Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow. Many types of competitive skiing events are recognized by the International Olympic Committee, the International Ski Federation. Skiing has a history of five millennia. Although modern skiing has evolved from beginnings in Scandinavia, it may have been practiced more than 100 centuries ago in what is now China, according to an interpretation of ancient paintings; the word "ski" is one of a handful of words. It comes from the Old Norse word "skíð" which means "split piece of wood or firewood". Asymmetrical skis were used in northern Sweden until at least the late 19th century. On one foot, the skier wore a long straight non-arching ski for sliding, a shorter ski was worn on the other foot for kicking; the underside of the short ski was either plain or covered with animal skin to aid this use, while the long ski supporting the weight of the skier was treated with animal fat in a similar manner to modern ski waxing.
Early skiers used spear. The first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741. Skiing was used for transport until the mid-19th century, but since has become a recreation and sport. Military ski races were held in Norway during the 18th century, ski warfare was studied in the late 18th century; as equipment evolved and ski lifts were developed during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, two main genres of skiing emerged—Alpine skiing and Nordic skiing. The main difference between the two is the type of ski binding. Called "downhill skiing", Alpine skiing takes place on a piste at a ski resort, it is characterized by fixed-heel bindings that attach at both the toe and the heel of the skier's boot. Ski lifts, including chairlifts, bring skiers up the slope. Backcountry skiing can be accessed by helicopter, snowcat and snowmobile. Facilities at resorts can include night skiing, après-ski, glade skiing under the supervision of the ski patrol and the ski school. Alpine skiing branched off from the older Nordic type of skiing around the 1920s when the advent of ski lifts meant that it was not necessary to walk any longer.
Alpine equipment has specialized to the point. The Nordic disciplines include cross-country skiing and ski jumping, which both use bindings that attach at the toes of the skier's boots but not at the heels. Cross-country skiing may be practiced in undeveloped backcountry areas. Ski jumping is practiced in certain areas that are reserved for ski jumping. Telemark skiing is a ski turning technique and FIS-sanctioned discipline, named after the Telemark region of Norway, it uses equipment similar to Nordic skiing, where the ski bindings are attached only at the toes of the ski boots, allowing the skier's heel to be raised throughout the turn. The following disciplines are sanctioned by the FIS. Many are included in the Winter Olympic Games. Cross-country – Encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths. Races occur on homologated, groomed courses designed to support classic and free-style events, where skate skiing may be employed; the main competitions are the FIS Cross-Country World Cup and the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, various cross-country skiing events have been incorporated into the Winter Olympics since its inception in 1924.
The discipline incorporates: cross-country ski marathon events, sanctioned by the Worldloppet Ski Federation. Paralympic cross-country skiing and paralympic biathlon are both included in the Winter Paralympic Games. Ski jumping – Contested at the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, the FIS Ski Jumping Grand Prix, the FIS Ski Flying World Championships. Ski jumping has been a regular Olympic discipline at every Winter Games since 1924. Freeriding skiing – This category of skiing includes any practice of the sport on non-groomed terrain. Nordic combined – A combination of cross-country skiing and ski jumping, this discipline is contested at the FIS Nordic Combined World Cup, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, at the Winter Olympics. Alpine skiing – Includes downhill, giant slalom, super giant slalom, para-alpine events. There are combined events where the competitors must complete one run of each event, for example, the Super Combined event consists of one run of super-G and one run of slalom skiing.
