United States Merchant Marine Academy
The United States Merchant Marine Academy, one of the five United States service academies, is located in Kings Point, New York. It is charged with training officers for the United States Merchant Marine, branches of the military, the transportation industry. Midshipmen are trained in marine engineering, ship's administration, maritime law, personnel management, international law and many other subjects important to the task of running a large ship. Between 1874 and 1936, diverse federal legislation supported maritime training through school ships, internships at sea, other methods. A disastrous fire in 1934 aboard the passenger ship SS Morro Castle, in which 134 lives were lost, convinced the U. S. Congress that direct federal involvement in efficient and standardized training was needed. Originally—and in cooperation with the State of New York —the U. S. government planned to establish a large-scale Merchant Marine Academy at New York. Congress passed the landmark Merchant Marine Act in 1936, two years the U.
S. Merchant Marine Cadet Corps was established. In that year, the USTS Nantucket was transferred from the Massachusetts Maritime Academy to Kings Point and renamed the USTS Emory Rice; the first training was given at temporary facilities until the academy's permanent site in Kings Point, New York was acquired in early 1942. The Kings Point campus was Walter Chrysler's twelve-acre waterfront estate, named "Forker House". Construction of the academy began and 15 months the task was completed; the academy was dedicated on 30 September 1943, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who noted "the Academy serves the Merchant Marine as West Point serves the Army and Annapolis the Navy." World War II required the academy to forgo its normal operation and to devote all of its resources toward meeting the emergency need for Merchant Marine officers. Its enrollment rose to 2,700 men, the planned course of instruction was reduced in length from four years to 18 months. To meet the wartime needs for qualified merchant marine officers two additional merchant marine cadet training school sites were established, one located in Pass Christian and the other in San Mateo, California.
In spite of the war, shipboard training continued to be an integral part of the academy curriculum, midshipmen served at sea in combat zones the world over. One hundred and forty-two midshipmen gave their lives in service to their country, many others survived torpedo and aerial attacks. From 1942 to 1945, the academy graduated 6,895 officers; as the war drew to a close, plans were made to convert the academy's wartime curriculum to a four-year, college-level program to meet the peacetime requirements of the merchant marine. In 1948, such a course was instituted. Authorization for awarding the degree of bachelor of science to graduates was granted by Congress in 1949; the academy became accredited as a degree-granting institution in the same year. It was made a permanent institution by an Act of Congress in 1956; the academy accelerated graduating classes during the Vietnam War. It was involved in such programs as training U. S. officers for the nuclear-powered merchant ship, the NS Savannah. Admission requirements were amended in 1974, this Academy became the first federal service academy to enroll female students, two years before the Military, Air Force, Coast Guard Academies.
During the Persian Gulf War in early 1991, for many months prior to the war, both Academy graduates and midshipmen played important roles in the large sealift of military supplies to the Middle East. Midshipmen training at sea participated in the humanitarian sealift to Somalia during Operation Restore Hope. In 1992, the academy acquired the T/V Kings Pointer. After 20 years at the academy, MARAD transferred the ship to the Texas Maritime Academy in Galveston to serve as its new primary training vessel; this was followed by an announcement on 21 August 2012, that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration agreed to transfer the MV Liberty Star to the U. S. Department of Transportation for use as the new training vessel at the academy. Before being redesigned to serve as a training vessel for students, the former MV Liberty Star served as a solid rocket booster recovery vessel for NASA retrieving solid rocket boosters following space shuttle launches. In June 2014, the vessel was rechristened the T/V Kings Pointer, the fifth vessel of the academy to carry that name.
The rechristening followed the earlier dedication of the academy's newly replaced Mallory Pier. In the 1990s, the academy's future came into question when it was included in the National Performance Review, chaired by Vice President Albert Gore, Jr; the report recommended halving the federal subsidy and requiring students to pay half of tuition to reduce costs. Congress, soundly rejected the recommendation and voted to continue the prohibitions on charging tuition to students. Between 2009 and 2014, the Obama Administration invested more than $450 million at the academy, including $100 million for capital improvements—the most funding secured for physical improvements at the academy. During the attacks of 11 September 2001, the Merchant Marine Academy assisted in the evacuation of civilians from Lower Manhattan as well as the transportation of first responders and supplies to and from Ground Zero. Midshipman, facu
Skidmore College is a private liberal arts college in Saratoga Springs, New York. 2,650 students are enrolled at Skidmore pursuing a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree in one of more than 60 areas of study. Skidmore College has undergone many transformations since its founding in the early 20th century as a women's college; the Young Women's Industrial Club was formed in 1903 by Lucy Ann Skidmore with inheritance money from her husband who died in 1879, from her father, Joseph Russell Skidmore, a former coal merchant. In 1911, the club was chartered under the name "Skidmore School of Arts" as a college to vocationally and professionally train young women. Charles Henry Keyes became the first president of the school in 1912, in 1919 Skidmore conferred its first baccalaureate degrees under the authority of the University of the State of New York. By 1922 the school had been chartered independently as a degree-granting college. Skidmore College was in downtown Saratoga Springs at first, but on October 28, 1961, the college acquired the Jonsson Campus, 850 acres of land on the outer edges of Saratoga Springs.
