click links in text for more info

Liberty BASIC

Liberty BASIC is a commercial computer programming language and integrated development environment. It has an interpreter, developed in Smalltalk, which recognizes its own dialect of the BASIC programming language, it runs on 16- and 32-bit Windows and OS/2. Liberty BASIC was written by Carl Gundel and published in its first release by his company, Shoptalk Systems, in 1992, it has progressed since then. The last published update to the software, version 4.5.1, was in June 2018. Though Liberty BASIC has its share of limitations in its design for advanced programming, it provides an introductory integrated development environment, IDE, for moderate to advanced users of Windows and OS/2. Dynamic-link libraries are available. In its current version, it runs only on Microsoft Windows, under Wine on Linux. Alpha testing of Liberty BASIC v5.0 is underway with versions that run on Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux and on the Raspberry Pi as well. Liberty BASIC does not compile to native code. Instead it compiles the code written in the IDE to an encrypted file with the extension TKN.

This file is executed by an EXE file that carries the same file name, although this may change with the release of version 5. A visual development tool called FreeForm, written in Liberty BASIC and extended by the Liberty BASIC community over the years Source level debugger calling of DLLs and application programming interfaces Color graphics capability Can create games with sprite animation, sound and joystick control An add-on package called Assist with many new features, such as a code formatter, source code versioning, a performance profiler, an easy-to-use code difference browser, an improved package and deployment system Liberty BASIC allows for programming in a style similar to DOS BASICs that run in console mode, using a default "main window" that displays formatted text and accepts user input, it supports event-driven programming based on a graphical user interface, using several types of windows that may contain the standard controls such as buttons, textboxes, etc. A central idea in creating Liberty BASIC was to model the handling of windows after the syntax for file handling.

For example,: "The OPEN command opens communication with a device, which can be a disk file, a window, a dynamic-link library or a serial communications port." Once a “device” is open and commands to control that device can be “printed” to it. For each type of device there is a set of commands. In the more recent versions of LB the word "print" may be dropped from the "print" statement, making the syntax simpler. Simplicity has been at the heart of Liberty BASIC from the beginning; this makes it easier to learn but at some cost in limiting functionality. Only two data types are supported in LB v4.03 -- string. No type declarations are required. For the purpose of making calls to an API or third-party DLLs there is a STRUCT and the additional types necessary for the DLL; the only other data structure supported is the ARRAY. Arrays of one or two dimensions are supported. LB v5 may support arrays of user-defined types. FreeForm, a GUI editor for creating GUI formats, was written in LB. Here are some examples of the language: "Hello, World!" program: Program to display a pop-up message box with the words "Hello, World!" on it: Program to display an input box: Running another application using Liberty BASIC: Printing multiplication table of 5 on form: The GNU/Liberty Basic Compiler Collection, by Anthony Liguori, is a set of tools to compile Liberty Basic programs, runs on Windows and Linux systems, but the project has not been updated since 2001.

In 2011 an alternative Windows implementation of Liberty BASIC, LB Booster, became available. Although compatible with the Liberty BASIC 4 language syntax, LBB was developed independently by Richard Russell and is written in BBC BASIC. LBB offers increased execution speed, smaller self-contained executables and some additional capabilities; however LBB is not 100% compatible with LB4 and while many programs will run without modification, some may need to be adapted, or may be unsuitable for running under LBB. Run BASIC — a free-to-use Web application server based on Liberty BASIC — official site Carl Gundel's blog Liberty BASIC Liberty BASIC on Rosetta Code GNU/Liberty Basic Compiler Collection LB Booster

Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom

Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom is a concept central to the functioning of the constitution of the United Kingdom but, not defined and has long been debated. Since the subordination of the monarchy under parliament, the democratic methods of parliamentary government, there have been the questions of whether parliament holds a supreme ability to legislate and whether or not it should. Parliamentary sovereignty is a description of to what extent the Parliament of the United Kingdom does have absolute and unlimited power, it is framed in terms of the extent of authority that parliament holds, whether there are any sorts of law that it cannot pass. In other countries, a written constitution binds the parliament to act in a certain way, but there is no codified constitution in the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, parliament is central to the institutions of state; the traditional view put forward by A. V. Dicey is that parliament had the power to make any law except any law that bound its successors.

