Legio VIII Augusta
They were ordered to Cisalpine Gaul around 58 BC by Julius Caesar, and marched with him throughout the entire Gallic Wars. In 49, at the beginning of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, the Eighth Legion accompanied Caesar across the Rubicon into Italy. They stood with him at the Battle of Pharsalus, the legion was present in Egypt, when Caesar captured Egypt for Cleopatra. In 46 BC the legion took part in the Battle of Thapsus, in 44 BC, Augustus reconstituted the legion which had helped him attain the control of the Empire. This loyalty gave the legion the cognomen Augusta, in 69 AD, the Year of the Four Emperors, following the suicide of Nero, the legion took the side of Vespasian, the new emperor. The legion went with Vespasian to Mirebeau-sur-Bèze in Gaul in 70 AD to oppose the revolts of the Treveri and especially the Ubii and Lingons against Rome, the legion left in 86 AD, at latest, to its next base at Argentoratum. The legion fought in Parthia with Septimius Severus and with his successors, records indicate that they were still active during the first years of the 4th century at the Rhine frontier.
This means that the history of the legion covers more than 400 years of almost continuous service, in 371 it was stationed in Argentoratum, in Germania Superior, according to an inscription. Later, the Roman general Stilicho, was compelled to move the German legions back to Italy to defend it against the Visigothic invasion, - ri G̣allorum tribunus militum legionis VIII Augustae. Cohort of Gauls, military of the Eighth Legion Augusta, list of Roman legions and Roman legion livius
Battle of Philippi
The battle consisted of two engagements in the plain west of the ancient city of Philippi. The first occurred in the first week of October, Brutus faced Octavian, at first, Brutus pushed back Octavian and entered his legions camp. But to the south, Cassius was defeated by Antony, Brutus rallied Cassius remaining troops and both sides ordered their army to retreat to their camps with their spoils, and the battle was essentially a draw, but for Cassius suicide. A second encounter, on 23 October, finished off Brutuss forces, after the murder of Caesar and Cassius had left Italy and taken control of all Eastern provinces and of the allied Eastern kingdoms. In Rome the three main Caesarian leaders, who controlled almost all the Roman army in the west, had crushed the opposition of the senate and established the second triumvirate. One of their first tasks was to destroy the Liberators’ forces, not only to get control of the Roman world. The triumvirs decided that Lepidus would remain in Italy, while the two partners of the triumvirate moved to Northern Greece with their best troops.
They were able to ferry their army across the Adriatic and sent out a force of eight legions along the via Egnatia. Norbanus and Saxa passed the town of Philippi in eastern Macedonia, Antony was following, while Octavian was delayed at Dyrrachium because of his ill-health. They had spent the previous months plundering Greek cities to swell their war-chest and had gathered in Thrace with the Roman legions from the Eastern provinces and levies from allies. With their superior forces they were able to outflank Norbanus and Saxa, thus and Cassius could position holding the high ground along both sides of the via Egnatia, about 3.5 km west of the city of Philippi. The south position was anchored to a supposedly impassable marsh, while on the north to impervious hills and they had plenty of time to fortify their position with a rampart and a ditch. Brutus put his camp on the north while Cassius on the south of the via Egnatia, Antony arrived shortly and positioned his army on the south of the via Egnatia, while Octavian put his legions north of the road.
The Triumvirs army included nineteen legions, appian reports that the triumvirs’ legions were almost at full complement. Furthermore, they had a large allied cavalry force, the Liberators army had seventeen legions. Only two of the legions were at full strength, but the army was reinforced by levies from the Eastern allied kingdoms, appian reports that the army mustered a total of about 80,000 foot-soldiers. Allied cavalry included a total of 17,000 horsemen, including 5,000 bowmen mounted in the Eastern fashion and this army included the old Caesarean legions present in the East, thus most of these legionaries were former Caesarean veterans. However, at least the XXXVI legion consisted of old Pompeian veterans, the loyalty of the soldiers who were supposed to fight against Caesar’s heir was a delicate issue for the Liberators
Cato the Younger
A noted orator, he is remembered for his stubbornness and tenacity, as well as his immunity to bribes, his moral integrity, and his famous distaste for the ubiquitous corruption of the period. Cato was born in 95 BC in Rome, the son of Marcus Porcius Cato, drusus was murdered when Cato was 4 years old. Catos stubbornness began in his early years, his teacher, reports a very obedient and questioning child, although slow in being persuaded of things and sometimes very difficult to retrain. In a playful mood, he asked the support for his cause. All of them nodded and smiled except Cato, who stared at the guest suspiciously, silo demanded an answer from him and, seeing no response, took Cato and hung him by the feet out of the window. Even then, Cato would not say anything, Plutarch recounts a few other stories as well. One night, as children were playing a game in a side room of a house during a social event, they were having a mock trial with judges. One of the children, supposedly a good-natured and pleasant child, was convicted by the accusers and was being carried out of the room when he cried out desperately for Cato.
