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Liberté, égalité, fraternité

Liberté, égalité, fraternité, French for "liberty, fraternity", is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, is an example of a tripartite motto. Although it finds its origins in the French Revolution, it was only one motto among others and was not institutionalized until the Third Republic at the end of the 19th century. Debates concerning the compatibility and order of the three terms began at the same time as the Revolution, it is the motto of the Grand Orient de France and the Grande Loge de France. The first to express this motto was Maximilien Robespierre in his speech "On the organization of the National Guard" on 5 December 1790, article XVI, disseminated throughout France by the popular Societies. Discours sur l'organisation des gardes nationalesArticle XVI. On their uniforms engraved these words: FRENCH PEOPLE, & below: LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY; the same words are inscribed on flags. Credit for the motto has been given to Antoine-François Momoro, a Parisian printer and Hébertist organizer, though in different context of foreign invasion and Federalist revolts in 1793, it was modified to "Unity, indivisibility of the Republic.

In 1839, the philosopher Pierre Leroux claimed it had been an popular creation. The historian Mona Ozouf underlines that, although Liberté and Égalité were associated as a motto during the 18th century, Fraternité wasn't always included in it, other terms, such as Amitié, Charité or Union were added in its place; the emphasis on Fraternité during the French Revolution led Olympe de Gouges, a female journalist, to write the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen as a response. The tripartite motto was neither a creative collection, nor institutionalized by the French Revolution; as soon as 1789, other terms were used, such as "la Nation, la Loi, le Roi", or "Union, Vertu", a slogan used beforehand by masonic lodges, or "Force, Égalité, Justice", "Liberté, Sûreté, Propriété", etc. In other words, liberté, égalité, fraternité was only one slogan among many others. During the Jacobin revolutionary period itself, various mottos were used, such as liberté, unité, égalité; the only solid association was that of liberté and égalité, fraternité being ignored by the Cahiers de doléances as well as by the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

It was only alluded to in the 1791 Constitution, as well as in Robespierre's draft Declaration of 1793, placed under the invocation of égalité, liberté, sûreté and propriété, as the possibility of a universal extension of the Declaration of Rights: "Men of all countries are brothers, he who oppresses one nation declares himself the enemy of all." It did not figure in the August 1793 Declaration. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789 defined liberty in Article 4 as follows: Liberty consists of being able to do anything that does not harm others: thus, the exercise of the natural rights of every man or woman has no bounds other than those that guarantee other members of society the enjoyment of these same rights. Equality, on the other hand, was defined by the 1789 Declaration in terms of judicial equality and merit-based entry to government: must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in its eyes, shall be eligible to all high offices, public positions and employments, according to their ability, without other distinction than that of their virtues and talents.

Liberté, égalité, fraternité finds its origins in a May 1791 proposition by the Club des Cordeliers, following a speech on the Army by the marquis de Guichardin. A British marine held prisoner on the French ship Le Marat in 1794 wrote home in letters published in 1796: The republican spirit is inculcated not in songs only, for in every part of the ship I find emblems purposely displayed to awaken it. All the orders relating to the discipline of the crew are hung up, prefaced by the words Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité, ou la Mort, written in capital letters; the compatibility of liberté and égalité was not doubted in the first days of the Revolution, the problem of the antecedence of one term on the other not lifted. Thus, the Abbé Sieyès considered that only liberty ensured equality, unless the latter was to be the equality of all dominated by a despot; the abstract generality of law thus ensured the identification of liberty to equality, liberty being negatively defined as an independence from arbitrary rule, equality considered abstractly in its judicial form.


International Environmental Design Contest

The International Environmental Design Contest is a competition hosted by the WERC Consortium and the Institute for Energy & the Environment at New Mexico State University. It is an annual event in which student teams prepare written, oral and bench-scale model presentations in response to design tasks; the student solutions are judged by industry and academic professionals. For an explanation of the contest tasks, a listing of participating teams, see below; the International Environmental Design Contest has been held annually at New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, New Mexico since 1991. The Design Contest occurs in April and draws college students from around the United States and the world to showcase engineering design solutions, it is hosted by New Mexico State University's WERC Consortium and Institute for Energy & the Environment. In the past, the contest has held concurrent high school design contests. In response to design tasks posed by the hosting organization, student teams prepare written, oral and bench-scale model presentations.