The dual slalom event, where racers ski head-to-head, was invented in 1941 and has been a competitive event since 1960. Alpine skiing is contested at the FIS Alpine Ski World Cup, the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships, the Winter Olympics. Para-alpine skiing is contested at the World Para Alpine Skiing Championships and the Winter Paralympics. Speed skiing – Dating from 1898, with official records beginning in 1932 with an 89-mile-per-hour run by Leo Gasperi, this became an FIS discipline in the 1960s, it is contested at the FIS Speed Ski World Cup, was demonstrated at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville. Freestyle skiing – Includes mogul skiing, ski cross, half-pipe, slopestyle; the main freestyle competitions are the FIS Freestyle Skiing World Cup and t
Bucksport is a town in Hancock County, United States. The population was 4,924 at the 2010 census. Bucksport is a historic town across the Penobscot River estuary from Fort Knox and the Penobscot Narrows Bridge, which replaced the Waldo–Hancock Bridge; the first inhabitants of Bucksport were a 5,000-year-old prehistoric culture known as the Red Paint People, that would be referred to as the Maritime Archaic. They were thought to be a advanced native fishing culture that buried red paint in their graves along with stone tools and weapons; the first archaeological dig in the state of Maine, if not the entire United States, was initiated by Professor Charles Willoughby in 1891 on Indian Point, on a site where the present-day mill is located. Once territory of the Tarrantine Abenaki Native Americans, it was one of six townships granted by the Massachusetts General Court to Deacon David Marsh of Haverhill, Massachusetts and 351 others. Colonel Jonathan Buck and a number of the grantees arrived in 1762 to survey the land returned to Haverhill.
In June 1763, Buck came back to settle permanently. 1, building a sawmill on Mill Creek, as well as a house and store. By 1775 the plantation had 21 families. Legend has it that Buck burned his mistress for being a witch, that she promised to return and seek vengeance on the town, it is believed to be her foot and leg that appears on his tombstone, reappearing each time it has been replaced. During the Revolutionary War, the British military built Fort George at Castine. On April 14, 1779, the stronghold became the site of a major American naval defeat called the Penobscot Expedition; the following day, when most of Plantation No. 1 was deserted, the 16-gun Royal Navy sloop HMS Nautilus anchored at the harbor. Its crew burned the town, sparing only those remaining inhabitants who swore allegiance to the Crown, but following the peace treaty of 1783, the town was resettled and called Buckstown Plantation after its founder. Incorporated on June 27, 1792 as Buckstown, it was renamed Bucksport in 1817.
The town was occupied by the British during the War of 1812. In 1851, the East Maine Conference Seminary was opened by the Methodist Church as a preparatory school, but closed in 1933 when Bucksport opened its first public secondary school. In 1780, the Jed Prouty Tavern and Inn was built in downtown Bucksport, it was expanded to a 17-room hotel around 1820. It is now being turned into a nursing home for the elderly. Bucksport is well known for its bizarre and fantastic stories. In 1892, a circus elephant named Charlie roamed the town a free animal, he was captured, with the help of a pit bull, who cornered the elephant so his handlers could secure him. On the evening of October 13, 1876, a triple homicide took place, leaving an old man named Robert Trim, his 32-year-old daughter Melissa Thayer, Thayer's 4-year-old daughter Josie murdered and their family farm burned to the ground; the authorities soon arrested a sea captain despite the lack of witnesses, evidence or motive, his trial was one of the biggest the young state had seen.
The captain was sentenced to life in Thomaston Prison. In 1898, another notorious murder took place. A woman named Sarah Ware went missing on the evening of September 17, her beheaded and badly decomposed body was discovered by a search party two weeks near Miles Lane. A man named William Treworgy was tried for the murder but was acquitted, the case was never solved. Bucksport is depicted in the 1960s ABC television series Dark Shadows, most prominently in the 1840 time period, as located near the fictional town of Collinsport. Bucksport's history and reputation were rumored to be the predominant inspirations for the fictional Collinsport several years before the writers of the serial incorporated Bucksport into the storyline; the town's terrain riven with ponds and streams. Farmers grew hay and potatoes. Shipbuilding, would become the principal occupation. Many worked at fisheries. Other industries produced lumber, ships' pumps, plugs and wheels, barrels, leather and shoes and stone work. In 1874, the Bucksport and Bangor Railroad was completed.
It provided Bangor with shipping access to Penobscot Bay during winter months when the Penobscot River froze. The Maine Seaboard Paper Company in 1930 opened the Bucksport Mill, a paper mill with two machines which manufactured 300 tons of newsprint per day; until 2014 it was owned successively by Inc.. St. Regis Paper Company, Champion International, International Paper and Verso Paper, had 4 machines with a capacity to manufacture 482,800 tons annually. On October 1, 2014, it was announced by Verso that they would be closing the mill, effective on December 1, laying off 570 workers. On February 22, 2018 Whole Oceans Aquaculture announced their intent to purchase the site of the former Verso paper mill and convert it into a 400 million gallon recirculating aquaculture system facility for land-based Atlantic Salmon production; the facility is expected to cost an initial 75 million dollars and bring up to 250 million dollars in investment to the area. Up to 200 full-time workers are expected to be employed.