Cato became very angry at the children and, saying nothing, grabbed the child away from the guards. When Sulla asked them whom they would have, they all cried Cato, Sullas daughter Cornelia Sulla was married to the boys uncle Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus. Sarpedons answer was thus, They fear him, my child, Cato replied to this, Give me a sword, that I might free my country from slavery. After this, Sarpedon was careful not to leave the boy unattended around the capital, after receiving his inheritance, Cato moved from his uncles house and began to study Stoic philosophy and politics. He began to live in a very modest way, as his great-grandfather Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder had famously done, Cato subjected himself to violent exercise, and learned to endure cold and rain with a minimum of clothes. He ate only what was necessary and drank the cheapest wine on the market and this was entirely for philosophical reasons, his inheritance would have permitted him to live comfortably. He remained in private life for a time, rarely seen in public.
But when he did appear in the forum, his speeches, Cato was first engaged to Aemilia Lepida, a patrician woman, but she was married instead to Quintus Caecilius Metellus Scipio, to whom she had been betrothed. Incensed, Cato threatened to sue for her hand, but his friends mollified him, Cato was married to a woman called Atilia. By her, he had a son, Marcus Porcius Cato, and a daughter, Cato divorced Atilia for unseemly behavior
Appian of Alexandria was a Roman historian of Greek origin who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan and Antoninus Pius. He was born c.95 in Alexandria, after having filled the chief offices in the province of Aegyptus, he went to Rome c. Because the position of procurator was open only to members of the equestrian order and his principal surviving work was written in Greek in 24 books, before 165. This work more closely resembles a series of monographs than a connected history and it gives an account of various peoples and countries from the earliest times down to their incorporation into the Roman Empire, and survives in complete books and considerable fragments. The work is valuable, especially for the period of the civil wars. The Civil Wars, five of the books in the corpus, concern mainly the end of the Roman Republic. Little is known of the life of Appian of Alexandria and he wrote an autobiography that has been almost completely lost. Information about Appian is distilled from his own writings and a letter by his friend Cornelius Fronto, however, it is certain that Appian was born around the year AD95 in Alexandria, the capital of Roman Egypt.
Since his parents were Roman citizens capable of paying for their son’s education and it is believed that Appian moved to Rome in 120, where he became a barrister. In the introduction to his Roman History, he boasts “that he pleaded cases in Rome before the emperors. ”The emperors he claims to have addressed must have been either Hadrian or Marcus Aurelius and definitely Antoninus Pius, for Appian remained in Egypt at least until the end of the reign of Trajan. In the letter of Cornelius Fronto, it is revealed that a request on behalf of Appian to receive the rank of procurator occurred during the co-regency between 147 and 161, although Appian won this office, it is unclear whether it was a real job or an honorific title. The only other certain biographical datum is that Appians Roman History appeared sometime before 162 and this is one of the few primary historical sources for the period. Appian began writing his history around the middle of the second century AD, only sections from half of the original 24 books survive today.
The most important remnants of Appians work are the five books on the Civil Wars—books 13-17 of the Roman History, especially notable is this works ethnographic structure. Appian most likely used this structure to facilitate his readers orientation through the sequence of events, a literary example of this can be found from Appian’s Civil Wars. One might expect that a work covering nine centuries and countless different peoples would involve a multitude of testimonials from different periods. However, Appians sources remain uncertain, as he mentions the source of his information under special circumstances. He may have relied primarily on one author for each book, at our present state of knowledge questions regarding Appian’s sources cannot be solved
Legio X Equestris
Legio X Equestris, a Roman legion, was levied by Julius Caesar in 61 BC when he was the Governor of Hispania Ulterior. The Tenth was the first legion levied personally by Caesar and was consistently his most trusted, Legio X was famous in its day and throughout history, because of its portrayal in Caesars Commentaries and the prominent role the Tenth played in his Gallic campaigns. Its soldiers were discharged in 45 BC and its remnants were reconstituted, fought for Mark Antony and Octavian and merged into X Gemina. When Gaius Julius Caesar arrived as Governor in the province of Baetica or Hispania Ulterior, as it was in 61 BC and he already had two legions based in the province, the 8th and 9th Legions, which had been enlisted by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus in 65 BC. Caesar needed a third legion for his campaign and so he immediately enlisted a new legion. Enlisted in March, the legion took as its emblem the bull, an emblem which proved popular with other such as Legio V Alaudae, Legio XI, Legio XII Victrix.