The design tasks are "based on real-world environmental challenges, focusing on technologies to tackle renewable energy innovation, sustainable building design, water issues." The design challenges relate to water and renewable energy. The challenges are developed with assistance from government agencies, industrial affiliates, academic partners; these assisting entities serve as judges for the final competition. Judging criteria includes: process feasibility and practicality, cost analysis, community relations and outreach, adherence to various applicable regulations and permitting, safety considerations, a discussion of potential waste streams. Students consider alternative solutions to a given “environmental challenge” from all aspects including technical, health and community related issues. Other considerations include regulatory guidelines, public opinion, cost. Winning solutions merit traveling trophies. For more information about awards and tasks, please see the Awards & Tasks sections below.

The Contest is hosted by the Institute for the Environment at New Mexico State University. The Institute for Energy & the Environment includes WERC: a Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, Southwest Technology Development Institute, a renewable energy research and development group, Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, a nuclear waste-management and monitoring center; the contest is a sponsored event. In 2007, it was sponsored by private and public entities such as Intel, the U. S. Department of Energy, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Water Works Association and Research Foundation. In 2011, the State of New Mexico, Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold, Intel Corporation, the Office of Naval Research, the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration acted as sponsors for the event. Awards and Tasks for the event change from year to year. In 2003, there were as many as 14 tasks. In 2011, there were seven. Tasks require students "to present design proposals and poster presentations, working bench-scale models to verify the design and cost-effectiveness of their proposed solutions."

The tasks are developed from input given by government agencies, industrial affiliates, academic partners to the Institute for Energy and the Environment. Example Design Contest tasks from 2007: Develop a photovoltaic system performance indicator to determine that a residential utility-interactive PV system is operating properly and that the AC power output is following the solar power available to the PV array. Develop an inland desalination operation and disposal system in rural, isolated communities to demonstrate a low-cost and reliable system. Convert a biomass resource to useful forms of energy and other products to demonstrate options using biogas or liquids. Cash prizes and traveling trophies are awarded at the Design Contest. Individual awards are distributed at the event. Awards include:Outstanding Award for best oral and paper presentation, the Terry McManus Award, the Intel Innovation award,and first and second place for the various tasks; the following is a listing of Design Contest Awards and their recipients at previous years' competitions: More than 5000 students have participated in the contest since its beginning.

As of 2011, the following universities have attended the International Environmental Design Contest: International Environmental Design Contest WERC Design Contest Institute for Energy & the Environment Design Contest Page Ohio University/WERC Website

American Society of Addiction Medicine

The American Society of Addiction Medicine is an addiction medicine professional society representing over 6,000 physicians and associated professionals with a focus on addiction and its treatment. ASAM has its roots in research and clinical traditions that pre-date its founding in the early 1950s, when Ruth Fox, M. D. began regular meetings with other physicians interested in alcoholism and its treatment at the New York Academy of Medicine. In 1954 these physicians established the New York City Medical Society on Alcoholism with Dr. Fox as its first President. ASAM was admitted to the American Medical Association House of Delegates as a voting member in June 1988, in June 1990 the AMA added addiction medicine to its list of designated specialties. In 1989, to reflect the Society's concern with all drugs of addiction as well as its interest in establishing addiction medicine as part of mainstream medicine, the organization was renamed the American Society of Addiction Medicine. ASAM, founded in 1954, is a professional medical society representing over 6,000 physicians and associated professionals in the field of addiction medicine.

ASAM is dedicated to increasing access and improving the quality of addiction treatment, educating physicians and the public, supporting research and prevention, promoting the appropriate role of physicians in the care of patients with addiction. ASAM is the largest leading professional society seeking to define and expand the field of addiction medicine. ASAM membership offers the opportunity to develop treatment guidelines and protocol, network with peers and attend world-renowned courses in the field of addiction medicine and so much more; the ASAM Annual Conference - Innovations in Addiction Medicine and Science is the nation’s premiere conference on the latest science, best practices and innovations in addiction medicine. This event is held annually in April. ASAM is critical of the current regulatory state of marijuana, holding that there is no such thing as appropriate medical use of the plant cannabis. Published six times per year, the Journal of Addiction Medicine is the official journal of the American Society of Addiction Medicine.

