Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte was a Chilean general and dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981. Pinochet assumed power in Chile following a United States-backed coup d'état on 11 September 1973 that overthrew the democratically elected socialist Unidad Popular government of President Salvador Allende and ended civilian rule. Several academics – including Peter Winn, Peter Kornbluh and Tim Weiner – have stated that the support of the United States was crucial to the coup and the consolidation of power afterward. Pinochet had been promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the Army by Allende on 23 August 1973, having been its General Chief of Staff since early 1972. In December 1974, the ruling military junta appointed Pinochet Supreme Head of the nation by joint decree, although without the support of one of the coup's instigators, Air Force General Gustavo Leigh.
Following his rise to power, Pinochet persecuted leftists and political critics, resulting in the executions of from 1,200 to 3,200 people, the internment of as many as 80,000 people and the torture of tens of thousands. According to the Chilean government, the number of executions and forced disappearances was 3,095. Under the influence of the free market-oriented "Chicago Boys", Pinochet's military government implemented economic liberalization, including currency stabilization, removed tariff protections for local industry, banned trade unions and privatized social security and hundreds of state-owned enterprises; these policies produced high economic growth, but critics state that economic inequality increased and attribute the devastating effects of the 1982 monetary crisis on the Chilean economy to these policies. For most of the 1990s, Chile was the best-performing economy in Latin America, though the legacy of Pinochet's reforms continues to be in dispute, his fortune grew during his years in power through dozens of bank accounts secretly held abroad and a fortune in real estate.
He was prosecuted for embezzlement, tax fraud and for possible commissions levied on arms deals. Pinochet's 17-year rule was given a legal framework through a controversial 1980 plebiscite, which approved a new constitution drafted by a government-appointed commission. In a 1988 plebiscite, 56% voted against Pinochet's continuing as President, which led to democratic elections for the presidency and Congress. After stepping down in 1990, Pinochet continued to serve as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 10 March 1998, when he retired and became a senator-for-life in accordance with his 1980 Constitution. However, Pinochet was arrested under an international arrest warrant on a visit to London on 10 October 1998 in connection with numerous human rights violations. Following a legal battle, he was released on grounds of ill-health and returned to Chile on 3 March 2000. In 2004, Chilean Judge Juan Guzmán Tapia ruled that Pinochet was medically fit to stand trial and placed him under house arrest.
By the time of his death on 10 December 2006, about 300 criminal charges were still pending against him in Chile for numerous human rights violations during his 17-year rule and tax evasion and embezzlement during and after his rule. He was accused of having corruptly amassed at least 28 million USD. Pinochet was born in Valparaíso, the son of Augusto Pinochet Vera, a descendant of an 18th-century French Breton immigrant from Lamballe, Avelina Ugarte Martínez, a woman whose family had been in Chile since the 17th century and was of partial Basque descent. Pinochet went to primary and secondary school at the San Rafael Seminary of Valparaíso, the Rafael Ariztía Institute in Quillota, the French Fathers' School of Valparaíso, to the Military School in Santiago, which he entered in 1931. In 1935, after four years studying military geography he graduated with the rank of alférez in the infantry. In September 1937, Pinochet was assigned in Concepción. Two years in 1939 with the rank of Sub-lieutenant, he moved to the "Maipo" Regiment, garrisoned in Valparaíso.
He returned to Infantry School in 1940. On 30 January 1943, Pinochet married Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, with whom he had five children: Inés Lucía, María Verónica, Jacqueline Marie, Augusto Osvaldo and Marco Antonio. By late 1945, Pinochet had been assigned to the "Carampangue" Regiment in the northern city of Iquique. Three years he entered the Chilean War Academy but had to postpone his studies because, being the youngest officer, he had to carry out a service mission in the coal zone of Lota; the following year he returned to his studies in the Academy, after obtaining the title of Officer Chief of Staff, in 1951, he returned to teach at the Military School. At the same time, he worked as a teachers' aide at the War Academy, giving military geography and geopolitics classes, he was the editor of the institutional magazine Cien Águilas. At the beginning of 1953, with the rank of major, he was sent for two years to the "Rancagua" Regiment in Arica. While there, he was appointed professor of the Chilean War Academy, returned to Santiago to take up his new position.