Formally speaking however, the present state, the UK is descended from the international Treaty of Union between England and Scotland in 1706/7 which led to the creation of the “United Kingdom of Great Britain”. It is clear that the terms of that Treaty stated that certain of its provisions could not be altered, for example the separate existence of the Scottish legal system, formally, these restrictions are a continuing limitation on the sovereignty of the UK Parliament; this has been reconsidered by constitutional theorists including Sir William Wade and Trevor Allan in light of the European Communities Act 1972 and other provisions relating to membership of the European Union, the position of the Human Rights Act 1998 and any attempts to make this or other legislation entrenched. These issues remain contested, although the United Kingdom has since ceased membership of the EU; the terms "parliamentary sovereignty" and "parliamentary supremacy" are used interchangeably. The term "sovereignty" implies a similarity to the question of national sovereignty.

While writer John Austin and others have looked to combine parliamentary and national sovereignty, this view is not universally held. Whichever term is used, it relates to the existence or non-existence of limits on parliament's power in its legislative role. Although the House of Commons' dominance within the Houses of Parliament is well attested, "parliamentary sovereignty" refers to their joint power. All legislation is passed with the support of the House of Lords; the Statute of Proclamations of 1539 gave the King wide powers to legislate without reference to, or approval from, Parliament. At the same, it recognised the common law, existing statutory provisions, excluded the breach of royal proclamations from the death penalty, it was repealed in 1547. A review by Chief Justice Edward Coke in 1610, the Case of Proclamations, established that Parliament had the sole right to legislate, but the Crown could enforce it; the concept of parliamentary sovereignty was central to the English Civil War: Royalists argued that power held by the King, delegated to Parliament, challenged by the Parliamentarians.

The issue of taxation was a significant power struggle between Parliament and the King during the Stuart period. If Parliament had the ability to withhold funds from the monarch it could prevail. Direct taxation had been a matter for Parliament from the reign of Edward I, but indirect taxation continued to be a matter for the King. Royal powers were removed by the Bill of Rights 1689; the Bill of Rights removed the ability of the Crown to dispense with legislation and statutes. Such a right had culminated in the Declaration of Indulgence of 1687, which had ushered in the Glorious Revolution; that led the Earl of Shaftesbury to declare in 1689, "The Parliament of England is that supreme and absolute power, which gives life and motion to the English government". The Act of Settlement of 1700 removed royal power over the judiciary and defined a vote of both houses as the sole method of removing a judge, it was the view of A. V. Dicey, writing in the early twentieth century, that Parliament had "the right to make or unmake any law whatever.

He refers to "England" but his view held for the other nations of the United Kingdom, with different details. This view however side-steps the issue of the limitations formally placed on Parliament when the United Kingdom was first established in 1706/7 and the English and Scottish Parliaments surrendered, or more pooled, their sovereignty into the new state. There are at least three suggested sources for this sovereignty; the first is sovereignty by Act of Parliament itself. One response, put forward by John Salmond was to reject this idea: he believed that "no statute can confer this power on Parliament for this would be to assume and act on the power, to be conferred". An alternative is to see sovereignty conferred by way of the repeated and unchallenged use of sovereignty through the promulgation of laws by Parliament; the second possible source are the courts, that in enforcing all Acts of Parliament without exception, they have conferred sovereignty upon Parliament. The third alternative is the complex relationship between all parts of government, their historical development.

This is assumed to be continuous and the basis for the future. However, if sovereignty was built up over time, "freezing" it at the current time seems to run contrary to that. A group of individuals cannot hold sovereignty, only the institutio

Sandy Clark

Alexander "Sandy" Clark is a Scottish professional football player and coach. He played for several clubs in his playing career including his home town club Airdrieonians, Heart of Midlothian and West Ham United, his longest and most successful spells were those at Broomfield. In 1982, Clark won the Scottish PFA Players' Player of the Year award, he has managed several clubs, including Partick Thistle, Hamilton Academical, Hearts, St Johnstone and Berwick Rangers. His work with BBC Scotland included TV commentary, where he was the regular summariser to main commentator Rob MacLean. Clark was striker coach at Aberdeen, he left the club in May 2009 along with assistant Jimmy Nicholl. In January 2010 he joined Kilmarnock as first team coach, working under the same management team until the end of the 2009–10 season. Clark was a sports performance lecturer at Cumbernauld College after leaving Kilmarnock. Clark was appointed Queen of the South's assistant manager to Allan Johnston on 14 May 2012. Johnston and Clark signed a one-year contract extension on 13 April 2013, but moved onto Kilmarnock as that club's new management team in June 2013.