The campaign in the summer of 61 BC was very successful, the Tenth played a crucial part in the Gallic Wars, fighting under Caesar in virtually every battle. At the beginning of the Gallic campaign, Caesar brought the 10th legion from Spain, almost immediately, in the summer of 58 BC, the legion fought in two major actions, the battles of Arar and Bibracte. They played a part in Caesars defeat of the Helvetii tribes. Following the defeat of the Helvetii, the leaders of the Gallic tribes petitioned Caesar for his aid against Ariovistus, prior to battle, Ariovistus suggested a peace conference but insisted that each side should only be accompanied by mounted troops. Ariovistus made this a condition knowing that Caesars cavalry was composed mainly of Aedian horsemen whose loyalty to Caesar was questionable, Caesar ordered a group of his Gallic auxiliaries to dismount and had legionaries from the 10th ride in their place to accompany him to the peace conference. This incident earned the legion its nickname Equestris, one of the legionaries jokingly said that Caesar was better than his word, he had promised to make them foot guards, but now they appeared as equestrians.
Legio X saved the day in the Battle against the Nervians in 57 BC, together with the IXth, the Xth defeated the Atrebates, moved against the Belgae on the other side of the river and captured the enemy camp. In 45 BC the legion was disbanded, and the veterans obtained lands in Narbonne, during the civil war that followed Caesars assassination, the Legio X was reconstituted by Lepidus, and fought for the triumvirs until the final Battle of Philippi. The veterans obtained lands near Cremona, and an inscription reports that the name of the legion at the time was Veneria, devoted to Venus, the Tenth followed Mark Antony in Armenia, during his Parthian campaign. During Antonys civil war, the legion fought for Mark Antony until the defeat in the Battle of Actium, when the legion rebelled under Augustus, it was disbanded, stripped of its Equestris title, being populated with soldiers from other legions, renamed X Gemina. List of Roman legions Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico Dando-Collins, Caesars Legion, The Epic Saga of Julius Caesars Elite 10th Legion and the Armies of Rome.
John Wiley & Sons, New York, Lawrence, The Making of the Roman Army
Assassination of Julius Caesar
The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators. Led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus, and Marcus Junius Brutus, Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic at the time, having recently been declared dictator perpetuo by the Senate. This declaration made several senators fear that Caesar wanted to overthrow the Senate in favor of tyranny, the conspirators were unable to restore the Roman Republic. The ramifications of the led to the Liberators civil war and, ultimately. Biographers describe tension between Caesar and the Senate, and his claims to the title of king. These events were the motive for Caesars assassination. The Senate named Caesar dictator perpetuo, Roman mints produced a denarius coin with this title and his likeness on one side, and with an image of the goddess Ceres and Caesars title of Augur Pontifex Maximus on the reverse. According to Cassius Dio, a delegation went to inform Caesar of new honors they had bestowed upon him in 44 BC.
Caesar received them while sitting in the Temple of Venus Genetrix, Suetonius wrote that Caesar failed to rise in the temple, either because he was restrained by Cornelius Balbus or that he balked at the suggestion he should rise. Suetonius gave the account of a crowd assembled to greet Caesar upon his return to Rome, a member of the crowd placed a laurel wreath on the statue of Caesar on the Rostra. The tribunes Gaius Epidius Marullus and Lucius Caesetius Flavus ordered that the wreath be removed as it was a symbol of Jupiter, Caesar had the tribunes removed from office through his official powers. According to Suetonius, Caesar was unable to dissociate himself from the title from this point forward. Suetonius gives the story that a crowd shouted to him rex, to which Caesar replied, I am Caesar, not Rex. Also, at the festival of the Lupercalia, while he gave a speech from the Rostra, Mark Antony, Caesar put it aside to use as a sacrifice to Jupiter Optimus Maximus. Plutarch and Suetonius are similar in their depiction of these events and he places the crowd shouting rex on the Alban Hill with the tribunes arresting a member of this crowd as well.
