remain dry during the frequent floodings of the rivers. Zwolle was established on that incline. A document mentions the existence of a parish church dedicated to St Michael; that church, the Grote or Sint Michaëlskerk, was renovated in the first half of the 15th century and exists to this day.
The church contains a richly carved pulpit, the work of Adam Straes van Weilborch, some good carving and an exquisite organ. On August 31, 1230, the bishop of Utrecht granted Zwolle city rights. Zwolle became a member of the Hanseatic league in 1294, in 1361 joined the war between the Hanseatic League and Valdemar IV of Denmark. In the 1370 Treaty of Stralsund that ended the war, Zwolle was awarded a vitte, a trade colony, in Scania part of Denmark. Zwolle's golden age came in the 15th century. Between 1402 and 1450, the city's Gross Regional Product multiplied by about six. In July 1324 and October 1361, regional noblemen set fire to Zwolle. In the 1324 fire, only nine buildings escaped the flames. Zwolle was with Deventer, one of the centers of the Brethren of the Common Life, a monastic movement. 5 km from Zwolle, on a slight eminence called the Agnietenberg, once stood the Augustinian convent in which Thomas à Kempis spent the greatest part of his life and died. At least as early as 1911, Zwolle had a considerable trade by river, a large fish market, the most important cattle market in the Netherlands after Rotterdam.
The more important industries comprised cotton manufactures, iron works, boat-building and bleaching, rope-making, salt-making. In World War II, Zwolle was single-handedly liberated from the Germans by French Canadian soldier Léo Major, he was made an honorary citizen of Zwolle in 2005 and a street is named for him. In 2004, Zwolle's De Librije restaurant was honored with 3 stars by Michelin Guide. Citizens of Zwolle are colloquially known as Blauwvingers; this dates back to 1682. The authorities were strapped for cash and saw no option but to sell the church bells to neighbouring city Kampen. To make sure that Kampen would not make too much profit from the deal, the local authorities asked a high price for the church bells. Kampen accepted, yet after the arrival of the bells it became clear, they were too damaged to be played. In revenge, Kampen paid in copper coins of four duiten. Zwolle distrusted Kampen and wanted to be sure they paid the entire price. After the rigorous counting of this vast amount of money, their fingers had turned blue from the copper.
Besides the Grote or Sint Michaëlskerk, there are several other historic monuments in Zwolle. The Roman Catholic Onze Lieve Vrouwe ten Hemelopneming-basilica dates back to 1399; the church tower, called Peperbus, is one of the tallest and most famous church towers in the Netherlands. The modernized town hall was built in 1448. Mention should be made of the Sassenpoort, the city walls, the Mosterdmakerstoren, a guild-house, the former provincial government offices, a Dominican monastery, on the Melkmarkt, two museums. Museum de Fundatie, the fine art museum of the province of Overijssel, is hosted in the former Justice Hall on Blijmarkt Square. In the western part of the city, west of the railway station, there is a quarter of Art Nouveau buildings, concentrated on Koningin Wilhelminastraat, Prinses Julianastraat, Prins Hendrikstraat; these three-store living houses were built in 1900s by various Dutch architects. Eleven of the buildings are protected by the Dutch government; the Broerenkerk church was part of the Dominican monastery founded in 1465.
The monastery was closed in 1580 and the monks were expelled. From 1640 until 1982 the church was used for Protestant services. After a restoration in 1983-1988 it has been used for cultural events and it is now a bookstore. See People from Zwolle Arts, culture and the mediaHein Boele, Dutch voice of Elmo Jonnie Boer, chef with three Michelin stars Gerard ter Borch, painter Tooske Breugem, television host actress Herman Brood, painter/rock star Eef Brouwers and former head of the Netherlands Government Information Service A. den Doolaard, author Rhijnvis Feith, author Bennie den Haan, actor Marnix Kappers, actor Master I. A. M. of Zwolle, engraver To
Battle of the Netherlands
The Battle of the Netherlands was a military campaign part of Case Yellow, the German invasion of the Low Countries and France during World War II. The battle lasted from 10 May 1940 until the surrender of the main Dutch forces on 14 May. Dutch troops in the province of Zeeland continued to resist the Wehrmacht until 17 May when Germany completed its occupation of the whole country; the Battle of the Netherlands saw some of the earliest mass paratroop drops, to occupy tactical points and assist the advance of ground troops. The German Luftwaffe used paratroopers in the capture of several airfields in the vicinity of Rotterdam and The Hague, helping to overrun the country and immobilise Dutch forces. After the devastating bombing of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe on 14 May, the Germans threatened to bomb other Dutch cities if the Dutch forces refused to surrender; the General Staff knew it could not stop the bombers and ordered the Dutch army to cease hostilities. The last occupied parts of the Netherlands were liberated in 1945.