Clark left Kilmarnock in May 2014 and was appointed assistant manager to Darren Young at Albion Rovers in June 2014. At the end of the 2014–15 season, Clark departed Albion Rovers and was once again re-united with Allan Johnston, this time as assistant manager of Scottish Championship club Dunfermline Athletic. Johnston and Clark departed the Pars during January 2019 and returned to Dumfries club Queens for a second spell on 5 May 2019, after the departure of Gary Naysmith. Johnston and Clark have signed a two-year contract and will be in-charge for the Scottish Championship play-off matches versus Montrose. Sandy Clark is the father of Nicky Clark, who has played for Rangers. Sandy Clark management career statistics at Soccerbase Profile at

Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre Anniversary Shows

The Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre Anniversary Show is the biggest annual professional wrestling event promoted by Mexican professional wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre, held in September every year, commemorating the creation of CMLL known as Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre, in September 1933 by Salvador Lutteroth. Since Lutteroth built Arena Mexico in Mexico City it's been the home of CMLL and the host of all Anniversary shows held since then; the first show was held in 1934 and since 81 shows have been held, making it the longest-running annual wrestling event in history and making CMLL the oldest wrestling promotion in existence. S Promoter Salvador Lutteroth held his first show on September 21, 1933 in Arena Modelo, the future site of Arena Mexico; the show featured at least 4 matches, but it may have had more matches as records from the era are sparse. A year after EMLL's first show Lutteroth held the "EMLL 1st Anniversary Show" on September 21, 1934 and since the Anniversary show has been held on a Friday in mid to late September each year as the "biggest show" of EMLL/CMLL's year.

The Anniversary show has always been held in Mexico City, EMLL/CMLL's home town, held in Arena Mexico since 1955 when it was built. When EMLL changed its name to Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre in 1990 the events became known as the "CMLL Anniversary Shows" but kept the numbering as it was the same organisation, just "rebranded". CMLL promotes the event as the "Anniversary of Wrestling in Mexico" and not just the anniversary of the promotion, but, more of a promotional statement than the truth. Several promoters had run wrestling shows in Mexico since the early 1920s, but Lutteroth was the first to run a large scale organized promotion and soon became the dominant promotion; the show features high-profile Lucha de Apuestas matches where the competitors "bet" their mask or hair. The Anniversary shows have seen the high-profile mask losses of such wrestlers as Mano Negra, Cien Caras, Universo 2000, Black Warrior, Blue Panther, Volador Jr. and Último Guerrero. A large number of wrestlers have lost their hair at the Anniversary show, with the most recent being Negro Casas, shaved bald after losing an Apuesta match against Místico on the 76th Anniversary Show.

The Anniversary shows see "special guest appearances" of well known wrestlers from the United States, Canada or Japan

River Queen

River Queen is a 2005 New Zealand-British war drama film directed by Vincent Ward and starring Samantha Morton, Kiefer Sutherland, Cliff Curtis, Temuera Morrison and Stephen Rea. The film performed well at the box office in New Zealand; the film takes place in New Zealand in 1868 during Titokowaru's War phase of the New Zealand Wars between the Māori and New Zealand colonial forces. Sarah O'Brien has grown up among soldiers in a frontier garrison on the Great River. Pregnant at 16 by a young Maori boy, she gives birth to a son. When, 7 years her son, Boy, is kidnapped by his Maori grandfather, Sarah is distraught. Abandoned by her soldier father, Sarah's life becomes a search for her son, her only friend, Doyle is a broken-down soldier without the means to help her. Lured to the ill rebel chief Te Kai Po's village by the chance to see her child, Sarah finds herself falling in love with Boy's uncle and drawn to the village way of life. Using medical skills she learned from her father, Sarah heals Te Kai Po and begins to reconcile with her son.

