Veterans Memorial Bridge (Bay City, Michigan)
The Veterans Memorial Bridge is a drawbridge located in Bay City, Michigan. It carries State Highway M-25 over the Saginaw River, its location is just south of Wenona Park, Veteran's Park. The Veterans Memorial Bridge opened in the same year as the Mackinac Bridge, it was Bay City's first four-lane bridge. The bridge was built to carry a rerouted section of M-25 over the Saginaw River; these route designations crossed the river a short distance north on the Third Street Bridge. Despite the reroute, the Third Street Bridge would remain in service until its collapse in 1976 and would be physically replaced by the Liberty Bridge; the Veterans Memorial Bridge was temporarily closed to road traffic on July 7, 2012, for the Bay City Fireworks Festival. Over 5,000 shells were launched from the surface of the bridge in celebration of Independence Day. Bridge schedule
A swing bridge is a movable bridge that has as its primary structural support a vertical locating pin and support ring at or near to its center of gravity, about which the turning span can pivot horizontally as shown in the animated illustration to the right. Small swing bridges as found over canals may be pivoted only at one end, opening as would a gate, but require substantial underground structure to support the pivot. In its closed position, a swing bridge carrying a road or railway over a river or canal, for example, allows traffic to cross; when a water vessel needs to pass the bridge, road traffic is stopped, motors rotate the bridge horizontally about its pivot point. The typical swing bridge will rotate 90 degrees, or one-quarter turn; as this type requires no counterweights, the complete weight is reduced as compared to other moveable bridges. Where sufficient channel is available to have individual traffic directions on each side, the likelihood of vessel-to-vessel collisions is reduced.
The central support is mounted upon a berm along the axis of the watercourse, intended to protect the bridge from watercraft collisions when it is opened. This artificial island forms an excellent construction area for building the movable span as the construction will not impede channel traffic. For a symmetrical bridge, the central pier forms a hazard to navigation. Asymmetrical bridges may place the pivot near one side of the channel. Where a wide channel is not available, a large portion of the bridge may be over an area that would be spanned by other means. A wide channel will be reduced by foundation; when open, the bridge will have to maintain its own weight as a balanced double cantilever, while when closed and in use for traffic, the live loads will be distributed as in a pair of conventional truss bridges, which may require additional stiffness in some members whose loading will be alternately in compression or tension. If struck from the water near the edge of the span, it may rotate enough to cause safety problems.
Buna River Bridge, in Shkodra, Albania. Puente de la Mujer, an asymmetrical cable-stayed span. Gladesville Bridge, Australia. Had a small swing span on the southern end. Pyrmont Bridge, Australia. Glebe Island Bridge, Australia. Victoria Bridge, Queensland, Australia; the Sale Swing Bridge, Victoria, Australia. Dunalley Bridge, Tasmania Still in use. Belize City Swing Bridge, Belize City, Belize. Oldest such bridge in Central America and one of the few manually operated swing bridge in world still in operation; the longest swing bridge span. Le pont tournant rue Dieu, across the Canal Saint-Martin in Paris, is a distinctive location in the 1938 film Hôtel du Nord, is featured in the opening shot of the film. Kaiser-Wilhelm-Brücke in Wilhelmshaven, built in 1907, with the length of 159m, it was once Europe's biggest swing bridge Garden Reach Road Swing Bridge, for Calcutta Port, Kolkata Poira-Corjuem Bridge, for GSIDC, Goa by Rajdeep Buildcon Pvt. Ltd. Samuel Beckett Bridge, Ireland Seán O'Casey Bridge, Ireland Michael Davitt Bridge, County Mayo, Ireland Portumna bridge, between County Galway and County Tipperary, Ireland Ponte Girevole, Taranto – a unusual type, with two spans that separate at the bridge's center and pivot sideways from the bridge's outer ends.