The Jonsson Campus was named for the Skidmore trustee Erik Jonsson, the founder and president of Texas Instruments and a former mayor of Dallas, Texas. The new Jonsson Tower bears his name; the first new buildings on the campus opened in 1966, by 1973 the move was complete. The old campus was sold to Verrazzano College, a new institution that did not prove successful, its buildings have since been put to other uses. In 1971, the college began admitting men to its regular undergraduate program. Skidmore launched the "University Without Walls" program, which allows nonresident students over age 25 to earn bachelor's degrees; the program ended in May 2011. Skidmore established a Phi Beta Kappa chapter. In 1988, Skidmore faculty formed the Collaborative Research Program, which provides students with opportunities to co-author papers and studies with professors. Skidmore began granting master's degrees in 1991 through its Master of Arts in Liberal Studies program; the Skidmore Honors Forum was founded in 1998.
In 2003, Philip A. Glotzbach became the College's seventh president, he remains in this role. After his presidency was announced, to welcome him to Skidmore, students rallied and drummed up support for his presidency by writing slogans in chalk on sidewalks around the campus.2006 marked the start of the largest campaign in Skidmore's history, Creative Thought. Bold Promise; the goal was to raise $200 million, reached and surpassed in 2010 and celebrated at Celebration Weekend. The SS Skidmore Victory, a World War II cargo ship, was named after the college. Victory ships were a class of cargo ship produced in large numbers by American shipyards to replace losses caused by German submarines, they were larger and of a more modern design when compared to the earlier Liberty ships, with a more powerful steam turbine engine allowing them to join high speed convoys and to make a more difficult target for German U-boats. Charles Henry Keyes, 1912–1925 Henry T. Moore, 1925–1957 Val H. Wilson, 1957–1965 Joseph C.
Palamountain, Jr. 1965–1987 David H. Porter, 1987–1999 Jamienne S. Studley, 1999–2003 Philip A. Glotzbach, 2003– Skidmore grants students the ability to pursue a wide variety of degrees; the World Language department is diverse, enables students to take classes in over six different languages. Students are encouraged to take their education outside of the classroom with internships; these can be completed throughout the academic year. Opportunities for these internships are publicized both by the departments themselves and by the career center. Due to the definition of degrees by New York State, Skidmore cannot accredit all departments with a Bachelors of Science. A B. S. is given to those students majoring in Art, Dance-Theater, Exercise Science, Social Work, Theater. The distinction rests in the number of hours of "non-liberal arts" courses allowed toward the 120 credit hours needed for graduation, 60 for a B. S. and 30 for a B. A; these "non-liberal arts"-designated courses are considered by the college to be of a professional nature.
Skidmore is considered one of the Hidden Ivies according to Greenes' Guides to Educational Planning. The college was ranked the 41st best national liberal arts college in the 2019 edition of U. S. News & World Report Best Colleges Ranking; the 2019 Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education ranking of US colleges and universities placed Skidmore at 120th. For its 2018 America's Top Colleges list, Forbes rated Skidmore 102nd overall; the number of new students enrolling in the Fall of 2017 was 665. The median SAT score for the Class of 2021 was 1320, while the median ACT score was 30. Most of the buildings on Skidmore's 850-acre campus were constructed after 1960; the Frances Young Tang Teaching Museum and Art Gallery is the college's main arts facility. In addition to the Tang, Skidmore has undergraduate studio space as well as several smaller galleries; the Saisselin Art Building houses studios for animation, communication design, fibers, painting, photography and sculpture. Skidmore has a music program housed in the Arthur Zankel Music Center, which contains a large concert hall and facilities.