The United Kingdom and France declared war on Germany in 1939, following the German invasion of Poland, but no major land operations occurred in Western Europe during the period known as the Phoney War in the winter of 1939–1940. During this time, the British and French built up their forces in expectation of a long war, the Germans completed their conquest of Poland. On 9 October, Adolf Hitler ordered plans to be made for an invasion of the Low Countries, to use them as a base against Great Britain and to pre-empt a similar attack by the Allied forces, which could threaten the vital Ruhr Area. A joint Dutch-Belgian peace offer between the two sides was rejected on 7 November; the Dutch were ill-prepared to resist such an invasion. When Hitler came to power, the Dutch had begun to re-arm, but more than France or Belgium. Successive Dutch governments tended to avoid identifying Germany as an acute military threat; this was caused by a wish not to antagonise a vital trade partner to the point of repressing criticism of Nazi policies.
Hendrikus Colijn, prime minister between 1933 and 1939, was convinced Germany would not violate Dutch neutrality. International tensions grew in the late 1930s. Crises were caused by the German occupation of the Rhineland in 1936; these events forced the Dutch government to exercise greater vigilance, but they limited their reaction as much as they could. The most important measure was a partial mobilisation of 100,000 men in April 1939. After the German invasion of Poland in September 1939 and the ensuing outbreak of the Second World War, the Netherlands hoped to remain neutral, as they had done during the First World War 25 years earlier. To ensure this neutrality, the Dutch army was entrenched. Large sums were spent on defence, it proved difficult to obtain new matériel in wartime, however as the Dutch had ordered some of their new equipment from Germany, which deliberately delayed deliveries. Moreover, a considerable part of the funds were intended for the Dutch East Indies, much of it related to a plan to build three battlecruisers.
The strategic position of the Low Countries, located between France and Germany on the uncovered flanks of their fortification lines, made the area a logical route for an offensive by either side. In a 20 January 1940 radio speech, Winston Churchill tried to convince them not to wait for an inevitable German attack, but to join the Anglo-French Entente. Both the Belgians and Dutch refused though the German attack plans had fallen into Belgian hands after a German aircraft crash in January 1940, in what became known as the Mechelen Incident; the French supreme command considered violating the neutrality of the Low Countries if they had not joined the Anglo-French coalition before the planned large Entente offensive in the summer of 1941, but the French Cabinet, fearing a negative public reaction, vetoed the idea. Kept in consideration was a plan to invade if Germany attacked the Netherlands alone, necessitating an Entente advance through Belgium, or if the Netherlands assisted the enemy by tolerating a German advance into Belgium through the southern part of their territory, both possibilities discussed as part of the hypothèse Hollande.
The Dutch government never formulated a policy on how to act in case of either contingency. The Dutch tried on several occasions to act as an intermediary to reach a negotiated peace settlement between the Entente and Germany. After the German invasion of Norway and Denmark, followed by a warning by the new Japanese naval attaché Captain Tadashi Maeda that a German attack on the Netherlands was certain, it became clear to the Dutch military that staying out of the conflict might prove impossible, they started to prepare for war, both mentally and physically. Dutch border troops were put on greater alert. Reports of the presumed actions of a Fifth Column in Scandinavia caused widespread fears that the Netherlands too had been infiltrated by German agent
Hotel de Wereld
Hotel de Wereld in Wageningen was the site of the capitulation of the German troops in the Netherlands on 5 and 6 May 1945, the end of German occupation during World War II. On 6 May 1945, the German general Blaskowitz surrendered to the Canadian general Charles Foulkes, which ended the Second World War in the Netherlands; the Generals negotiated the terms of surrender in the Hotel de Wereld. This historic event is remembered annually. In 1669 Jacob Meijnsen had a hotel outsite the city gates of Wageningen, it was a stopping place between Arnhem. The inn appears on a map of Gerard Passevant in 1676. In 1814 the oldest painting of the hotel was made, this painting was commissioned by Gerrit Steuk when he became the owner of the inn. In 1852 a new hotel was built on the foundations of the old inn. In 1872 a new extension of three storeys was built. Since 2004 it is again a restaurant; the in Hotel de Wereld situated restaurant O Mundo is a 1 star restaurant according to the Michelin Guide. When British Field Marshal Montgomery reached Lübeck and the Baltic Sea in the beginning of May 1945, the German troops in Denmark and part of The Netherlands were isolated from their homebase.
