A drainage basin or catchment area is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins. Other terms used to describe drainage basins are catchment, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin and water basin. In closed drainage basins the water converges to a point inside the basin, known as a sink, which may be a permanent lake. The drainage basin acts as a funnel by collecting all the water within the covered by the basin. Each drainage basin is separated topographically from adjacent basins by a perimeter, drainage basins are similar but not identical to hydrologic units, which are drainage areas delineated so as to nest into a multi-level hierarchical drainage system. Hydrologic units are defined to allow multiple inlets, outlets, or sinks, in a strict sense, all drainage basins are hydrologic units but not all hydrologic units are drainage basins.
Drainage basins of the oceans and seas of the world. Grey areas are endorheic basins that do not drain to the oceans, the following is a list of the major ocean basins, About 48. 7% of the worlds land drains to the Atlantic Ocean. The two major mediterranean seas of the world flow to the Atlantic, The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico basin includes most of the U. S. The Mediterranean Sea basin includes much of North Africa, east-central Africa, Southern and Eastern Europe and the areas of Israel, Lebanon. Just over 13% of the land in the world drains to the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Oceans drainage basin comprises about 13% of Earths land. It drains the eastern coast of Africa, the coasts of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, the Indian subcontinent, antarctica comprises approximately eight percent of the Earths land. The five largest river basins, from largest to smallest, are the basins of the Amazon, the Río de la Plata, the Congo, the Nile, and the Mississippi. The three rivers that drain the most water, from most to least, are the Amazon, endorheic drainage basins are inland basins that do not drain to an ocean.
Around 18% of all land drains to endorheic lakes or seas or sinks, the largest of these consists of much of the interior of Asia, which drains into the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, and numerous smaller lakes. Some of these, such as the Great Basin, are not single drainage basins but collections of separate, in endorheic bodies of standing water where evaporation is the primary means of water loss, the water is typically more saline than the oceans. An extreme example of this is the Dead Sea, drainage basins have been historically important for determining territorial boundaries, particularly in regions where trade by water has been important
Baltimore County, Maryland
Baltimore County is a county in the U. S. state of Maryland. Since 1854, the county seat has been in Towson, Baltimore County is part of the Baltimore metropolitan area and Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. The county is part of the Northeast Megalopolis stretching from Boston to Washington. As of 2009, the countys workforce totalled 410,100, with 25% employed in the fields of education and human services, 10% in retailing, and less than 1% in agriculture. The county is home to the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Towson University, Goucher College, in 1674, a proclamation of the Proprietor, established the extensive boundary lines for old Baltimore County. In 1674, a portion of northeastern Baltimore County, as well as a portion of northwestern Kent County, was split off to create Cecil County. In 1748, a portion of western Baltimore County, as well as a portion of Prince Georges County to the south, were split off to create Frederick County, in 1773, Harford County to the east was split off from Baltimore County.
In 1837, another part of western Baltimore County was combined with a part of eastern Frederick County to create Carroll County, the Baltimore County court sessions had been held in private residences before 1674, with a small amount of documentary evidence. Since 1712, the seat had been located in old Joppa, by 1724, the Assembly authorized Thomas Tolley, Capt. John Taylor, Daniel Scott, Lancelot Todd and John Stokes to purchase 20 acres from a tract named Taylors Choice after John Taylor who held other parcels in the area. The Ordinance directed that the land be divided into 40 lots with streets and alleys to accompany the courthouse and jail which had already been previously erected. By 1750 there were some 50 houses, a church, courthouse,3 stone warehouses, taverns and these events have been commemorated ever since by Defenders Day on September 12th. A second city-county courthouse constructed in 1805–1809 was moved to the side of the Square at North Calvert. The first county seat of Baltimore County was known today as Old Baltimore and it was located on the Bush River on land that in 1773 became part of Harford County.