In 1956, Pinochet and a group of young officers were chosen to form a military mission to collaborate in the organization of the War Academy of Ecuador in Quito. He remained with the Quito mission for four-and-a-half years, during which time he studied geopolitics, military geography and military intelligence. At the end of 1959 he returned to Chile and was sent to General Headquarters of the 1st Army Division, based in Antofa
Peterborough is a city on the Otonabee River in Central Ontario, Canada, 125 kilometres northeast of Toronto and about 270 kilometers southwest of Ottawa. According to the 2016 Census, the population of the City of Peterborough was 81,032; the population of the Peterborough Census Metropolitan Area, which includes the surrounding Townships of Selwyn, Cavan Monaghan, Otonabee-South Monaghan, Douro-Dummer, was 121,721 in 2016. In 2016, Peterborough ranked No. 32 among the country’s 35 census metropolitan areas according to the CMA in Canada. Significant growth is expected starting in late 2019 when the Ontario Highway 407 extension is completed, connecting it to Highway 115/35 south of Peterborough; the current mayor of Peterborough is Diane Therrien. Peterborough is known as the gateway to the Kawarthas, "cottage country", a large recreational region of the province, it is named in honour of Peter Robinson, an early Canadian politician who oversaw the first major immigration to the area. The city is the seat of Peterborough County.
Peterborough's nickname in the distant past was "The Electric City" as it was the first town in Canada to use electric streetlights. It underscores the historical and present-day importance of technology and manufacturing as an economic base of the city, which has operations from large multi-national companies such as Siemens, Rolls-Royce Limited, General Electric, more local technology businesses such as Dynacast and Bryston. Electricity was one of the reasons Quaker Oats moved to the city, as part of PepsiCo, remains a major fixture in the downtown area. However, over the years the number of major manufacturing plants has declined, General Electric closed its last remaining facility in 2018; as a result, employment has been shifting toward the service industries and tourism is now the leading industry in the area. Peterborough is among the best places to retire in Ontario, according to some studies, which listed cultural activities and affordable living as some of the factors that attract seniors.
In 2017, the city was among the best places to invest in Canada according to Comfort Life magazine. First Nations groups entered into the area across Bering Sea, through Alaska, millennia ago. Woodland Natives inhabited the area circa 1000 BCE – 1000 CE, followed by Iroquois and Mississaugas circa 1740 CE. Two of the more prominent sites surviving from this time are the petroglyphs at Petroglyphs Provincial Park and Serpent Mounds; the petroglyphs are located northeast of Peterborough and are believed to have been carved by the Algonquin people between 900 and 1400 CE. The Serpent Mounds are located near Keene 30 km southeast of Peterborough in Otonabee-South Monaghan township, in an area first inhabited sometime before 10 CE. In 1615, Samuel de Champlain traveled through the area, coming down from Lake Chemong and portaging down a trail, approximated by present-day Chemong Road, to the Otonabee River and stayed for a brief time near the present-day site of Bridgenorth, just north of Peterborough.
In 1818, Adam Scott settled on the west shore of the Otonabee River. The following year he began construction of a sawmill and gristmill, establishing the area as Scott's Plains; the mill was located at the foot of present-day King Street and was powered by water from Jackson Creek. This location, adjacent to the Ontario government Ministry of Natural Resources building, Peterborough's Millennium Park may have been the site of landfall for a portage which connects in a direct line with Bridgenorth; the site has an Ojibway name "Nogojiwanong" which means "the place at the end of the rapids". The year 1825 marked the arrival of Irish immigrants from the city of Cork to Scott's Plains. In 1822, the British Parliament had approved an experimental emigration plan to transport poor Irish Catholic families to Upper Canada. Peter Robinson, a member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada and a prominent businessman from York, Upper Canada was the man who took on the emigration plan of 1825. Scott's Plains was renamed Peterborough in his honour.
Robinson interviewed individual males to make the long voyage. These families had to meet specific criteria in order to be eligible for the voyage; the specifics required for Robinson's settlers were that they had to be Catholic and with a knowledge of farming. Males had to be less than forty-five years of age and in good health and families were unrelated; the majority of the Irish emigrants were chosen from North Cork. Robinson was urged by landlords to remove the "pauper and undesirables", he resisted and stated that he had "no wish...to hold out a bounty to persons of bad character...but as Robinson traveled through the countryside they became flesh and blood'people of a good sort' he called them,'bred to farming... I found them much more intelligent. Most of them could read and write'". Thomas Poole, a nineteenth century writer, wrote that all 2024 passengers boarded nine ships in June 1825, with everything they owned, from Cork across the Atlantic Ocean to Quebec City; the journey took 30 days to cross the Atlantic and on board the ship they were provided with bunks and food rations.