Whole Oceans expects to break ground in Fall of 2018 and reach a capacity of 25,000 tons of salmon within fifteen years. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 56.53 square miles, of which 51.54 square miles is land and 4.99 square miles is water. Located at the head of Penobscot Bay, Bucksport is drained by the Penobscot River, it includes Silver Lake, a recreation and birdwatching site. The town is crossed by U. S. Route 1 and state
Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water by displacing water to propel the boat forward. Rowing and paddling are similar but the difference is that rowing requires oars to have a mechanical connection with the boat, while paddles are hand-held and have no mechanical connection; this article focuses on the general types of rowing, such as the recreation and the transport rather than the sport of competitive rowing, a specialized case of racing using regulated equipment and a refined technique. In the Ancient World, all major ancient civilizations used rowing for transportation and war.. It was considered a way to advance their civilization during peace; the beginning of rowing is clouded in history but the use of oars in the way they are used today can be traced back to ancient Egypt. Whether it was invented in Egypt or something learned from Mesopotamia via trade is not known. However, archaeologists have recovered a model of a rowing vessel in a tomb dating back to the 18-19th century BC.
From Egypt, rowing vessels galleys, were extensively used in naval warfare and trade in the Mediterranean from classical antiquity onward. Galleys had advantages over sailing ships: they were easier to maneuver, capable of short bursts of speed, able to move independently of the wind. During the classical age of oared galleys, the Greeks dominated the Mediterranean while the Athenians dominated the other Greeks, they used thousands of lower-class citizens to serve as rowers in the fleet. The Classical trireme used 170 rowers. Trireme oarsmen used leather cushions to slide over their seats, which allowed them to use their leg strength as a modern oarsman does with a sliding seat. Galleys had masts and sails, but would lower them at the approach of combat. Greek fleets would leave their sails and masts on shore if possible; the use of oars in rowing instead of paddling came rather late to northern Europe, sometime between 500 BC-1 AD. This change might have been hastened by the Roman conquest of Northern Gaul.
However, between 500-1100 AD, combined sailing and rowing vessels dominated trade and warfare in northern Europe in the time that has come to be known as the Viking Age. Galleys continued to be used in the Mediterranean until the advent of steam propulsion. Rowing was used during war in the ancient world; the victorious in the sea would be those. Because the Greek and the Athenians developed the Trireme, they were able to win against their enemy ships with great speed powered by the 170 oarsmen. In some localities, rear-facing systems prevail. In other localities, forward-facing systems prevail in crowded areas such as in Venice, Italy and in Asian and Indonesian rivers and harbors; this is not an "either-or", because in different situations it's useful to be able to row a boat facing either way. The current emphasis on the health aspects of rowing has resulted in some new mechanical systems being developed, some different from the traditional rowing systems of the past; this is the oldest system used in Europe and North America.
A seated rower pulls on two oars, which lever the boat through the water. The pivot point of the oars is the fulcrum; the motive force is applied through the rower's feet. In traditional rowing craft, the pivot point of the oars is located on the boat's gunwale; the actual fitting that holds the oar may be as simple as one or two pegs or a metal oarlock. In performance rowing craft, the rowlock is extended outboard on a "rigger" to allow the use of a longer oar for increased power. Sculling involves a seated rower who pulls on two oars or sculls, attached to the boat, thereby moving the boat in the direction opposite that which the rower faces. In some multiple-seat boats seated rowers each pull on a single "sweep" oar with both hands. Boats in which the rowers are coordinated by a coxswain are referred to as a "coxed" pair/four/eight. Sometimes sliding seats are used to enable the rower to use the leg muscles increasing the power available. An alternative to the sliding seat, called a sliding rigger, uses a stationary seat and the rower moves the oarlocks with his feet.