In 1674, the General Assembly passed An Act for erecting a Court-house, the site of the court house and jail for Baltimore County was evidently Old Baltimore near the Bush River. In 1683, the General Assembly passed An Act for Advancement of Trade to establish towns, one of the towns established by the act in Baltimore County was on Bush River, on Town Land, near the Court-House. The court house on the Bush River referenced in the 1683 Act was in all likelihood the one created by the 1674 Act, Old Baltimore was in existence as early as 1674, but we dont know what if anything happened on the site prior to that year. The exact location of Old Baltimore was lost for years and it was certain that the location was somewhere on the site of the present-day Aberdeen Proving Grounds, a U. S. Army weapons testing facility
The Bohemia River is a 4. 7-mile-long tributary of the Elk River on the Delmarva Peninsula. It is located in Cecil County, with its headwaters extending into New Castle County, great Bohemia Creek and its tributary, Sandy Branch rise near Middletown and Little Bohemia Creek rises near Warwick, Maryland. They flow through the coastal plain, quickly reaching sea level. There are several small creeks on the shore, including Pooles Creek. On the southern shore small creeks include Morgan Creek and Scotchman Creek, Bohemia River Association https, //web. archive. org/web/20091211175701/http, //www. bohemiariver. org, 80/ United States Geological Survey. 7.5 minute series topographic quadrangles U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Bohemia River General Highway Map of Cecil County, prepared in collaboration between Maryland State and United States Federal governments
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water together, usually refers to the joining of tributaries. The opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from, distributaries are most often found in river deltas. Right tributary and left tributary are terms stating the orientation of the relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream, where tributaries have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks. These are typically designated by compass direction, for example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks. The Chicago Rivers North Branch has the East and Middle Fork, the South Branch has its South Fork, forks are sometimes designated as right or left.
Here, the handedness is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream, for instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary which is called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river, the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being typically the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary, another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure
The Jones Falls is a 17. 9-mile-long stream in Maryland. It is impounded to create Lake Roland before running through the city of Baltimore, the Jones Falls valley has a long history in the city of Baltimore as a transportation corridor. The valley of the Jones Falls carries Falls Road, the tracks for the Amtrak Northeast Corridor, the Jones Falls Expressway of Interstate 83, the Baltimore Penn Station rests on an elevated platform in the valley. It carries tracks for a rail line which is currently served by the Baltimore Streetcar Museum. The MTA Maryland Route 27 provides transportation on Falls Road, the Jones Falls is spanned by many bridges within Baltimore Citys borders, and often the Jones Falls Expressway rests directly above the river. The Jones Falls begins as a stream in Baltimore County near Garrison at the intersection of Caves. It travels southeast for 3.3 miles before joining the North Branch Jones Falls stream near Stevenson, North Branch Jones Falls originates near Worthington by the intersection of Park Heights Avenue and Walnut Avenue.
The North Branch travels south for 5.2 miles before joining Jones Falls stream, the falls travels east for 1.3 miles before Dipping Pond Run joins at. The Jones Falls continues east another 0.8 miles before Deep Run intersects near Brooklandville, the Jones Falls travels southeast for 1.5 miles, passing through Robert E. Lee Park, until it meets Lake Roland, an impounding of the stream. In Lake Roland, Roland Run and Towson Run both join, once it leaves Lake Roland, the Jones Falls becomes a small river. For the remainder of the Jones Falls course, I-83 enters the Jones Falls valley, where it crosses over, parallels. Another half mile after entering the city, Western Run joins near Mount Washington, the Jones Falls, I-83, and the Light Rail continue south for 4.4 miles before the last major stream, Stony Run, empties into the stream near Druid Hill Park. Along the way, MD25 enters the valley, running parallel to the river opposite of the highway, MD25 is paralleled by the Jones Falls Trail. About a quarter mile before it intersects Stony Run, the Jones Falls goes over a waterfall named Round Falls.
About 0.6 miles after Stony Run, and after passing by the Baltimore Streetcar Museum, the Jones Falls immediately passes underneath North Avenue. MD25 ends shortly after, with the Jones Falls Trail joining city streets, after the rapid succession of bridges, the Jones Falls almost immediately enters a tunnel, the Jones Falls Conduit, which curves to flow directly underneath I-83. After passing by Baltimores Pennsylvania Station, situated directly in the valley, the Northeast Corridor exits the valley, the river and highway continue to Fayette Street. Here, I-83 ends, two south of this point, the Jones Falls exits the conduit and flows several more blocks before it empties into the east side of the Inner Harbor
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planets surface. The term most often refers to oceans and lakes, a body of water does not have to be still or contained, streams and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are considered bodies of water. Most are naturally occurring geographical features, but some are artificial, there are types that can be either. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, most harbors are naturally occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways, some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, and others primarily hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids. Arm of the sea - sea arm, used to describe a sea loch, arroyo - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally.
Artificial lake or artificial pond - see reservoir or impoundment, barachois - a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay - an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf, bayou - a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Bight - a large and often only slightly receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature, billabong - see Oxbow lake, a pond or still body of water created when a river changes course and some water becomes trapped. Boil - see Seep Brook - a small stream, canal - an artificial waterway, usually connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel - the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean consisting of a bed. See stream bed and strait, earth scientists generally use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay. Basin - a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, creek - an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove.