Hard tack or ship biscuits were one of the many foods that were made to provide energy for the passengers. Hard tack was easy to make and could be stored for months without spoiling. After the settlers landed in Quebec City they traveled further down the St-Lawrence River reaching Lachine where they boarded a bateau. Heading west to Kingston and to Kingston and Cobourg, they camped in tents in Cobourg for several weeks until Peter Robinson joined them to lead them up to their final destination. The long voyage across the ocean was enough to weaken the emigra
1988 Canadian federal election
The 1988 Canadian federal election was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 34th Parliament of Canada. It was an election fought on a single issue: the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement. Incumbent Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, had signed the agreement; the Liberal Party, led by John Turner, was opposed to the agreement, as was the New Democratic Party led by Ed Broadbent. The Conservatives went into the election suffering from a number of scandals. Despite winning a large majority only four years before, they looked vulnerable at the outset; the Liberals had some early struggles, notably during one day in Montreal where three different costs were given for the proposed Liberal daycare program. The campaign was hampered by a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation report that stated there was a movement in the backroom to replace Turner with Jean Chrétien though Turner had passed a leadership review in 1986.
Support swung forth between the Conservatives and Liberals over free trade. With mid-campaign polls suggesting a Liberal government, this prompted the Conservatives to stop the calm campaign they had been running, go with Allan Gregg's suggestion of "bombing the bridge" that joined anti-FTA voters and the Liberals: Turner's credibility; the ads focused on Turner's leadership struggles, combined with over $6 million CAD in pro-FTA ads, managed to stop the Liberals' momentum. The Liberals reaped most of the benefits of opposing the FTA and doubled their representation to 83 seats to emerge as the main opposition; the Progressive Conservatives won a strong majority government with 169 seats. Despite the Liberals' improved standing, the results were considered a disappointment for Turner, after polls in mid-campaign predicted a Liberal government; the election loss sealed Turner's fate and he resigned in 1990, was succeeded by Jean Chrétien. Although most Canadians voted for parties opposed to free trade, the Tories were returned with a majority government, implemented the deal.
Until the 2011 federal election, the 1988 election was the most successful in the New Democratic Party's history. The party dominated in British Columbia and Saskatchewan, won significant support in Ontario and elected its first member from Alberta; this was the second election contested by the Green Party, it saw a more than 50% increase in its vote, but it remained a minor party. The election was the last for Canada's Social Credit movement: the party won no seats, had an insignificant portion of the popular vote; the newly founded Reform Party contested the election, but was considered little more than a fringe group, did not win any seats. For the Progressive Conservatives, this was the last federal election. For a complete list of MPs elected in the 1988 election see 34th Canadian Parliament. Note: "% change" refers to change from previous election A number of unregistered parties contested the election; the Western Canada Concept party, led by Doug Christie, fielded three candidates in British Columbia.
The Western Independence Party ran one candidate in British Columbia, seven in Alberta, three in Manitoba. The Liberal candidate in Etobicoke-Lakeshore, Emmanuel Feuerwerker, withdrew from the race after suffering a heart attack, resulting in the Liberals not running a candidate in all 295 ridings during this election; the Marxist–Leninist Party fielded candidates in several ridings. Blair T. Longley campaigned in British Columbia as a representative of the "Student Party". Newspaper reports indicate that this was a tax-avoidance scheme; the moribund Social Credit Party fielded fewer candidates than was required for official recognition, but the Chief Electoral Officer allowed the party's name to appear on the ballot by virtue of its history as a recognized party. Xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote. Note: Parties that captured less than 1% of the vote in a province are not recorded. Number of parties: 11 First appearance: Christian Heritage Party, Reform Party Final appearance: Confederation of Regions Party, Rhinoceros Party, Social Credit Party Final appearance before hiatus: Communist Party London-Middlesex, ON: Terry Clifford def.