On a craft used in Italy, the catamaran moscone, the rower stands and takes advantage of his body weight to increase leverage while sculling. Articulated or bow facing oars have two-piece oars and use a mechanical transmission to reverse the direction of the oar blade, enabling a seated rower to row facing forward with a pulling motion. Push rowing called back-watering if used in a boat not designed for forward motion, uses regular oars with a pushing motion to achieve forward-facing travel, sometimes seated and sometimes standing; this is a convenient method of manoeuvring through a busy harbour. The "Rantilla" system of frontrowing oars uses inboard mounted oarlocks rather than a reversing transmission to achieve forward motion of the boat with a pulling motion on the oars. Another system involves using a single oar extending from the stern of the boat, moved back and forth under water somewhat like a fish tail, such as the Chinese yuloh, by which quite large boats can be moved. Sampans are rowed by foot in Ninh Bình Province of northern Vietnam.
In Venice and other similar flat-bottomed boats are popular forms of transport propelled by oars which are held in place by an open wooden fórcola. The Voga alla Veneta technique of rowing is different from the style used in international sp
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3500 to 3000 BCE, their contributions to mathematics and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to explain events of the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries of the Middle Ages but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age; the recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived natural philosophy, transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape.
Modern science is divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences, which study nature in the broadest sense. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences. Science is based on research, conducted in academic and research institutions as well as in government agencies and companies; the practical impact of scientific research has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, health care, environmental protection. Science in a broad sense existed in many historical civilizations. Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term. Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge, rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge.
In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to share. For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought; this is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs and dikes, buildings such as the Pyramids. However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. Metallurgy was known in prehistory, the Vinča culture was the earliest known producer of bronze-like alloys, it is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy. Neither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east.
The ancient Mesopotamians used knowledge about the properties of various natural chemicals for manufacturing pottery, glass, metals, lime plaster, waterproofing. The Mesopotamians had intense interest in medicine and the earliest medical prescriptions appear in Sumerian during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Nonetheless, the Mesopotamians seem to have had little interest in gathering information about the natural world for the mere sake of gathering information and only studied scientific subjects which had obvious practical applications or immediate relevance to their religious system. In the classical world, there is no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, well-educated upper-class, universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time. Before the invention or discovery of the concept of "nature" by the Pre-Socratic philosophers, the same words tend to be used to describe the natural "way" in which a plant grows, the "way" in which, for example, one tribe worships a particular god.
For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, the first people to distinguish "nature" and "convention." Natural philosophy, the precursor of natural science, was thereby distinguished as the knowledge of nature and things which are true for every community, the name of the specialized pursuit of such knowledge was philosophy – the realm of the first philosopher-physicists. They were speculators or theorists interested in astronomy. In contrast, trying to use knowledge of nature to imitate nature was seen by classical scientists as a more appropriate interest for lower class artisans; the early Greek philosophers of the Milesian school, founded by Thales of Miletus and continued by his successors A
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps; the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927. In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping, it is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide, studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom, hiking means walking outdoors on a trail, or off trail, for recreational purposes. A day hike refers to a hike. However, in the United Kingdom, the word walking is used, as well as rambling, while walking in mountainous areas is called hillwalking.
In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, as fell is the common word for both features there. Hiking is sometimes referred to as such; this refers to difficult walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes, where forward progress requires pushing vegetation aside. In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, a machete is used to clear a pathway; the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are walking or bushwalking. Trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America and the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking and as thru-hiking in some places. In North America, multi-day hikes with camping, are referred to as backpacking; the idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th century, arose because of changing attitudes to the landscape and nature associated with the Romantic movement.
In earlier times walking indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. In the introduction he wrote that he aimed to encourage the taste of visiting the lakes by furnishing the traveller with a Guide. To this end he included various'stations' or viewpoints around the lakes, from which tourists would be encouraged to enjoy the views in terms of their aesthetic qualities. Published in 1778 the book was a major success. Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth. In 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude, his famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a walking tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworth's friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District.
John Keats, who belonged to the next generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland and the Lake District with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. More and more people undertook walking tours through the 19th century, of which the most famous is Robert Louis Stevenson's journey through the Cévennes in France with a donkey, recorded in his Travels with a Donkey. Stevenson published in 1876 his famous essay "Walking Tours"; the subgenre of travel writing produced many classics in the subsequent 20th century. An early American example of a book that describes an extended walking tour is naturalist John Muir's A Thousand Mile Walk to the Gulf, a posthumous published account of a long botanizing walk, undertaken in 1867. Due to industrialisation in England, people began to migrate to the cities where living standards were cramped and unsanitary, they would escape the confines of the city by rambling about in the countryside. However, the land in England around the urban areas of Manchester and Sheffield, was owned and trespass was illegal.
