Hungarian Revolution of 1956
Though leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the USSRs forces drove out Nazi Germany from its territory at the end of World War II. The revolt began as a student demonstration, which attracted thousands as they marched through central Budapest to the Parliament building, calling out on the using a van with loudspeakers. A student delegation, entering the building to try to broadcast the students demands, was detained. When the delegations release was demanded by the demonstrators outside, they were fired upon by the State Security Police from within the building, one student died and was wrapped in a flag and held above the crowd. This was the start of the revolution, as the news spread and violence erupted throughout the capital. The revolt spread quickly across Hungary and the government collapsed, thousands organised into militias, battling the ÁVH and Soviet troops. Pro-Soviet communists and ÁVH members were executed or imprisoned and former political prisoners were released and armed.
Radical impromptu workers councils wrested municipal control from the ruling Hungarian Working Peoples Party, a new government formally disbanded the ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact, and pledged to re-establish free elections. By the end of October, fighting had almost stopped and a sense of normality began to return, after announcing a willingness to negotiate a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded Budapest and other regions of the country, the Hungarian resistance continued until 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed in the conflict, mass arrests and denunciations continued for months thereafter. By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition, public discussion about this revolution was suppressed in Hungary for more than 30 years. Since the thaw of the 1980s, it has been a subject of intense study, at the inauguration of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989,23 October was declared a national holiday.
During World War II Hungary was a member of the Axis powers, allied with the forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Romania, in 1941, the Hungarian military participated in the occupation of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union. The Red Army was able to back the Hungarian and other Axis invaders. Fearing invasion, the Hungarian government began negotiations with the Allies. These ended when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country and set up its own pro-Axis regime, both Hungarian and German forces stationed in Hungary were subsequently defeated when the Soviet Union invaded the country in 1945. Towards the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, immediately after World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, and elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy
Memento Park is an open-air museum in Budapest, dedicated to monumental statues and sculpted plaques from Hungarys Communist period. There are statues of Lenin and Engels, as well as several Hungarian Communist leaders, the park was designed by Hungarian architect Ákos Eleőd, who won the competition announced by the Budapest General Assembly in 1991. On public transport diagrams and other documents the park is shown as Memorial Park. A quote by the architect on the project, This park is about dictatorship, and at the same time, because it can be talked about, built, this park is about democracy. After all, only democracy is able to give the opportunity to let us think freely about dictatorship, Statue Park houses 42 of the statues/monuments that were removed from Budapest after the fall of communism. After the fall of the Communist regime in Hungary in 1989, many of the Communist statues and these formed the basis for the current collection of statues in the park. On June 29,1993, the anniversary of the withdrawal of the Soviet troops from Hungarian territory.
2006 marked a new chapter in the history of Memento Park, a life-sized copy of the tribune of the Stalin Monument in Budapest was built in the Statue Park with the broken bronze shoes on top of the pedestal. This is not a copy of the original but only an artistic recreation by Ákos Eleőd. In 2007 a new hall and a small movie theater were opened in the Witness Square of Memento Park. In the barracks-theater one can see The Life of an Agent, the film is shown in Hungarian with English subtitles. “…I studied the plans of the Memento Park project with great interest, I find it a promising plan to keep our historical memory alive and to strengthen citizens’ sense of responsibility and commitment to sustain democracy. -- Zoltán Pokorni, Minister of Education “The question of the Statue Park is of historical significance, dictatorships chip away at and plaster over their past in order to get rid of all memories of previous ages. Democracy is the regime that is prepared to accept that our past with all the dead ends is still ours, we should get to know it, analyse it.
All of the statues, were positioned according to the sculptural and architectural plans. This park is not about the statues or the sculptors, but a critique of the ideology that used these statues as symbols of authority. —Ákos Eleőd, Architect. Memento Park, beyond its role as a tourist attraction, functions as a cultural and educational site housing art projects, professional, there are Retro Festivals, Film Festivals, and several cultural programs. To the youngest visitors, there is a program that sheds light on the exhibits
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a union of national republics, but its government. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917 and this established the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic and started the Russian Civil War between the revolutionary Reds and the counter-revolutionary Whites. In 1922, the communists were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Ukrainian, following Lenins death in 1924, a collective leadership and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin suppressed all opposition to his rule, committed the state ideology to Marxism–Leninism. As a result, the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization which laid the foundation for its victory in World War II and postwar dominance of Eastern Europe. Shortly before World War II, Stalin signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, in June 1941, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theater of war in history.
Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at battles such as Stalingrad. Soviet forces eventually captured Berlin in 1945, the territory overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Eastern Bloc. The Cold War emerged by 1947 as the Soviet bloc confronted the Western states that united in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1949. Following Stalins death in 1953, a period of political and economic liberalization, known as de-Stalinization and Khrushchevs Thaw, the country developed rapidly, as millions of peasants were moved into industrialized cities. The USSR took a lead in the Space Race with Sputnik 1, the first ever satellite, and Vostok 1. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, the war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost.
The goal was to preserve the Communist Party while reversing the economic stagnation, the Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989 Soviet satellite countries in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist regimes. This led to the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the USSR as well, in August 1991, a coup détat was attempted by Communist Party hardliners. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a role in facing down the coup. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the twelve constituent republics emerged from the dissolution of the Soviet Union as independent post-Soviet states
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Government of National Unity (Hungary)
The Government of National Unity existed during the occupation of Hungary by Nazi Germany between October 1944 and May 1945. Formed by the Nazi Arrow Cross Party, it was established on 17 October 1944 after Regent Miklós Horthy was removed from power during Operation Panzerfaust, Arrow Cross leader Ferenc Szálasi became Prime Minister and, as Nation Leader, the head of state. After Miklós Horthy announced an armistice with the Allies on 15 October, to spare his sons life, Horthy signed a statement announcing both his abdication and the appointment of Arrow Cross leader Ferenc Szálasi as Magyar királyi miniszterelnök on 16 October. He was deported to Germany and this act merely rubber-stamped an Arrow Cross coup, as Szálasis men had taken over Budapest the previous night. The Hungarian parliament approved the formation of a Council of Regency of three on 17 October, on 4 November, Szálasi was sworn as Leader of the Nation. He formed a government of sixteen ministers, half of which were members of the Arrow Cross Party and he did this in order to reduce the threat to Germany.
Szálasis aim was to create a one-party state based on his Hungarist ideology, on 21 December 1944, with the approval of the Soviet Union, Béla Miklós was elected as the Prime Minister of a counter Hungarian government in Soviet-controlled Debrecen. Miklós was a commander of the Hungarian First Army. He had failed in his efforts to many of the men under his command to switch sides. The government that Miklós oversaw was a government and maintained control in the Soviet-occupied portions of Hungary. Upon the total Nazi and Fascist takeover, Hungary faced impending occupation by the Soviet Union, the Red Army was already deep inside the country, effectively limiting the Arrow Cross regimes jurisdiction to an ever-narrowing band of territory around Budapest. Seen in this context, the Arrow Cross regime was short, in cooperation with the Nazis, Szálasi restarted the deportations of Jews, particularly in Budapest. Thousands more Jews were killed by Arrow Cross members, of the approximately 800,000 Jews residing within Hungarys expanded borders of 1941, only 200,000 survived the Holocaust.
An estimated 28,000 Hungarian Roma were killed as part of the Porajmos, Szálasi envisioned a new economic order, which he called the Corporate order of the Working nation. Even as Hungary was in chaos, Szálasi refused theoretically to compromise Hungarian sovereignty, trying to retain command of all Hungarian military units. Ethnic Germans were still not allowed to join the Arrow Cross Party, at the beginning of December, Szálasi and his government relocated out of Budapest as Soviet troops advanced towards the capital. In a scorched earth strategy, the German armed forces destroyed Hungarian infrastructure as the Soviets closed in, in December 1944, the Battle of Budapest began. Fascist forces loyal to Szálasi and the badly damaged remnants of the Hungarian First Army fought alongside German forces and they fought against the Red Army to no avail
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial climbers, shrubs and trees commonly known as palm trees. They are flowering plants, a family in the monocot order Arecales, currently 181 genera with around 2600 species are known, most of them restricted to tropical and warm temperate climates. Most palms are distinguished by their large, evergreen leaves, known as fronds, palms exhibit an enormous diversity in physical characteristics and inhabit nearly every type of habitat within their range, from rainforests to deserts. Palms are among the best known and most extensively cultivated plant families and they have been important to humans throughout much of history. Many common products and foods are derived from palms, and palms are widely used in landscaping, making them one of the most economically important plants. In many historical cultures, palms were symbols for such ideas as victory, for inhabitants of cooler climates today, palms symbolize the tropics and vacations. Whether as shrubs, trees, or vines, palms have two methods of growth, solitary or clustered, the common representation is that of a solitary shoot ending in a crown of leaves.