Most humanities classes are held in one of four academic buildings: Palamountain, Tisc
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Worcester Polytechnic Institute is a private research university in Worcester, focusing on the instruction and research of technical arts and applied sciences. Founded in 1865 in Worcester, WPI was one of the United States' first engineering and technology universities and now has 14 academic departments with over 50 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in science, technology, the social sciences, the humanities and arts, leading to bachelor's, master's and PhD degrees. WPI's faculty works with students in a number of research areas, including biotechnology, fuel cells, information security, surface metrology, materials processing, nanotechnology. Worcester Polytechnic Institute was founded by self-made tinware manufacturer, John Boynton, Ichabod Washburn, owner of the world's largest wire mill. Boynton envisioned science schooling that would elevate the social position of the mechanic and manufacturer, but not teach the skills needed to become either. Washburn, on the other hand, wanted to teach technical skills through a sophisticated apprenticeship approach.
Boynton consulted a pastor, for ways to realize his vision. By chance it happened that Ichabod Washburn had consulted Sweetser about the proper way to actualize his own vision. Washburn was disappointed to learn of Boynton's offer to create a college, although Washburn claimed, "I prefer to be imposed upon by others rather than by myself in withholding where I ought to give," with the help of Sweetser's diplomacy and wisdom, he agreed to build and endow a "Department of Practical Mechanics" at Boynton's school, he specified, that every student should blend theory learned in the classroom with practice in the shops. Sweetser drafted a letter expressing Boynton's and Washburn's wish to other significant men within Worcester County; the document was sent to 30 Worcester businessmen. It told of a "liberal proposal to found a Free School for Industrial Science" in Worcester and called for a meeting in the month. After that meeting the following notice appeared in the Worcester Palladium: "A Gentleman, who for the present withholds his name from the public, offers a fund of $100,000 for the establishment of a scientific school in Worcester, upon the condition that our citizens shall furnish the necessary land and buildings."
Further funding and land grants for the university were given by Stephen Salisbury II, an influential merchant and served as the first president of the Institute's board of directors. In response to this anonymous request, more than 225 Worcester citizens and the workers at 20 of the city's factories and machine shops contributed to the construction of the original building. On May 10, 1865, after House and Senate approval, the secretary of the commonwealth recorded the Institute as a legal corporation, it came into formal existence. Both Boynton and Washburn died before the opening of the college on November 11, 1868. On that day, Charles O. Thompson, the first president of the Institute stood before WPI's first two buildings named Boynton Hall and Washburn Shops in honor of their respective donors, with their distinctive towers that then symbolized the institution's two educational objectives of theory and practice, inaugurated the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. WPI was led in its early years by professor of chemistry Charles O. Thompson.
Early graduates of WPI went on to become mechanical and civil engineers, as well as artisans and enter other prominent occupations. WPI continuously expanded its campus and programs throughout the early twentieth century including graduate studies and a program in electrical engineering. During World War II, WPI offered defense engineering courses and was selected as one of the colleges to direct the V-12 Navy College Training Program. During this time, WPI suffered from the lack of a unified library system, well-maintained buildings, national recognition; this changed under the leadership of president Harry P. Storke from 1962 to 1969. Storke brought significant change to the school in; the Plan called for the creation of three projects and drastically redesigned the curriculum to address how a student learns. The Storke administration launched a capital campaign that resulted in the creation of the George C. Gordon Library, added residence halls, an auditorium, a modern chemistry building. Furthermore, women were first allowed to enter WPI in February 1968.
The WPI Plan is the guiding principle behind undergraduate education at the Institute today, is arguably the most notable contribution WPI has made towards science and engineering education. In 2016, the National Academy of Engineering awarded their prestigious Bernard M. Gordon Prize for Innovation in Engineering and Technology Innovation to WPI, recognizing the Institute's groundbreaking approach to engineering education. Today, WPI is an undergraduate focused institution, though expansion of graduate and research programs is a long-term goal; the WPI Bioengineering Institute is a significant contributor to Worcester's growing biotechnology industry. Significant research in other fields such as robotics, untethered health care, fuel cells, the learning sciences, applied mathematics and fire protection help establish WPI as an important, specialized research university. Set in an urban context in New England's largest city after Boston, WPI's main campus is owned and uninterrupted by public roads.