Delta - the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, distributary or distributary channel - a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Draw - a usually dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, fjord - a submergent landform which has occurred due to glacial activity. Glacier - a large collection of ice or a river that moves slowly down a mountain. Glacial Pothole - see Kettle Gulf - a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay, headland - an area of water bordered by land on three sides
The hectare is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres, in 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units, the are was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, the metric system of measurement was first given a legal basis in 1795 by the French Revolutionary government. At the first meeting of the CGPM in 1889 when a new standard metre, manufactured by Johnson Matthey & Co of London was adopted, in 1960, when the metric system was updated as the International System of Units, the are did not receive international recognition. The units that were catalogued replicated the recommendations of the CGPM, many farmers, especially older ones, still use the acre for everyday calculations, and convert to hectares only for official paperwork.
Farm fields can have long histories which are resistant to change, with names such as the six acre field stretching back hundreds of years. The names centiare, deciare and hectare are derived by adding the standard metric prefixes to the base unit of area. The centiare is a synonym for one square metre, the deciare is ten square metres. The are is a unit of area, equal to 100 square metres and it was defined by older forms of the metric system, but is now outside of the modern International System of Units. It is commonly used to measure real estate, in particular in Indonesia, and in French-, Portuguese-, Slovakian-, Serbian-, Czech-, Polish-, Dutch-, in Russia and other former Soviet Union states, the are is called sotka. It is used to describe the size of suburban dacha or allotment garden plots or small city parks where the hectare would be too large, the decare is derived from deka, the prefix for 10 and are, and is equal to 10 ares or 1000 square metres. It is used in Norway and in the former Ottoman areas of the Middle East, the hectare, although not strictly a unit of SI, is the only named unit of area that is accepted for use within the SI.
The United Kingdom, United States, and to some extent Canada instead use the acre, such as South Africa, published conversion factors which were to be used particularly when preparing consolidation diagrams by compilation. In many countries, metrication redefined or clarified existing measures in terms of metric units, non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units
Back River (Maryland)
Back River is a tidal estuary in Baltimore County, located about 2 miles east of the city of Baltimore. The estuary extends from the community of Rosedale, southeast for about 8.8 miles to the Chesapeake Bay, the watershed area is 39,075 acres and includes Essex Skypark Airport and the Back River Wastewater Treatment Plant. Back River is in an urbanized area and is subject to extensive urban runoff. The Maryland Department of the Environment has listed water quality impairments in the river for chlordane. The Herring Run tributary is listed as impaired due to levels of bacteria. The Back River watershed consists of 73 miles of streams in Baltimore County and Baltimore City
Elk River (Maryland)
The Elk River is a tidal tributary of the Chesapeake Bay on the Eastern Shore of Maryland and on the northern edge of the Delmarva Peninsula. It is about 15 miles long, as the most northeastern extension of the Chesapeake Bay estuary, it has served as one entrance to the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal since the 19th century. The canal and river now serve as one boundary of the Elk Neck Peninsula, the river flows through Cecil County, with its watershed extending into New Castle County and Chester County, Pennsylvania. Elkton, the county seat of Cecil County, is located at its head and its total watershed area is 143 square miles, with 21 square miles of open water, so its watershed is 15% open water. It is south and east of the North East River, little Elk Creek rises near Oxford and the East Branch and West Branch of Big Elk Creek rise to the south of Cochranville, Pennsylvania. They descend through the Pennsylvania and Maryland Piedmont, before reaching sea level at Elkton, there are several small creeks on the western shore, including Muddy Creek, Jones Creek, Bull Minnow Run, and Plum Creek.
On the eastern shore major tributaries are Back Creek, much of which is now the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, small creeks include Pearce Creek, Cabin John Creek, Herring Creek, and Perch Creek. NOAA Nautical Chart 12274 Chesapeake Bay Program Watershed Profile, Elk River Lower Chesapeake Bay Program Watershed Profile, Upper Elk River Chesapeake Bay Program Watershed Profile, Bohemia River
The Eastern Bay is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay located between Queen Annes County and Talbot County, Maryland on the Eastern Shore. Its main tributaries include the Miles River and the Wye River and it is located south of the Chester River and north of the Choptank River and is connected to the Chester River via Kent Narrows. A ferry across the Eastern Bay run by the Claiborne-Annapolis Ferry Company used to connect the communities of Romancoke, Chesapeake Bay Program Watershed Profile Eastern Bay
A shore or a shoreline is the fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake. Shores are influenced by the topography of the landscape, as well as by water induced erosion. The geological composition of rock and soil dictates the type of shore which is created, Riviera is an Italian word for shoreline, ultimately derived from Latin ripa. It came to be applied as a name to the coast of the Ligurian Sea, in the form riviera ligure. Historically, the Ligurian Riviera extended from Capo Corvo south of Genoa and west into what is now French territory past Monoco, now it is divided into the Italian Riviera and the French Riviera. Although the French use the term Riviera to refer to the Italian Riviera, as a result of the fame of the Ligurian rivieras, the term came into English to refer to any shoreline, especially one that is sunny, topographically diverse and popular with tourists. Such places using the term include the Australian Riviera in Queensland, offshore or Intertidal zone Ballantine Scale Coastal path Shorezone Anders, F. J.