The mission of JAM is to promote excellence in the practice of addiction medicine and in clinical research as well as to support addiction medicine as a mainstream medical specialty. The current Editor-in-Chief is Dr. Richard Saitz; the ASAM Criteria, ISBN 978-1-61702-197-8 The ASAM Essentials of Addiction Medicine, ISBN 9781451194463 The ASAM National Practice Guideline for the Use of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use The ASAM Handbook of Addiction Medicine, 2015 The ASAM Handbook on Pain and Addiction, 2017 The Principles of Addiction Medicine, sixth edition 2018, The ASAM Weekly Official website

William Adair

General Sir William Thompson Adair was a Royal Marines officer and Ulster Unionist. Educated at Cheltenham College, he entered the Royal Marine Light Infantry as a lieutenant on 6 December 1867, was promoted to captain on 1 July 1881, he received the brevet rank of major on 6 December 1888, the substantive rank of major on 3 May 1889, the brevet rank of lieutenant colonel on 6 December 1895, the substantive rank of lieutenant colonel on 7 February 1896. In early February 1900 he embarked the SS Canada leaving Southampton for South Africa, where he was to serve in the Second Boer War, he received the brevet rank of colonel on 7 February 1900, was appointed Assistant Adjutant General on 1 November 1900. Following his return to the United Kingdom, he was promoted colonel second commandant of the Royal Marine Light Infantry on 30 January 1902, he became Deputy Adjutant-General Royal Marines June 1907 before retiring in June 1911. Adair played a prominent role in the Ulster Unionist Party and was commander of the Antrim Ulster Volunteer Force.

In 1914, he took charge of the dispersal of guns during the Larne gun-running. D. J. Hickey & J. E. Doherty. A Dictionary of Irish History. Gill & MacMillan. Ireland 1980. P3 ISBN 0-7171-1567-4

Liggett and Myers Harpring Tobacco Storage Warehouse

The Liggett and Myers Harpring Tobacco Storage Warehouse is a building located in Lexington, Kentucky. The building is significant for its association with the burley tobacco industry in Lexington, Kentucky between 1930 and 1980 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Fayette County, Kentucky. After the end of World War I, Lexington positioned itself as the largest burley tobacco market in the state, a position, strengthened by its increase in the number of tobacco warehouse being built across the city; this new surge in the consumption of burley tobacco is what drove Liggett and Myers to build a new tobacco facility in Lexington in 1930. A newspaper article announcing the construction of the $100,000 warehouse stated that Liggett and Myers plan "to use the warehouse as a storage plant for tobacco here and awaiting shipment to their factories; the new warehouse will be completed and put into use by the opening of the tobacco season here this winter". The warehouse, located along Manchester Street and the L&N Railroad, was named for Liggett and Myers' head buyer in Kentucky, F. G. Harpring of Louisville.

The new warehouse joined a line of other tobacco-related structures in Lexington's northwest tobacco district. A November 1930 article in the Lexington Leader touted the scope and scale of the Harpring Storage Warehouse. "One of the largest and finest roofing and sheet metal jobs done in this part of the country is now being completed by the James D. Harper firm, 724 West Short Street, on the new Liggett and Myers tobacco warehouse on the Old Frankfort Pike." The article detailed the amount of metal used, which given the size of the warehouse, is impressive: "1,200 squares of Baird’s Specification roofing. The Harpring Storage Warehouse represented a major financial investment on the part of Liggett and Myers; the warehouse cost $100,000 to build. Between 1930 and the start of World War II, the urban tobacco landscape in Lexington grew dramatically; the consolidation in the tobacco markets meant that Lexington, a rail and road hub, benefited from a building boom of new metal-clad warehouses. This includes both storage warehouses.

The introduction of the metal-clad steel-frame brick-firewall storage warehouse with multiple sections under one roof, rippled throughout Lexington's burley storage landscape. The Harpring Warehouse began receiving tobacco during the 1930 sales season, its design was co-opted by other companies. In 1931, other national tobacco firms commenced building similar storage warehouses; the Harpring Storage Warehouse was built at a pivotal time for Liggett and Myers, at least in terms of burley tobacco production. The burley tobacco market brought in more than $17 million in 1930, a year when the volume of burley at local warehouses shattered all records. Twenty sales warehouses in Lexington contained more than 9 million pounds of tobacco, while "another million were on wagons and trucks on streets, unable to find room in the warehouses." The impacts on the local economy were noticeable. Beyond the men who worked in the warehouses, the growers themselves, Lexington's businesses prospered during the winter months of selling.