Kalpaka Tilts, Liepāja, connecting the city with the former Russian/Soviet port Karosta. Chain Bridge, Klaipeda. Built in 1855 and still working today, this is the only swing bridge in Lithuania; when the bridge is turned and yachts can enter the Castle port. Rotation of the bridge is manual, two people can rotate the bridge; the "Abtsewoudsebrug" in Delft, close to the Technische Universiteit Delft, is a bridge of this type. 52°0′5.71″N 4°21′50.10″E There's another one on the channel between Ghent and Terneuzen at Sas Van Gent. Many inner cities have swing bridges, since these require less street space than other types of bridges. Kopu Bridge, Waihou River, near Thames, New Zealand A swing bridge at the Gatun Locks provides the only road passage over the Atlantic side of the Panama Canal; this is a small bridge. Another larger swing bridge at the Miraflores Locks is on the Pacific side but is used, having been supplanted by the Bridge of the Americas and the Centennial Bridge. A swing bridge at the Giżycko is one of four bridges.
It is the only swing bridge in Poland. Varvarivskyi Bridge over Southern Bug in Mykolaiv, with Europe's largest span In the UK, there is a legal definition in current statute as to what is, or is not a'swing bridge' Acton swing bridge - road Barmouth Bridge - rail Beccles swing bridge - rail Bethells Swing Bridge Boothferry swing bridge at Boothferry, Yorkshire Caernarfon swing bridge Co
Annual average daily traffic
Annual average daily traffic, abbreviated AADT, is a measure used in transportation planning, transportation engineering and retail location selection. Traditionally, it is the total volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days. AADT is a useful, measurement of how busy the road is. Newer advances from GPS traffic data providers are now providing AADT counts by side of the road, by day of week and by time of day. One of the most important uses of AADT is for determining funding for the maintenance and improvement of highways. In the United States the amount of federal funding a state will receive is related to the total traffic measured across its highway network; each year on June 15, every state in the United States submits a Highway Performance Monitoring System HPMS report. The HPMS report contains various information regarding the road segments in the state based on a sample of the road segments. In the report, the AADT is converted to vehicle miles traveled.
VMT is the AADT multiplied by the length of the road segment. To determine the amount of traffic a state has, the AADT cannot be summed for all road segments since an AADT is a rate; the VMT is summed and is used as an indicator of the amount of traffic a state has. For federal-funding, formulas are applied to include the VMT and other highway statistics. In the United Kingdom AADT is one of a number of measures of traffic used by local highway authorities, Highways England and the Department for Transport to forecast maintenance needs and expenditure. To measure AADT on individual road segments, traffic data is collected by an automated traffic counter, hiring an observer to record traffic or licensing estimated counts from GPS data providers. There are two different techniques of measuring the AADTs for road segments with automated traffic counters. One technique is called continuous count data collection method; this method includes sensors that are permanently embedded into a road and traffic data is measured for the entire 365 days.
The AADT is the sum of the total traffic for the entire year divided by 365 days. There can be problems with calculating the AADT with this method. For example, if the continuous count equipment is not operating for the full 365 days due to maintenance or repair; because of this issue, seasonal or day-of-week biases might skew the calculated AADT. In 1992, AASHTO released the AASHTO Guidelines for Traffic Data Programs, which identified a way to produce an AADT without seasonal or day-of-week biases by creating an "average of averages." For every month and day-of-week, a Monthly Average Day of Week is calculated. Each day-of-week's MADW is calculated across months to calculate an Annual Average Day of Week; the AADWs are averaged to calculate an AADT. The United States Federal Highway Administration has adopted this method as the preferred method in the. While providing the most accurate AADT, installing and maintaining continuous count stations method is costly. Most public agencies are only able to monitor a small percentage of the roadway using this method.