The plebeian protested that he was unable to speak his mind freely, Caesar brought the tribunes before the senate and put the matter to a vote, thereafter removing them from office and erasing their names from the records. Suetonius adds that Lucius Cotta proposed to the Senate that Caesar should be granted the title of king for it was prophesied that only a king would conquer Parthia, Caesar intended to invade Parthia, a task that gave considerable trouble to Mark Antony during the second triumvirate. His many titles and honors from the Senate were ultimately merely that, Caesar continually strove for more power to govern, with as little dependence as possible on honorary titles or the Senate
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Battle of Pharsalus
The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesars Civil War. On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar, Pompey had the backing of a majority of the senators, of whom many were optimates, and his army significantly outnumbered the veteran Caesarian legions. The two armies confronted each other several months of uncertainty, Caesar being in a much weaker position than Pompey. Pompey wanted to delay, knowing the enemy would eventually surrender from hunger, pressured by the senators present and by his officers, he reluctantly engaged in battle and suffered an overwhelming defeat, ultimately fleeing the camp and his men, disguised as an ordinary citizen. Caesar, lacking a fleet to give chase, solidified his control over the western Mediterranean – Spain specifically – before assembling ships to follow Pompey. Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, whom Pompey had appointed to command his 600-ship fleet, set up a blockade to prevent Caesar from crossing to Greece. Caesar, defying convention, chose to cross the Adriatic during the winter and this move surprised Bibulus and the first wave of ships managed to run the blockade easily.
Now prepared, Bibulus managed to prevent any ships from crossing. Caesars only choice was to fortify his position, forage what supplies he could, Pompey by now had a massive international army, his troops were mostly untested raw recruits, while Caesars troops were hardened veterans. Realizing Caesars difficulty in keeping his troops supplied, Pompey decided to simply mirror Caesars forces, Caesar began to despair and used every channel he could think of to pursue peace with Pompey. When this was rebuffed he made an attempt to back to Italy to collect his missing troops but was turned back by a storm. Finally, Mark Antony rallied the forces in Italy, fought through the blockade and made the crossing, reinforcing Caesars forces in both men and spirit. Now at full strength Caesar felt confident to take the fight to Pompey, Pompey was camped in a strong position just south of Dyrrhachium with the sea to his back and surrounded by hills, making a direct assault impossible. Caesar ordered a wall to be built around Pompeys position in order to cut off water, Pompey built a parallel wall and in between a kind of no mans land was created, with fighting comparable to the trench warfare of World War I.
Finally the standoff was broken by a traitor in Caesars army, Pompey immediately exploited this information and forced Caesars army into a full retreat, but ordered his army not to pursue, fearing Caesars reputation for setting elaborate traps. This caused Caesar to remark, Today the victory had been the enemys, had there been any one among them to gain it, Pompey continued his strategy of mirroring Caesars forces and avoiding any direct engagements. After trapping Caesar in Thessaly, the prominent senators in Pompeys camp began to argue loudly for a decisive victory. Although Pompey was strongly against it—he wanted to surround and starve Caesars army instead—he eventually gave in, the date of the actual decisive battle is given as 9 August 48 BC according to the republican calendar
Legio VII Claudia
Legio septima Claudia was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. Its emblem, like that of all Caesars legions, was the bull, the Seventh, the Sixth, the Eighth and the Ninth were all founded by Pompey in Spain in 65 BC. With the Eighth and Tenth legions, the Seventh was among the oldest units in the imperial Roman army and they were ordered to Cisalpine Gaul around 58 BC by Julius Caesar, and marched with him throughout the entire Gallic Wars. The Roman commander mentions the Seventh in his account of the battle against the Nervians, in 56, the Seventh was present during the Venetic campaign. During the crisis caused by Vercingetorix, it fought in the neighborhood of Lutetia, it must have been active at Alesia, tiberius Claudius Maximus, the Roman soldier who brought the head of Decebalus to the emperor Trajan, was serving in Legio VII Claudia. An inscription in Pompeii revealed that Floronius served in the seventh legion, the inscription says, “Floronius, privileged soldier of the 7th legion, was here.
The women did not know of his presence, only six women came to know, too few for such a stallion. ”List of Roman legions livius. org account
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir)
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, was a Roman patrician who was triumvir with Octavian and Mark Antony, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic. Lepidus had previously been an ally of Julius Caesar. Though he was a military commander and proved a useful partisan of Caesar. He typically appears as a figure in depictions of the events of the era. While some scholars have endorsed this view, others argue that the evidence is insufficient to discount the distorting effects of propaganda by his opponents, principally Cicero and, Augustus. Lepidus was the son of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, his mother may have been a daughter of Lucius Appuleius Saturninus and his brother was Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. His father was the first leader of the populares faction after the death of Sulla. Lepidus married Junia Secunda, sister of Marcus Junius Brutus and Junia Tertia and Junia Secunda had at least one child, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the Younger. Lepidus joined the College of Pontiffs as a child and he started his cursus honorum as triumvir monetalis, overseeing the minting of coins, from c.