and Byrnes, M. R. Accuracy of shoreline change rates as determined from maps and aerial photographs Shore and Beach, v.59, processes influencing the transport and fate of contaminated sediments in the coastal ocean—Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay, U. S. Geological Survey Circular 1302, pp. 1–89. Equilibrium beach profiles—characteristics and applications Journal of Coastal Research, v.7, the Budget of Littoral Sediments—Concepts and Applications Shore and Beach, v.64, pp. 18–26. Meade, R. H. Sources and storage of river sediments in the Atlantic drainage of the United States Journal of Geology, v.90, an Assessment of the Nations Shorelines, USA Shore and Beach v.71, no. Stockdon, H. F. Sallenger, A. H. List, J. H. and Holman, estimation of shoreline position and change using airborne topographic lidar data Journal of Coastal Research, v.18, no. The use of models to predict beach behavior for U. S. coastal engineering—A critical review Journal of Coastal Research, v.16. Media related to Shores at Wikimedia Commons shore, the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
Patapsco Valley State Park
Patapsco Valley State Park is a public recreation area extending along 32 miles of the Patapsco River south and west of the city of Baltimore, Maryland. The state park encompasses multiple developed areas on over 14,000 acres of land, in 2006, it was officially celebrated as Marylands first state park and is managed by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. 20th century Formation of the park started with provisions in the Forestry Act of 1906, the completion of Bloedes Dam in 1906 required the implementation of protections to prevent silting from nearby farm erosion. Patapsco Valley State Park was established as Patapsco State Forest Reserve in 1907 to protect the valleys forest, the first 43 acres were donated by Russell Sage Foundation director John Mark Glenn from his Hilton estate. In 1912, Maryland delegate Carville Benson promoted expanding the Patapsco Forest Reserve as a park to support his suburban development initiatives, as other sections along the river were added, Patapsco Valley State Park became one of the largest parks in Maryland.
In 1933, the Civilian Conservation Corps opened State Park Project 2 work camps 336 and 356 at the park, CCC workers created recreational facilities and performed tree plantings for erosion control and silt management around the dam from adjacent overworked farms. Keeping the shores and hillsides vegetated minimized erosion, thus minimizing the amount of silt that could clog the turbines of Bloedes Dam which generated electricity for surrounding communities. In 2015,24.6 square miles includes an portion of the Patapsco Valley State Park, was certified as the Maryland’s 13th Heritage Area by the Maryland Heritage Areas Authority. The parks recreational opportunities include hiking, camping, horseback riding, mountain biking, the Baltimore City Paper named the park as its Best Place to Hike in 2007. Daniels Area, Once the site of a milltown called Daniels, the Daniels dam here backs up the Patapsco River providing smooth water for canoeing and kayaking and swimming. Hollofield Area, The parks center features a 73-site campground, hiking trails.
Pickall Area, Picnic shelters and playgrounds, Hilton Area, Located near Catonsville, the area has a small campground with mini-cabins, a nature center for children, and access to the Saw Mill Branch Trail and other trails. The Avalon Visitor Center is housed in a remnant of the milltown of the name that once served the Avalon Nail. Swinging bridges There are two swinging bridges that cross the Patapsco River, the first spans the Patapsco at Orange Grove,1.6 miles northwest of Avalon following the Park Road in Howard County beyond shelters 104 and 105. A. Gambrill Manufacturing Company that burned to the ground in 1905, visitors can cross the bridge to discover the ruins of the mill site that extended from the railroad tracks to the Swinging Bridge abutment. A second swinging bridge opened November 4,2006 and it is located at the end of the Grist Mill Trail and crosses the Patapsco River to connect with Ilchester Road. This new bridge allows easy entry for residents living in Ellicott City, Cascade Falls Cascade Falls is located in the Orange Grove area of the park.
It gently descends a 10–15-foot face and can be reached by way of a trail at the last parking lot in the Orange Grove area