Most AADTs are generated using short-term data collection methods sometimes known as the coverage count data collection method. Traffic is collected with portable sensors that are attached to the road and record traffic data for 2 – 14 days; these are pneumatic road tubes although other more expensive technology such as radar, laser, or sonar exist. After recording the traffic data, the traffic counts on the same road segment are taken again in another three years. FHWA Traffic Monitoring Guide recommends performing a short count on a road segment at a minimum of every three years. There are many methods used to calculate an AADT from a short-term count, but most methods attempt to remove seasonal and day-of-week biases during the collection period by applying factors created from associated continuous counters. Short counts are taken either by local government, or contractors. For the years when a traffic count is not recorded, the AADT is estimated by applying a factor called the Growth Factor.
Growth Factors are statistically determined from historical data of the road segment. If there is no historical data, Growth Factors from similar road segments are used. Annual average weekday traffic only includes Monday to Friday data. Public holidays are excluded from the AAWT calculation. Average summer daily traffic is a similar measure to the annual average daily traffic. Data collecting methods of the two are the same, however the ASDT data is collected during summer only; the measure is useful in areas where there are significant seasonal traffic volumes carried by a given road. Average daily traffic or ADT, sometimes mean daily traffic, is the average number of vehicles two-way passing a specific point in a 24-hour period measured throughout a year. ADT is not as referred to as the engineering standard of AADT, the standard measurement for vehicle traffic load on a section of road, the basis for most decisions regarding transport planning, or to the environmental hazards of pollution related to road transport.
The 1992 Edition of the AASHTO Guidelines is out of date. The current edition is from 2018; the Gary Davis article was published in Transportation Research Record 1593, 1997. The date shown in the article is the date of an on-line posting. Florida New York State - Traffic Data Viewer - interactive map program graphically displays traffic data Oklahoma Virginia FHWA Traffic Monitoring Guide New Zealand State Highway AADTs Louisiana AADTs
A bascule bridge is a moveable bridge with a counterweight that continuously balances a span, or "leaf", throughout its upward swing to provide clearance for boat traffic. It may be single- or double-leafed; the name comes from the French term for balance scale. Bascule bridges are the most common type of movable span because they open and require little energy to operate, while providing the possibility for unlimited vertical clearance for marine traffic. Bascule bridges have been in use since ancient times. However, it was not until the adoption of steam power in the 1850s that long, heavy spans could be moved enough for practical application. There are three types of bascule bridge designs, counterweights required to balance a bascule's span may be located either above or below the bridge deck; the fixed-trunnion rotates around a large axle. The Chicago bascule name derives from the location where it is used, is a refinement by Joseph Strauss of the fixed-trunnion; the rolling lift trunnion, raises the span by rolling on a track resembling a rocking chair base.
The "Scherzer" rolling lift is a refinement patented in 1893 by the American engineer William Donald Scherzer. The rarer Rall type combines rolling lift with longitudinal motion on trunnions, it was patented by Theodor Rall. One of the few surviving examples is the Broadway Bridge, in Oregon. Drawbridge List of bascule bridges Moveable bridges for a list of other movable bridge types
The Saginaw River is a 22.4-mile-long river in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is formed by the confluence of the Shiawassee rivers southwest of Saginaw, it flows northward into the Saginaw Bay of Lake Huron, passing through Bay City, which developed around it in the 19th century. The watershed area is 8,595 square miles; the river is an important shipping route for Mid-Michigan, passing through the cities of Saginaw and Bay City. It is one of Michigan's few inland navigable rivers; the Saginaw River Rear Range Light, one of a pair of lighthouses built in 1876 to improve navigation, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. Since the turn of the 21st century, it is being renovated; the Saginaw River was used for fishing and as a transportation route by canoe by indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to European colonization. From the 18th century, fur traders and trappers rendezvoused at a post at the mouth or traveled along the river and its tributaries to trade with the Ojibwe tribes of the region for European and American manufactured goods.