Rambling clubs soon sprang up in the north and began politically campaigning for the legal'right to roam'. One of the first such clubs, was'Sunday Tramps' founded by Leslie White in 1879; the first national grouping, the Federation of Rambling Clubs, was formed in London in 1905 and was patronized by the peerage. Access to Mountains bills, that would have legislated the public's'right to roam' across some private land, were periodically presented to Parliament from 1884 to 1932 without success. In 1932, the Rambler’s Right Movement organized a mass trespass on Kinder Scout in Derbyshire. Despite attempts on the part of the police to prevent the trespass from going ahead it was achieved due to massive publicity; however the Mountain Access Bill, passed in 1939 was opposed by many walkers' organizations, including The Ramblers, who felt that it did not
Blue Hill, Maine
Blue Hill is a town in Hancock County, United States. The population was 2,686 at the 2010 census, it is home to the Blue Hill Public Library, Blue Hill Memorial Hospital, George Stevens Academy, the Blue Hill Harbor School, New Surry Theatre, Kneisel Hall, Bagaduce Music Lending Library, the Kollegewidgwok Yacht Club, the Marine & Environmental Research Institute, the Blue Hill Country Club. A community on Blue Hill Bay, the town is the site of the annual Blue Hill Fair, it was one of six townships granted by the Massachusetts General Court to David Marsh and 351 others for their service in the French and Indian War. Called Plantation Number 5, it was first settled in 1762 by Captain Joseph Wood and John Roundy from Andover, who built homes on Mill Island at the tidal falls, it would be called Newport Plantation. On January 30, 1789, the town was incorporated as Blue Hill, named after its commanding summit overlooking the region; the outlets of various ponds provided water power for several gristmills.
By 1859, 5,000 cords of firewood were sent from the port annually. Other products included lumber and roof shingles, but the predominant industry was shipbuilding. Beginning in 1792, 133 vessels were constructed at Blue Hill, some of them brigs and ships, but most schooners; the town was noted for the quality of its granite, some of, used to build the Brooklyn Bridge, New York Stock Exchange building, the U. S. Custom House at Norfolk, Virginia. In 1876, local quarries employed 300 workers. A Viking penny was found in 1957 at the nearby prehistoric Goddard archeological site by local amateur archeologist Guy Mellgren; the coin is believed to be from the 11th century reign of Olaf Kyrre. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 86.57 square miles, of which 62.48 square miles is land and 24.09 square miles is water. Located on Blue Hill Bay, the town is drained by Mill Brook. Blue Hill, elevation 940 feet, is the town's highest point. Long Island, situated in Blue Hill Bay, is part of the town.
Blue Hill is crossed by state routes 15, 172, 176 and 177. It borders the towns of Surry to the northeast, Brooklin to the southeast, Sedgwick to the southwest, Penobscot to the northwest; the town is the site of Blue Hill Airport. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,686 people, 1,279 households, 733 families residing in the town; the population density was 43.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,936 housing units at an average density of 31.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.3% White, 0.4% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.8% of the population. There were 1,279 households of which 21.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.7% were non-families. 34.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.66. The median age in the town was 49.5 years. 17.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 53.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,390 people, 1,074 households, 681 families residing in the town; the population density was 38.2 people per square mile. There were 1,486 housing units at an average density of 23.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.87% White, 0.38% African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 1.34% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.13% of the population. There were 1,074 households out of which 26.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families. 30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.73.
In the town, the population was spread out with 21.5% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,484, the median income for a family was $41,688. Males had a median income of $28,200 versus $23,616 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,189. About 9.3% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.4% of those under age 18 and 12.8% of those age 65 or over. Gerald Warner Brace, author Minerva Kline Brooks, campaigner for women's suffrage Mary Ellen Chase, author George Albert Clough, architect A. J. Cronin, author Jonathan Fisher, minister June Harding, artist Bill McHenry, musician Brian D. Rogers, chancellor of the University of Alaska Fairbanks Susan Shaw, environmental health scientist, founder of the Marine Environmental Research Institute Noel Paul Stookey, musician Walter C.