The warehouse itself was one of the first concrete floor tobacco warehouses in Kentucky and was considered to be the "gold standard" by which other tobacco warehouses were measured. In December 1931, the Lexington Leader carried a story about the spike in automobile sales during the sales season. Local car dealers reported an increase in both new and used-car sales, the buyers came from far and wide, with at least one out-of-state grower buying a new car with his proceeds from selling his tobacco at the Lexington warehouses; the tobacco warehouses of Lexington, fell silent during World War II. Labor shortages translated into a sharp drop in tobacco production, many warehouses in urban areas underwent transformation into storage for war supplies. E. J. O'Brien and Company, which had are-drying and re-handling facility and a hogshead tobacco warehouse at the corner of South Broadway and Virginia Avenue, underwent a conversion to manufacturing parachutes during World War II. Throughout the 1960s.

Lexington's population increased during the sales season and local businesses benefitted from the influx of growers with ready cash, warehouse operators seeking to form new relationships, buyers flocking to town to get the most leaf tor the best price. The forces which allowed Lexington to rise to such heights within the burley tobacco industry contributed to the town's gradual demise as a tobacco center in the late 1970s. During that decade and into the 1980s, tobacco companies nationally began "merging small tobacco facilities to form more modem facilities in central locations." Liggett and Myers was the first national tobacco company. According to Rogers' nomination, the Liggett and Myers Tobacco Re-handling Plant on Bolivar closed in the 1960s; the company sold the building to a private individual in 1973. Lorillard announced closure of its storage warehouses in Lexington in 1983, intending to consolidate with facilities in Danville and Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Brown and Williamson left Lexington in 1984, when it consolidated its Lexington operations and moved them to North Carolina.

From 1980 to 2007, the warehouse was used as general storage. In 2007, the warehouse was purchased and used as an antique mall until 2011. In December 2012, the bu

Brian J. White

Brian Joseph White is an American actor. He has appeared in a number of films, including The Family Stone, The Game Plan, 12 Rounds, I Can Do Bad All by Myself, Good Deeds, The Cabin in the Woods. On television, White was regular cast member in Men of a Certain Age and the Beast, Ambitions. White was born in Boston, the son of Estela Bowser, a financial advisor, Jo Jo White, a Hall of Fame basketball player for the Boston Celtics, sports executive, restaurateur, he is the oldest of six children. White graduated from Newton South High School and Dartmouth College, where he was a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. White began acting in a number of television series such as Moesha, The Parkers, Spyder Games, Second Time Around, The Shield, he moved into film roles, appearing in The Family Stone, Stomp the Yard, The Game Plan, In the Name of the King: A Dungeon Siege Tale. He had a recurring role as Lieutenant Carl Davis on Moonlight. In 2009, White appeared in 12 Rounds, he starred in I Can Do Bad All By Myself, followed this with a regular role in the series Men of a Certain Age.

In 2011, White starred in Politics of Love. He began touring with the David E. Talbert stage play What My Husband Doesn't Know; the tour ran from May 8 to December 18. White became the co-host of the UNCF national "Empower Me" tour and starred in the music video for Monica's song "Until it's Gone". In 2012, he appeared in The Cabin in the Woods. In 2015, he appeared in the television series Scandal as the love interest of Olivia Pope. In 2015, he had a recurring role as Captain Dallas Patterson in season 4 of NBC's Chicago Fire. In 2018, White began starring in Bronx SIU and Monogamy. In 2019, he received Daytime Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Digital Daytime Drama Series for Bronx SIU. In 2019, he starred opposite Robin Givens in the Oprah Winfrey Network prime time soap opera, Ambitions. White and Paula Da Silva married in 2010, they have a daughter named Layla Simone White, born in 2014. Brian J. White on IMDb Brian J. White's official website Brian White on Twitter One on One - Brian White - Interview with Brian White on Al-Jazeera English