As towns developed along the river, it supported additional travel inland, as well as powering the operation of sawmills and factories. The first lighthouse was completed in 1841, a pair of lighthouses were built in range configuration in 1876, they were converted to electricity in 1915. The Saginaw River Rear Range Light was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. Since the turn of the 21st century, it is being renovated. In the late 19th century, steamers like the Wellington R. Burt carried passengers between the major cities of Saginaw and Bay City, as well as to other ports along the Great Lakes; the Saginaw River has continued to be used as a major route for trade, carrying shipping into and out of the region. According to Saginaw Future, the river carries 4.6 million tons of commerce annually. Other industries developed, with both General Motors and Dow Chemical Company basing major operations from the early 20th century at sites along the river; these generated many industrial jobs for the area economy but both companies have gone through restructuring.
New industries in the region have included advanced manufacturing such as Nexteer, medical technology, professional services, renewable energy, agribusiness. For decades, the Saginaw River has been reclaimed for recreational use and the cities have been re-establishing ties to the river for residents. A three-mile, hard-surfaced RiverWalk, great for hiking, biking or easy strolls, was built along the riverbanks in downtown Saginaw and Bay City; the Saginaw Bay Yacht Club, established in 1894, is located near the mouth of the Saginaw River and supports regular sailing races and related events. The river is popular with boaters who use motors. Sports fishermen are active and many enjoy the annual Shiver on the River walleye ice fishing contest; each winter, trophy-sized fish are taken by fishing through holes in the river ice. Another fishing season is held in early spring. Hundreds of thousands of attendees flock to the riverbanks for annual festivals such as the River Roar speed boat races, Tall Ship Celebrations and two of the largest fireworks displays in the Midwest.
In 2012, the largest-ever fireworks display in Michigan was hosted on the Saginaw River in Bay City, with 50,000 mortars, lasting 50 minutes. It celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Bay City Fireworks Festival; the region around the Saginaw Bay and River encompasses the largest contiguous freshwater coastal wetland in America. Because of industrialization and development of population since the 19th century, the Saginaw River and its watershed have been polluted with various wastes discharged into the river and its tributaries. Since the 1970s, federal and state laws have been passed to regulate waste and establish preventive programs; the Dow Chemical Company, with a plant at Midland, Michigan. In 1994 the state and federal governments and the Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe sued General Motors and the cities of Saginaw and Bay City for dumping tons of polychlorinated biphenyls, into the Saginaw River. General Motors and the cities of Bay City and Saginaw agreed to a $28.22 million settlement on November 23, 1998, in what resulted from Michigan's largest natural resources lawsuit.
At the time, it was considered the second-largest environmental settlement in United States history. Dredging of contaminated silt from the Saginaw River was expected to start in summer of 1999. Environmental clean-up work has continued on the Saginaw River, its tributary Tittabawassee River, Saginaw Bay. On January 23, 2010, the US Environmental Protection Agency and Dow Chemical reached an administrative settlement for interim control measures, reimbursement of some federal work, cleanup of floodplain soils in these areas, in association with work to be directed by EPA. Shiver on the River website
Bay City, Michigan
Bay City is a city in Bay County, located near the base of the Saginaw Bay on Lake Huron. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 34,932, is the principal city of the Bay City Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Saginaw-Midland-Bay City Combined Statistical Area; the city, along with nearby Midland and Saginaw, form the Greater Tri-Cities region of Central Michigan, which has more been called the Great Lakes Bay Region. The city is geographically divided by the Saginaw River, travel between the east and west sides of the city is made possible by four modern bascule-type drawbridges: Liberty Bridge, Veterans Memorial Bridge, Independence Bridge, Lafayette Avenue Bridge, which allow large ships to travel down the river; the city is served by MBS International Airport, located in nearby Freeland, James Clements Municipal Airport. Leon Tromblé is regarded as the first settler within the limits of Bay County, in an area which would become Bay City. In 1831, he built a log cabin on the east bank of the Saginaw river.