Lepidus soon became one of Julius Caesars greatest supporters and he was appointed as a praetor in 49 BC, being placed in charge of Rome while Caesar defeated Pompey in Greece. He secured Caesars appointment as dictator, a position Caesar used to get elected as Consul. Lepidus was rewarded with the position of Proconsul in the Spanish province of Hispania Citerior, while in Spain Lepidus was called upon to act to quell a rebellion against Quintus Cassius Longinus, governor of neighbouring Hispania Ulterior. Lepidus refused to support Cassius, who had created opposition to Caesars regime by his corruption and he negotiated a deal with the rebel leader, quaestor Marcellus, and helped defeat an attack by the Mauretanian king Bogud. Cassius and his supporters were allowed to leave and order was restored and the Senate were sufficiently impressed by Lepdiuss judicial mixture of negotiation and surgical military action that they granted him a Triumph. Lepidus was rewarded with the consulship in 46 BC after the defeat of the Pompeians in the East, Caesar made Lepidus magister equitum, effectively his deputy.
Caesar appears to have had confidence in Lepidus than in Mark Antony to keep order in Rome. Lepidus appears to have been shocked when Antony provocatively offered Caesar a crown at the Lupercalia festival. When in February 44 BC Caesar was elected dictator for life by the senate, the brief alliance in power of Caesar and Lepidus came to a sudden end when Caesar was assassinated on March 1544 BC
Legio XII Fulminata
The Legio duodecima Fulminata, known as Paterna, Antiqua, Certa Constans, and Galliena, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was originally levied by Julius Caesar in 58 BC and which accompanied him during the Gallic Wars until 49 BC, the unit was still guarding the Euphrates River crossing near Melitene at the beginning of the 5th century. The legions emblem was a thunderbolt, in centuries it came to be called commonly, but incorrectly, the Legio Fulminatrix, the Thundering Legion. The Twelfth legion, as it is better known, fought in the Battle against the Nervians. The Twelfth fought at the Battle of Pharsalus, when Caesar defeated Pompey, after Caesar won the civil war, the legion was named Victrix, and enlisted in 43 BC by Lepidus and Mark Anthony. Mark Anthony led the Twelfth, renamed XII Antiqua during his campaign against the Parthian Empire, during the latest part of Augustus principality, XII Fulminata served in Syria, camping at Raphana. In the East, King Vologeses I had invaded Armenia, a client kingdom of Rome, the legions were shamed and removed from the war theatre.
On its way back, XII Fulminata was ambushed and defeated by Eleazar ben Simon at Beit-Horon, however, XII Fulminata fought well in the last part of the war, and supported its commander T. Flavius Vespasian in his successful bid for the imperial throne. At the end of the war, XII Fulminata and XVI Flavia Firma were sent to guard the Euphrates border, in 75 AD, XII Fulminata was in Caucasus, where Emperor Vespasian had sent the legion to support the allied kingdoms of Iberia and Albania. The legion was probably in Armenia during Trajans campaign of 114 AD, in 134, the threat of the Alans was subdued by the governor of Cappadocia, who defeated the invaders with the aid of XII Fulminata and XV Apollinaris. The Twelfth probably fought in the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus, in 162-166, if a unit of XII. At this time, most of the Twelfth was composed chiefly of Christians, there was a belief that this had led to the emperor issuing a decree forbidding the persecution of the Christians, but this seems to have been based on a forgery.
In 175, the legion was in Melitene, when Avidius Cassius revolted, after the death of Emperor Pertinax,193, XII Fulminata supported the governor of Syria, Pescennius Niger, who was in the end defeated by Emperor Septimius Severus. When the Eastern frontier of the Empire was moved from the Euphrates to the Tigris, the region around Melitene was one of the first in which Christian faith spread. Polyeuctes is a martyr under Valerian who was a soldier of the Twelfth, the Sassanid Empire was a major threat to the Roman power in the East. King Shapur II conquered the base of the XV Apollinaris, Emperor Valerian moved against Shapur, but was defeated and captured. The defeat caused the collapse of the Empire, with the secessionistic Gallic Empire in the West. It is known that the XII Fulminata was under the command of Odaenathus, ruler of the Palmyrene Empire, after these episodes, the records of the Fulminata are scarce