Without major fights, they surrendered to Montgomery on May 4 at Lüneburg Heath. On 5 May 1945 the negotiation for the surrender of the Germans in the Netherlands took place in the hotel; the Canadian general Charles Foulkes, Canadian general George Kitching, Prince Bernhard, German general Johannes Blaskowitz and German general Paul Reichelt were present at the negotiation. On 6 May 1945 the official signing of the capitulation act took place in the Aula of the Landbouwhogeschool next to the hotel. Photos can be seen here; the pen used to sign can be seen in the local museum the Casteelse poort. By 1975 the Hotel was restored; the restored Hotel was opened by H. R. H. Prince Bernhard, who represented the Netherlands at the capitulation in 1945. On 8 July 1945 the bronze plaque was attached to the wall of the Hotel by the Canadians. On 9 July Prince Bernhard unveiled the plaque, given by General Foulkes to remember the capitulation act signed in Wageningen. Klep, L. A brief history of Wageningen, through the windows of Hotel de Wereld, Futura Uitgevers Wageningen, 2004.
Hotel de Wereld, de geschiedenis van het huis eerste rang ter plaatse, Futura Uitgevers Wageningen, 2004.
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Victory in Europe Day
Victory in Europe Day known as VE Day or V-E Day, was celebrated on Tuesday, 8 May 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces. The formal surrender of the German forces occupying the Channel Islands did not occur until the following day, 9 May 1945, it thus marked the end of World War II in Europe. The term VE Day existed as early in anticipation of victory. On 30 April 1945, the Nazi leader, committed suicide during the Battle of Berlin. Germany's surrender, was authorised by his successor, Reichspräsident Karl Dönitz; the administration headed by Dönitz was known as the Flensburg Government. The preliminary act of military surrender was signed at 02:41 on 7 May in SHAEF HQ at Reims, the final document was signed on 8 May in Berlin; the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc countries have celebrated the end of World War II on 9 May. In Ukraine since 2015, 8 May is designated as a day of Remembrance and Reconciliation, but it is not a public holiday.
Upon the defeat of Germany, celebrations erupted throughout the western world in Great Britain and North America. More than one million people celebrated in the streets throughout Great Britain to mark the end of the European part of the war. In London, crowds massed in Trafalgar Square and up the Mall to Buckingham Palace, where King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, accompanied by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, appeared on the balcony of the palace before the cheering crowds. Princess Elizabeth and her sister Princess Margaret were allowed to wander incognito among the crowds and take part in the celebrations. In the United States, the victory happened on President Harry Truman's 61st birthday, he dedicated the victory to the memory of his predecessor, Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had died of a cerebral hemorrhage less than a month earlier, on 12 April. Flags remained at half-staff for the remainder of the 30-day mourning period. Truman said of dedicating the victory to Roosevelt's memory and keeping the flags at half-staff that his only wish was "that Franklin D. Roosevelt had lived to witness this day".
That day, Truman said that the victory made it his most enjoyable birthday. Massive celebrations took place in many American cities in New York's Times Square. Tempering the jubilation somewhat, both Churchill and Truman pointed out that the war against Japan had not yet been won. In his radio broadcast at 15:00 on the 8th, Churchill told the British people that: "We may allow ourselves a brief period of rejoicing remains unsubdued". In America, Truman broadcast at 09:00 and said it was "a victory only half won"; the instrument of surrender stipulated that all hostilities had to stop at 23:01, 8th of May, just an hour before midnight. Since it was 9th of May in the European part of the USSR, most post-Soviet states, including Russia, as well as Israel commemorate Victory Day on 9 May instead of 8 May. Italy "Festa della Liberazione". Denmark as "Befrielsen" Netherlands as "Bevrijdingsdag" United Kingdom: In 1995 the May Day bank holiday was moved from the first Monday in May, 1 May, to Monday 8 May, for that year only, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the ending of the Second World War.
East Germany as Tag der Befreiung, a public holiday from 1950 to 1966 and in 1985. Between 1975 and 1990, as Tag des Sieges. France as Victoire 1945. Orléans celebrates both V-E Day and the anniversary of the Siege of Orléans being lifted by French forces led by Joan of Arc during the Hundred Years War on this date. Slovakia as Deň víťazstva nad fašizmom Czech Republic as Den vítězství or Den osvobození Poland as "Narodowy Dzień Zwycięstwa" – National Victory Day. Norway as "Frigjøringsdagen" "offisiell flaggdag" not "helligdager" Ukraine "День пам'яті та примирення" Ukraine "День перемоги над нацизмом у Другій світовій війні" — from 2015. Georgia "ფაშიზმზე გამარჯვების დღე" Belarus "Дзень Перамогі" Bosnia and Herzegovina "Дан побједе", "Dan pobjede" Russia "День Победы" Israel Victory in Europe Day Ex-Yugoslavia "Дан победе", "Dan pobede", "Dan pobjede", "Dan zmage" Serbia "Дан победе", "Dan pobede" Kazakhstan as "Жеңіс күні" or "День победы" British Channel Islands Liberation Days: Jersey and Guernsey and Alderney.