Garnet Bloomfield by 8 votes Northumberland, ON: Christine Stewart def. Reg Jewell by 28 votes Hamilton Mountain, ON: Beth Phinney def. Marion Dewar by 73 votes York North, ON: Maurizio Bevilacqua def. Michael O'Brien by 77 votes ON: David MacDonald def. Bill Graham by 80 votes London East, ON: Joe Fontana def. Jim Jepson by 102 votes ON: Bob Speller def. Bud Bradley by 209 votes PE: George Proud def. Thomas McMillan by 259 votes Cariboo—Chilcotin, BC: Dave Worthy def. Jack Langford by 269 votes Vancouver Centre, BC: Kim Campbell def. Johanna Den Hertog by 269 votes Canadian federal election, 1911, an election contested over free trade with the United States. List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in CanadaArticles on parties' candidates in this election: Riding map Election 1988, by Stephen Azzi Debate'88
Ontario New Democratic Party
The Ontario New Democratic Party is a social-democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario NDP, led by Andrea Horwath since March 2009 forms the Official Opposition in Ontario following the 2018 general election, it is a provincial section of the federal New Democratic Party. It was formed in October 1961 from the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and the Ontario Federation of Labour. For many years, the Ontario NDP was the most successful provincial NDP branch outside the national party's western heartland, it had its first breakthrough under its first leader, Donald C. MacDonald in the 1967 provincial election, when the party elected 20 Members of Provincial Parliament to the Ontario Legislative Assembly. After the 1970 leadership convention, Stephen Lewis became leader, guided the party to Official Opposition status in 1975, the first time since the Ontario CCF did it twice in the 1940s. After the party's disappointing performance in the 1977 provincial election, that included losing second party status, Lewis stepped down and Michael Cassidy was elected leader in 1978.
Cassidy led the party through the 1981 election. The party did poorly again, Cassidy resigned. In 1982, Bob Rae was elected leader. Under his leadership, in 1985, the party held the balance-of-power with the signing of an accord with the newly elected Liberal minority government. After the 1987 Ontario general election, the ONDP became the Official Opposition again; the 1990 Ontario general election produced the ONDP's breakthrough first government in 1990. The victory produced the first NDP provincial government east of Manitoba, but it took power just when Canada's economy was in a recession, as a result of unpopular economic policies it was defeated in 1995. Rae stepped down as leader in 1996. Howard Hampton was elected leader in at the 1996 Hamilton convention, led the party through three elections. Hampton's period as leader saw the ONDP lose official party status twice: after the 1999 and 2003 elections, he was able to regain party status the first time after the governing Progressive Conservatives revised party status requirements in accordance with that election's reduction in the number of seats in the legislature, the second time after winning a string of by-elections in the mid-2000s.
The party maintained party status after the 2007 Ontario general election and he stepped down as leader in 2009. Andrea Horwath replaced him after she was elected leader at the 2009 leadership convention in Hamilton. Under her leadership in the 2011 Ontario general election, the party elected 17 MPPs to the legislature and in the 2014 Ontario general election, the party elected 21 MPPs. Under Horwath, the party achieved its second highest seat count when it formed the Official Opposition with 40 MPPs after the 2018 Ontario general election; the NDP's predecessor, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, was a democratic socialist political party, founded in 1932. The Ontario CCF in turn was indirectly the successor to the 1919–23 United Farmers of Ontario–Labour coalition that formed the government in Ontario under Ernest C. Drury; as the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation under Ted Jolliffe as their first leader, the party nearly won the 1943 provincial election, winning 34 seats and forming the official opposition for the first time.
Two-years they would be reduced to 8 seats. The final glory for the Ontario CCF came in the 1948 provincial election, when party elected 21 MPPs, again formed the official opposition, they were able to defeat Premier George A. Drew in his own constituency, when the CCF's Bill Temple won in High Park though the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario won another majority government; the breaking point for the Ontario CCF came in 1951. They were reduced to two MPP's in that year's provincial election, never recovered. In the two remaining elections while it existed, the party never had more than five members in the legislature. Jolliffe resigned as leader in 1953. Donald C. MacDonald became leader in 1953, spent the next fifteen years rebuilding the party, from two seats when he took over the party's helm, to ten times that number when he stepped down in 1970. Delegates from the Ontario CCF, delegates from affiliated union locals, delegates from New Party Clubs took part in the founding convention of the New Democratic Party of Ontario held in Niagara Falls at the Sheraton Brock hotel from 7–9 October 1961 and elected MacDonald as their leader.
The Ontario CCF Council ceased to exist formally on Sunday, 8 October 1961, when the newly elected NDP executive took over. The Ontario NDP picked up seats through the 1960s, it achieved a breakthrough in the 1967 provincial election, when its popular vote rose from 15% to 26%. The party increased its presence in the legislature from 8 to 20 seats. In that election the party ran on the themes of the cost of living, tax distribution, education costs, Canadian unity, housing. Stephen Lewis took over the party's leadership in 1970, the NDP's popularity continued to grow. With the 1975 provincial election, the governing Progressive Conservative party was reduced to a minority government for the first time in thirty years; the charismatic and dynamic Lewis ran a strong election campaign that forced the Tories to promise to implement the NDP's rent control policies. The NDP overtook the Liberals to become the Official Opposition with 29 % of the vote. However, the Tories retained power as a minority government.