But her idyllic time at the village is shattered when she realises that she has healed the chief only to hear him declare war on the Colonials, men she feels are her friends, her only family. Her desperation deepens when she realises that Boy intends to prove himself in war, refusing to go back down river with her; as the conflict escalates Sarah finds herself at the centre of the storm, torn by the love she feels for Boy and Wiremu, anguished over the attachments she still has to the white man's world and sickened by the brutality she witnesses on either side. And when the moment comes, Sarah must choose. Samantha Morton as Sarah O'Brien Kiefer Sutherland as Doyle Cliff Curtis as Wiremu Temuera Morrison as Te Kai Po Stephen Rea as Francis Anton Lesser as Major Baine Rawiri Pene as Sarah's son Danielle Cormack as Viola Sam Neill was favoured by Vincent Ward to be cast in a leading role, but he declined. Director Vincent Ward was dismissed from the film towards the end of the shoot to be replaced by cinematographer Alun Bollinger and in an unusual reversal, was rehired just weeks for six months of editing and additional shooting in both New Zealand and England.

Primary filming was done on the Whanganui River. The film features the song "Danny Boy" sung in English; the film is set in 1868, the lyrics for "Danny Boy" were written in 1910 and adapted to the traditional Irish melody "Londonderry Air". It is possible the melody was known in New Zealand at the time, but another 42 years were to pass before the lyrics were written by Frederick Weatherly; the film topped the New Zealand Box Office on its first weekend of release. Alexander Bisley of The Dominion Post says "River Queen convinces that you don't have to be indigenous to tell indigenous stories. Ward who lived for 18 months as the sole Pakeha in a remote Maori community in the Ureweras, deserves a lot of mana; this is his story, this is my story, this is your story - every New Zealander should see River Queen." Best Artistic Achievements Award Won: Best Achievement in Cinematography: Alun Bollinger Won: Best Achievement in Costume Design: Barbara Darragh Nominated: Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role: Cliff Curtis Nominated: Best Achievement in Production Design: Rick Kofoed Nominated: Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role: Samantha Morton Nominated: Best Performance by Actor in a Supporting Role: Rawiri Pene Nominated: Best Picture: Don Reynolds, Chris Auty Won: Golden Goblet, Best Music: Karl Jenkins River Queen on IMDb

List of state leaders in 1603

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, other rulers in the year 1603. Bosha – Magela, ruled 1600–1630 Ethiopian EmpireYaqob Za Dengel Sennar – Abd al-Qadir II Ayutthaya KingdomNaresuan ChinaWanli Emperor Đại Việt – Lê Kính Tông Đàng Ngoài – Trịnh Tùng, Trịnh lord Đàng TrongNguyễn Hoàng, Nguyễn lord Japan Monarch – Emperor Go-Yōzei ShōgunTokugawa Ieyasu JoseonSeonjo Mughal EmpireAkbar Ryukyu KingdomShō Nei Kingdom of DenmarkChristian IV Kingdom of EnglandElizabeth I James I King of Scotland Kingdom of FranceHenry IV Holy Roman EmpireRudolf II Prince-Archbishopric of BremenJohn Frederick, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Bishopric of LübeckJohn Adolf, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp MoldaviaIeremia Movilă, Voivode of Moldavia Ottoman Empire Mehmed III Ahmed I Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthSigismund III Vasa Russia - Boris Godunov, Tsar of Russia Kingdom of Scotland – James VI - now King of England Kingdom of Spain and Kingdom of Portugal and the AlgarvesPhilip III of Spain and II of Portugal Kingdom of SwedenCharles IX, de facto United Provinces Estates of Friesland, Guelders, Overijssel, Zeeland Stadtholder - Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Gelre, Overijssel and Zeeland Grand Pensionary of Holland - Johan van Oldenbarnevelt Republic of VeniceMarino Grimani, Doge of Venice Safavid EmpireAbbas I, Shah of Iran AcadiaPierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts, Governor of Acadia