Bay City was first established in 1837, was incorporated as a city in 1865. In 1834 John B. Trudell built a log-cabin near the present corner of Broadway. Trudell purchased land that extended from his residence north along the river to what became the location for the Industrial Brownhoist, making him the first permanent resident of what has become Bay County. Bay City became the largest community in the county and the location of the county seat of government. Most of the county's agencies and associations are located here; the city shares common borders with Essexville and the townships of Bangor, Hampton, Merritt and Portsmouth. Bay City was known as "Lower Saginaw," and fell within the boundaries of Saginaw County On June 4, 1846, the Hapton, or Hampton, Post Office opened to service Lower Saginaw; the community was placed in Bay County, when the county was organized in 1857. It was at this time; the Post Office changed its name to Bay City on March 22, 1858. While Saginaw had the first white settlement in this area in 1819, larger ships had difficulty navigating the shallower water near the Saginaw settlement.
Due to this fact, many of the early pioneers moved to Lower Saginaw as it became clear its deeper waters made it a better location for the growth of industry which relied on shipping. By 1860, Lower Saginaw had become a bustling community of about 2,000 people with several mills and many small businesses in operation. In 1865, the village of Bay City was incorporated as a city. Rapid economic growth took place during this time period, with lumbering and shipbuilding creating many jobs; the early industrialists in the area used the Saginaw River as a convenient means to float lumber to the mills and factories and as a consequence amass large fortunes. Many of the mansions built during this era are registered as historical landmarks by the state and federal government. In 1873, Charles C. Fitzhugh, Jr. a Bay City pioneer, his wife, purchased land and built a home on property bounded by Washington, Saginaw and Tenth Streets, which became the location for City Hall. Fitzhugh dealt on a large scale in wild lands and farms, being an agent for over 25,000 acres of land in Bay County.
During this time, Washington Avenue was developed with residential homes. Businesses were concentrated along Water Street near the Saginaw River; as time went on, businesses started to expand along Washington Avenue. In 1891, the Fitzhughs sold the land to the City of Bay City for $8,500 "to be used for the erection of a City Hall and offices and for no other purposes whatever." Until 1905, the City of Bay City was limited to the east bank of the Saginaw River. When West Bay City was annexed. During the latter half of the 19th century Bay City was the home of several now-closed industries including many sawmills and shipbuilders; the Defoe Shipbuilding Company, which ceased operations December 31, 1975 built destroyer escorts, guided missile destroyers, patrol craft for the United States Navy and the Royal Australian Navy. To maintain this strong Naval heritage, the Saginaw Valley Naval Ship Museum worked through the Naval Sea Systems Command to bring the USS Edson to Bay City as a museum ship.
It was delivered to its temporary home in Essexville, Michigan on August 7, 2012. Another important part of the city's industrial history is Industrial Brownhoist, well known for its construction of large industrial cranes. On December 10, 1977 a deadly fire claimed the lives of 10 at the Wenonah Hotel in downtown Bay City; the Wenonah Hotel was located at the corner of Center Ave and Water Street, the current site of the Delta College Planetarium. Built in 1907, the 4 story Wenonah Hotel had been converted into apartments at the time of the fire. Strong winds and cold weather hampered the efforts of the fire department. There was some controversy over the cause of the fire and it remains the deadliest fire in Bay County history. In September 1990, the tankship MV Jupiter was unloading gasoline at the Total Petroleum Terminal. A passing cargo ship, MV Buffalo, moving at excessive speed, created a wake that caused Jupiter to break free of its berth. A fire and explosion ensued, one man drowned. There was considerable legal action taken resulting in an adjudication, subsequently appealed by the owners of Buffalo.
The findings of the Court of Appeals upheld the original decision, which assigned 50% of the responsibility to Buffalo, 25% to the dock operator and 25% to Jupiter. In January 2009
The Independence Bridge is a bascule-type drawbridge located in Bay City, Michigan. It carries Truman Parkway over the Saginaw River and was opened in 1976 to replace the earlier Belinda Street Bridge Bridge schedule