Hopes were high tha
Frederick James Hawkes is a former Canadian politician. Hawkes was born in Alberta, he studied at Sir George Williams College, obtaining a B. A. degree in 1957. In 1957, Hawkes married Joanne Christine Herriot; the Hawkes have two living children: Robert James. Robert Hawkes reached Master level in chess by his late teens, they had another daughter Colleen Rose. Hawkes returned to academia after several years to study psychology, earning an M. Sc. degree in this field from the University of Calgary in 1968, a Ph. D. degree in experimental psychology from Colorado State University in 1970. In 1971, Hawkes became an associate professor in the Faculty of Social Welfare at the University of Calgary in 1975 he received tenure. In 1976-1977, Hawkes served as a program director for Joe Clark leader of the Progressive Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition. In 1979, he ran as the Progressive Conservative candidate for the riding of Calgary West, was elected to the House of Commons, he was re-elected in 1980, 1984, 1988.
From 1985 to 1986, Hawkes' chief aide was future prime minister Stephen Harper. Harper's term as aide was short, he described this time in Ottawa as disillusioning. Hawkes was re-elected in the 1988 election in which his chief opponent was his former protégé Harper, now running for the newly founded Reform Party of Canada. From 1988 to 1993, Hawkes served as the Chief Government Whip inside the House of Commons. In the 1993 federal election, Hawkes lost to Harper, becoming one of many PC MPs who were defeated at the polls. Kenneth Whyte, "The right-wingers duke it out in the Calgary West corral", Globe and Mail, 2 October 1993, D2. Jim Hawkes – Parliament of Canada biography
Libertarian Party of Canada
The Libertarian Party of Canada is a federal political party in Canada founded in 1973. The party subscribes to classical liberal tenets of the libertarian movement across Canada; the mission of the party is to reduce the size and cost of government. Policies the party advocates for include ending drug prohibition, ending government censorship, lowering taxes, protecting gun rights and non-interventionism; the party was founded on 7 July 1973 by seven others. Evoy ran for election to Parliament in the 1974 federal election in the Toronto riding of Rosedale; the party achieved registered status in the 1979 federal election by running more than fifty candidates. The party described itself as Canada's "fourth party" in the 1980s, but it has since been displaced by new parties such as the Bloc Québécois and the Green Party of Canada; the party declined to join the Reform Party of Canada when it was formed in 1987. Many libertarians were attracted to provincial Progressive Conservative parties that moved to the right during the 1990s in Ontario under Mike Harris and in Alberta under Ralph Klein.
The decline in the party's membership and resources resulted in Elections Canada removing their status as a registered party before the 1997 federal election when the party failed to run the minimum fifty candidates needed to maintain its registration. Jean-Serge Brisson led the party from 22 May 2000 until 18 May 2008, when he was succeeded by Dennis Young. Young defeated outgoing party president Alan Mercer for the leadership. Savannah Linklater was elected deputy leader. In May 2011, Katrina Chowne was elected leader of the Libertarian Party. In May 2014, Tim Moen was elected leader of the Libertarian Party. In the 2015 federal election, the party fielded 72 candidates and solidified their position as the 6th federal party in Canada, with growth over 500% from the 2011 federal election; the next Federal Libertarian Party of Canada Convention took place in Ottawa from 5 July through 7 July 2018, concluding on the 45th anniversary of the party. On 17 September, Moen announced he was considering merging the Libertarian Party with the newly formed People's Party of Canada led by former Conservative MP Maxime Bernier.
The matter is to be put to a party vote at an as of yet undisclosed date. The party nominated a number of candidates to run in by-elections: 1980 by-election: 1 1981 by-election: 1 1982 by-election: 1 1990 by-election: 2 1995 by-election: 1 2008 by-election: 1 2010 by-election: 1 2012 by-election: 3 2013 by-election: 3 2014 by-election: 2 2016 by-election: 1 2017 by-election: 4SourcesLibertarian Party of Canada News. 4. 1979-2006. "Parliament of Canada History of the Federal Electoral Ridings since 1867". British Columbia Libertarian Party Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 1988 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 1993 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2006 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2008 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2011 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Canada candidates in the 2015 Canadian federal election Libertarian Party of Manitoba Ontario Libertarian Party Official website.
Libertarian Party of Canada - Canadian Political Parties and Political Interest Groups. Web archive created by the University of Toronto Libraries