The campus sits on Boynton Hill, apart from the adjacent neighborhood, which includes restaurants and stores on Highland Street. Once a laboratory for electromagnetic research, the "Skull tomb" was built entire
Annandale-on-Hudson, New York
Annandale-on-Hudson is a hamlet in Dutchess County, New York, United States, in the Hudson Valley in the town of Red Hook, across the Hudson River from Kingston. Emergency services at Annandale-on-Hudson are provided by the municipal Red Hook Police Department, the Dutchess County Sheriff's Office, New York State Police, Red Hook Volunteer Fire Company, Tivoli Volunteer Fire Company. Students and staff of Bard College receive on-campus emergency assistance from Bard College Safety and Security and the student-run Bard EMS; the town takes its name from an estate donated by John Bard and his wife to Columbia University so that a college could be formed there. Today, Bard College stands on the land. Bard College houses the only post office for Annandale-on-Hudson's ZIP code, 12504; the land comprising Annandale-on-Hudson, sometimes shortened to just "Annandale", is owned by Bard College, though there are a few private residences, some small businesses, undeveloped land controlled by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.
Despite its tiny geographic coverage, there is significant history rooted in Annandale-on-Hudson. Blithewood, a mansion designed by Francis L. V. Hoppin, an alumnus of the architectural firm of McKim and White for Andrew C. Zabriskie in 1899, replaced an earlier mansion by the same name remodeled for Robert Donaldson Jr. by architect Alexander Jackson Davis. The current Blithewood was donated to Bard College in 1951 by the Zabriskie family and, houses the Levy Economics Institute at Bard College; the Manor Estate is another historical mansion located on campus. Bard College resident-archaeologist Christopher Lindner has done extensive research on local history, including predominantly Native Americans and Dutch settlers, as well as the old money that used to reside in the area; the American jazz-rock group Steely Dan formed at Bard in the era when Chevy Chase and Blythe Danner attended, make reference to being so angry about the college refusing to bail one of their girlfriends out after a raid by local police that they reference it in the song "My Old School" from their 1973 album Countdown to Ecstasy.
Annandale-on-Hudson is the hometown of fictional X-Men character Jean Grey in Marvel Comics. Great Houses of the Hudson River, Michael Middleton Dwyer, with preface by Mark Rockefeller, Boston, MA: Little and Company, published in association with Historic Hudson Valley, 2001. ISBN 082122767X
The RPI Engineers are composed of 21 teams representing Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in intercollegiate athletics, including men and women's basketball, cross country, ice hockey, soccer, swimming & diving and track and field. Men's sports include baseball and golf. Women's sports include field hockey, softball; the Engineers compete in the NCAA Division III and are members of the Liberty League for all sports except ice hockey, which competes in NCAA Division I, as a member of ECAC Hockey. In 1995, the nickname of some of the school's teams was changed from the Engineers to the Red Hawks; the Red Hawks name was never much liked by the student body. In 2009 the nickname was changed back to Engineers. In contrast, the official ice hockey mascot, Puckman has always been popular. During the 1970s and 1980s, one RPI cheer was: E to the x, dy/dx, E to the x, dx Cosine, tangent, sine 3.14159 Square root, cube root, log of pi Disintegrate them, RPI! The lacrosse team represented the United States in the 1948 Olympics in London, playing to a 5-5 tie with a British side.
It won the Wingate Memorial Trophy as national collegiate champions in 1952. Future NHL head coach Ned Harkness coached the lacrosse and ice hockey teams, winning national championships in both sports; the Engineers baseball squad is perennially atop the Liberty League standings, has seen eight players move on to the professional ranks, including four players selected in the MLB draft. The team is coached by Karl Steffen; the Engineers play their home games at the historic Robison Field. American rugby was played on campus in the late 1870s. Intercollegiate football begin as late as 1886 when an RPI team first played a Union College team on a leased field in West Troy. Since 1903, RPI and nearby Union have been rivals in football, making it the oldest such rivalry in the state; the teams have played for the Dutchman's Shoes since 1950. RPI Football had their most successful season in 2003, when they finished 11-2 and lost to St. Johns in the NCAA Division III semi final game; the Houston Field House is a 4,780‑seat multi-purpose arena located on the RPI campus.
It is home to the RPI Engineers men's and women's ice hockey teams. The Field House was renovated starting in 2007 as part of the major campus improvement project to build the East Campus Athletic Village; the renovations included locker rooms upgrades, addition of a new weight room, a new special reception room dedicated to Ned Harkness. Additionally, as part of the renovations through a government grant, solar panels were installed on the roof to supply power to the building; as part of the Rensselaer Plan, the Institute completed a major project to improve its athletic facilities with the East Campus Athletic Village. The plan included construction of a new and much larger 4,842‑seat football stadium, a basketball arena with seating for 1,200, a new 50-meter pool, an indoor track and field complex, new tennis courts, new weight rooms and a new sports medicine center; the Institute broke ground on August 26, 2007, construction of the first phase is expected to last two years. The estimated cost of the project is $35 -- $45 million for phase two.