This monopodial character may be exhibited by prostrate, some common palms restricted to solitary growth include Washingtonia and Roystonea. Palms may instead grow in sparse though dense clusters, the trunk develops an axillary bud at a leaf node, usually near the base, from which a new shoot emerges. The new shoot, in turn, produces an axillary bud, exclusively sympodial genera include many of the rattans and Rhapis. Several palm genera have both solitary and clustering members, Palms which are usually solitary may grow in clusters, and vice versa. These aberrations suggest the habit operates on a single gene, Palms have large, evergreen leaves that are either palmately or pinnately compound and spirally arranged at the top of the stem. The leaves have a sheath at the base that usually splits open on one side at maturity. The inflorescence is a spadix or spike surrounded by one or more bracts or spathes that become woody at maturity, the flowers are generally small and white, radially symmetric, and can be either uni- or bisexual.
The sepals and petals usually number three each, and may be distinct or joined at the base, the stamens generally number six, with filaments that may be separate, attached to each other, or attached to the pistil at the base. The fruit is usually a single-seeded drupe but some genera may contain two or more seeds in each fruit, like all monocots, palms do not have the ability to increase the width of a stem via the same kind of vascular cambium found in non-monocot woody plants. This explains the shape of the trunk that is often seen in palms. The Arecaceae are notable among monocots for their height and for the size of their seeds, Ceroxylon quindiuense, Colombias national tree, is the tallest monocot in the world, reaching up to 60 m tall
Hungarian Parliament Building
It lies in Lajos Kossuth Square, on the bank of the Danube. It is currently the largest building in Hungary and still the tallest building in Budapest, Budapest was united from three cities in 1873 and seven years the Diet resolved to establish a new, representative Parliament Building, expressing the sovereignty of the nation. The building was planned to face the river, construction from the winning plan was started in 1885 and the building was inaugurated on the 1000th anniversary of the country in 1896, and completed in 1904. About 100,000 people were involved in construction, during which 40 million bricks, since World War II the legislature became unicameral and today the government uses only a small portion of the building. During the communist regime a red star perched on the top of the dome, mátyás Szűrös declared the Hungarian Republic from the balcony facing Kossuth Lajos Square on 23 October 1989. The Parliament Building is in the Gothic Revival style, it has a symmetrical façade, the dome is Renaissance Revival architecture.
Also from inside the parliament is symmetrical and thus has two absolutely identical parliament halls out of one is used for the politics, the other one is used for guided tours. It is 268 m long and 123 m wide and its interior includes 10 courtyards,13 passenger and freight elevators,27 gates,29 staircases and 691 rooms. With its height of 96 m, it is one of the two tallest buildings in Budapest, along with Saint Stephens Basilica, the number 96 refers to the nations millennium,1896, and the conquest of the Kingdom of Hungary in 896. The main façade overlooks the River Danube, but the main entrance is from the square on the east side of the building. Inside and outside, there are altogether 242 sculptures on the walls, the façade displays statues of Hungarian rulers, Transylvanian leaders and famous military figures. The coats of arms of kings and dukes are depicted over the windows, the east stairs is flanked by two lions. When entering the Parliament, visitors can walk up great ornamental stairs, see frescoes on the ceiling and pass by the bust of the creator, Imre Steindl, other statues include those of Árpád, Stephen I and John Hunyadi.
One of the parts of the building is the hexadecagonal central hall, with huge chambers adjoining it, the Lower House. The modern National Assembly is unicameral and meets in the Lower House, while the Upper House is used as a conference, the Holy Crown of Hungary, which is depicted in the coat of arms of Hungary, has been displayed in the central hall since 2000. Further features include the glass and glass mosaics by Miksa Róth. Due to its surface and its detailed handiwork, the building is almost always under renovation. The Parliament is accessible with Line 2 of the Budapest Metro and with tram line 2, at the east front of the building is a memorial to the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, as well as the imposing Kossuth Memorial and the equestrian statue of Francis II Rákóczi