Teagle and chairman at Standard Oil Janwillem van de Wetering, author Emma Willmann, actress Esther E. Wood, educator and journalist Blue Hill, Maine Genealogy Project
Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through water for recreation, exercise, or survival. Locomotion is achieved through coordinated movement of the body, or both. Humans can hold their breath underwater and undertake rudimentary locomotive swimming within weeks of birth, as a survival response. Swimming is among the top public recreational activities, in some countries, swimming lessons are a compulsory part of the educational curriculum; as a formalized sport, swimming features in a range of local and international competitions, including every modern Summer Olympics. Swimming relies on the nearly neutral buoyancy of the human body. On average, the body has a relative density of 0.98 compared to water, which causes the body to float. However, buoyancy varies on the basis of body composition, lung inflation, the salinity of the water. Higher levels of body fat and saltier water both lower the relative density of the body and increase its buoyancy. Since the human body is only less dense than water, water supports the weight of the body during swimming.
As a result, swimming is “low-impact” compared to land activities such as running. The density and viscosity of water create resistance for objects moving through the water. Swimming strokes use this resistance to create propulsion, but this same resistance generates drag on the body. Hydrodynamics is important to stroke technique for swimming faster, swimmers who want to swim faster or exhaust less try to reduce the drag of the body's motion through the water. To be more hydrodynamic, swimmers can either increase the power of their strokes or reduce water resistance, though power must increase by a factor of three to achieve the same effect as reducing resistance. Efficient swimming by reducing water resistance involves a horizontal water position, rolling the body to reduce the breadth of the body in the water, extending the arms as far as possible to reduce wave resistance. Just before plunging into the pool, swimmers may perform exercises such as squatting. Squatting helps in enhancing a swimmer’s start by warming up the thigh muscles.
Human babies demonstrate an innate swimming or diving reflex from newborn until the age of 6 months. Other mammals demonstrate this phenomenon; the diving response involves apnea, reflex bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction. Because infants are innately able to swim, classes for babies of about 6 months old are offered in many locations; this makes strong swimmers from a young age. Swimming can be undertaken using a wide range of styles, known as'strokes,' and these strokes are used for different purposes, or to distinguish between classes in competitive swimming, it is not necessary to use a defined stroke for propulsion through the water, untrained swimmers may use a'doggy paddle' of arm and leg movements, similar to the way four-legged animals swim. There are four main strokes used in competition and recreation swimming: the front crawl known as freestyle, the breaststroke, the backstroke and the butterfly. Competitive swimming in Europe started around 1800 using the breaststroke. In 1873, John Arthur Trudgen introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions.
The butterfly stroke developed in the 1930s, was considered a variant of the breaststroke until accepted as a separate style in 1953. Butterfly is considered the hardest stroke by many people, but it is the most effective for all-around toning and the building of muscles, it burns the most calories. Other strokes exist for specific purposes, such as training or rescue, it is possible to adapt strokes to avoid using parts of the body, either to isolate certain body parts, such as swimming with arms only or legs only to train them harder, or for use by amputees or those affected by paralysis. Swimming has been recorded since prehistoric times, the earliest records of swimming date back to Stone Age paintings from around 7,000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC; some of the earliest references include the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible and other sagas. The coastal tribes living in the volatile Low Countries were known as excellent swimmers by the Romans. Men and horses of the Batavi tribe could cross the Rhine without losing formation, according to Tacitus.
Dio Cassius describes one surprise tactic employed by Aulus Plautius against the Celts at the Battle of the Medway: The thought that Romans would not be able to cross it without a bridge, bivouacked in rather careless fashion on the opposite bank. Thence the Britons retired to the river Thames at a point near where it empties into the ocean and at flood-tide forms a lake; this they crossed because they knew where the firm ground and the easy passages in this region were to be found, but the Romans in attempting to follow them were not so successful. However, the swam across again and some others got over by a bridge a little way up-stream, after which they assailed the barbarians from several sides at once and cut down many of them." In 1538, Nikolaus Wynmann, a Swiss professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming. There are many reasons why people swim, from swimming as a recreational pursuit to swimming as a necessary pa