Since the completion of the new stadium, the bleachers on the Class of'86 football field on the central campus have been removed and the field has become an open space. In the future the new space could be used for expansions of the academic buildings, but for now members of the campus planning team foresee a "historic landscape with different paths and access ways for students and vehicles alike". Official website
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Schenectady, New York
Schenectady is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 66,135; the name "Schenectady" is derived from a Mohawk word, skahnéhtati, meaning "beyond the pines". Schenectady was founded on the south side of the Mohawk River by Dutch colonists in the 17th century, many from the Albany area, they were prohibited from the fur trade by the Albany monopoly, which kept its control after the English takeover in 1664. Residents of the new village developed farms on strip plots along the river. Connected to the west via the Mohawk River and Erie Canal, Schenectady developed in the 19th century as part of the Mohawk Valley trade and transportation corridor. By 1824 more people worked in manufacturing than agriculture or trade, the city had a cotton mill, processing cotton from the Deep South. Numerous mills in New York had such ties with the South. Through the 19th century, nationally influential companies and industries developed in Schenectady, including General Electric and American Locomotive Company, which were powers into the mid-20th century.
Schenectady was part of emerging technologies, with GE collaborating in the production of nuclear-powered submarines and, in the 21st century, working on other forms of renewable energy. Schenectady is near the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, it is in the same metropolitan area as the state capital, about 15 miles southeast. In December 2014, the state announced that the city was one of three sites selected for development of off-reservation casino gambling, under terms of a 2013 state constitutional amendment; the project would redevelop an ALCO brownfield site in the city along the waterfront, with hotels, housing and a marina in addition to the casino. When first encountered by Europeans, the Mohawk Valley was the territory of the Mohawk nation, one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee, they had occupied territory in the region since at least 1100 AD. Starting in the early 1600s the Mohawk moved their settlements closer to the river and by 1629, they had taken over territories on the west bank of the Hudson River that were held by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican people.
In the 1640s, the Mohawk had all on the south side of the Mohawk River. The easternmost one was Ossernenon, located about 9 miles west of New York; when Dutch settlers developed Fort Orange in the Hudson Valley beginning in 1614, the Mohawk called their settlement skahnéhtati, meaning "beyond the pines," referring to a large area of pine barrens that lay between the Mohawk settlements and the Hudson River. About 3200 acres of this unique ecosystem are now protected as the Albany Pine Bush; this word entered the lexicon of the Dutch settlers. The settlers in Fort Orange used skahnéhtati to refer to the new village at the Mohawk flats, which became known as Schenectady. In 1661, Arent van Curler, a Dutch immigrant, bought a big piece of land on the south side of the Mohawk River. Other colonists were given grants of land by the colonial government in this portion of the flat fertile river valley, as part of New Netherland; the settlers recognized that these bottomlands had been cultivated for maize by the Mohawk for centuries.
Van Curler took the largest piece of land. As most early colonists were from the Fort Orange area, they may have anticipated working as fur traders, but the Beverwijck traders kept a monopoly of legal control; the settlers here turned to farming. Their 50-acre lots were unique for the colony, "laid out in strips along the Mohawk River", with the narrow edges fronting the river, as in French colonial style, they relied on rearing wheat. The proprietors and their descendants controlled all the land of the town for generations acting as government until after the Revolutionary War, when representative government was established. From the early days of interaction, early Dutch traders in the valley had unions with Mohawk women, if not always official marriages, their children were raised within the Mohawk community, which had a matrilineal kinship system, considering children born into the mother's clan. Within Mohawk society, biological fathers played minor roles; some mixed-race descendants, such as Jacques Cornelissen Van Slyck and his sister Hilletie van Olinda, who were of Dutch and Mohawk ancestry, became interpreters and intermarried with Dutch colonists.
They gained land in the Schenectady settlement. They were among the few métis who seemed to move from Mohawk to Dutch society, as they were described as "former Indians", although they did not always have an easy time of it. In 1661 Jacques inherited what became known as Van Slyck's Island from his brother Marten, given it by the Mohawk. Van Slyck family descendants retained ownership through the 19th century; because of labor shortages in the colony, some Dutch settlers brought African slaves to the region. In Schenectady, they used them as farm laborers; the English imported slaves and continued with agriculture in the river valley. Traders in Albany kept control of the fur trade after the takeover by the English. In 1664 th