Time of remembrance and reconciliation Victory over Japan Day Stunde Null Victory in Europe Day WWII: VE Day, May 8, 1945 – slideshow by Life magazine Rare audio speeches of the famous historical persons of the USSR, etc. 50th Anniversary Celebration of VE Day in Moscow on YouTube by Leon Charney on The Leon Charney Report
I Corps (United Kingdom)
I Corps was an army corps in existence as an active formation in the British Army for most of the 80 years from its creation in the First World War until the end of the Cold War, longer than any other corps. It had a short-lived precursor during the Waterloo Campaign. Assembling an army in Belgium to fight Napoleon’s resurgent forces in the spring of 1815, the Duke of Wellington formed it into army corps, deliberately mixing units from the Anglo-Hanoverian, Dutch-Belgian and German contingents so that the weaker elements would be stiffened by more experienced or reliable troops; as he put it: ‘It was necessary to organize these troops in brigades and corps d’armee with those better disciplined and more accustomed to war’. He placed I Corps under the command of the Prince of Orange and it was this corps, first contacted by the advancing French at Quatre Bras on 16 June 1815. However, Wellington did not employ the corps as tactical entities, continued his accustomed practice of issuing orders directly to divisional and lower commanders.
When he drew up his army on the ridge at Waterloo, elements of the various corps were mixed up, although he gave the Prince of Orange nominal command of the centre, that officer had different forces under him. Subsequent to the battle, the corps structure was re-established for the advance into France, I Corps being commanded by Maj-Gen Sir John Byng, the Prince of Orange having been wounded at Waterloo. General Officer Commanding: General HRH The Prince of Orange 1st Division 3rd Division 2nd Division 3rd Division After Waterloo the army corps structure disappeared from the British Army, except for ad hoc formations assembled during annual manoeuvres. In 1876 a Mobilisation Scheme for eight army corps was published, with'First Corps' based on Colchester. In 1880 First Corps' organization was: 1st Division 1st Brigade 1st Bn. 2nd Foot, 1st Bn. 10th Foot 2nd Brigade 1st Bn. 9th Foot, 28th Foot Divisional Troops 2nd Bn. 12th Foot, Buckinghamshire Yeomanry, 1st Company Royal Engineers Artillery F/1st Brigade Royal Artillery, D/1st Brigade RA 2nd Division 1st Brigade 1st Bn. 15th Foot, 47th Foot 2nd Brigade 1st Bn.
3rd Foot, 49th Foot, 55th Foot Divisional Troops 1st Bn. 23rd Foot, Hertfordshire Yeomanry, 20th Company Royal Engineers Artillery I/4th Brigade RA, N/4th Brigade RA, M/4th Brigade RA 3rd Division 1st Brigade 77th Foot, 104th Foot, 105th Foot 2nd Brigade 2nd Bn. 5th Foot, 31st Foot, 86th Foot Divisional Troops 87th Foot, West Kent Yeomanry, 22nd Company Royal Engineers Artillery O/4th Brigade RA, A/5th Brigade RA Cavalry Brigade 3rd Hussars, 4th Hussars, Suffolk Yeomanry, F Battery C Brigade Royal Horse Artillery Corps Artillery E Battery C Brigade RHA, H Battery A Brigade RHA G/1st Brigade RA, B/5th Brigade RA Corps Engineers A Troop Royal Engineer Train C Troop Royal Engineer Train 23rd Company Royal Engineers and Field Park This scheme had been dropped by 1881. The Stanhope Memorandum of 1891 laid down the policy that after providing for garrisons and India, the army should be able to mobilise three army corps for home defence, two of regular troops and one of militia, each of three divisions.
Only after those commitments, it was hoped, might two army corps be organised for the unlikely eventuality of deployment abroad. When war with the Boer Republics was imminent in September 1899, a Field Force, referred to as the Army Corps was mobilised and sent to Cape Town, it was, in fact,'about the equivalent of the First Army Corps of the existing mobilization scheme', was placed under the command of Gen Sir Redvers Buller, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of Aldershot Command. However, once in South Africa the corps never operated as such, the three divisions were dispersed; the 1901 Army Estimates introduced by St John Brodrick allowed for six army corps based on the six regional commands of which only I Corps and II Corps would be formed of regular troops. However, these arrangements remained theoretical, the title'I Corps' being added to Aldershot Command. In early October 1902 a memorandum was issued showing the organization and allocation of the 1st Army Corps, to which Sir John French had been appointed in command: 1st Division 1st Brigade 2nd Infantry Brigade One squadron of cavalry, two brigade divisions Royal Field Artillery, an ammunition column, a field company Royal Engineers, one company Army Service Corps, a field hospital 2nd Division 3rd Infantry Brigade 4th Infantry Brigade One squadron of cavalry, two brigade divisions Royal Field Artillery, an ammunition column, a field company Royal Engineers, one company Army Service Corps, a field hospital 3rd Division 5th Infantry Brigade 6th Infantry Brigade One squadron of cavalry, two brig