Lady Justice is an allegorical personification of the moral force in judicial systems. Her attributes are a blindfold, a balance, a sword, she appears as a pair with Prudentia, who holds a mirror and a snake. Lady Justice originates from the personification of Justice in Ancient Roman art known as Iustitia or Justitia after Latin: Iustitia, equivalent to the Greek goddesses Themis and Dike; the origin of Lady Justice was the goddess of Justice within Roman mythology. Iustitia was introduced by emperor Augustus, was thus not a old deity in the Roman pantheon. Iustice was one of the virtues celebrated by emperor Augustus in his clipeus virtutis, a Temple of Iustitia was established in Rome 8 January 13 BC by emperor Tiberius. Iustitia became a symbol for the virtue of justice with which every emperor wished to associate his regime. Though formally called a goddess with her own temple and cult shrine in Rome, it appears that she was from the onset viewed more as an artistic symbolic personification rather than as an actual deity with religious significance.
The personification of justice balancing the scales dates back to the goddess Maat, Isis, of ancient Egypt. The Hellenic deities Themis and Dike were goddesses of justice. Themis was the embodiment of divine order and custom, in her aspect as the personification of the divine rightness of law. Lady Justice is most depicted with a set of scales suspended from one hand, upon which she measures the strengths of a case's support and opposition; the Greek goddess Dike is depicted holding a set of scales. Bacchylides, Fragment 5: If some god had been holding level the balance of Dike; the scales represent the weighing of evidence, the scales lack a foundation in order to signify that evidence should stand on its own. Since the 16th century, Lady Justice has been depicted wearing a blindfold; the blindfold represents impartiality, the ideal that justice should be applied without regard to wealth, power, or other status. The earliest Roman coins depicted Justitia with the sword in one hand and the scale in the other, but with her eyes uncovered.
Justitia was only represented as "blind" since the middle of the 16th century. The first known representation of blind Justice is Hans Gieng's 1543 statue on the Gerechtigkeitsbrunnen in Berne. Instead of using the Janus approach, many sculptures leave out the blindfold altogether. For example, atop the Old Bailey courthouse in London, a statue of Lady Justice stands without a blindfold. Another variation is to depict a blindfolded Lady Justice as a human scale, weighing competing claims in each hand. An example of this can be seen at the Shelby County Courthouse in Tennessee; the sword represented authority in ancient times, conveys the idea that justice can be swift and final. The Greco-Roman garment symbolizes the status of the philosophical attitude. Justice in sculpture Justice in relief Justice in painting Lady Justice and her symbols are used in heraldry in the arms of legal government agencies. Justice in heraldry Justice in numismatics: Astraea, Themis, Prudentia: Adikia: Themis/Dike/Justitia, Raguel Nemesis/Rhamnousia/Rhamnusia/Adrasteia/Adrestia/Invidia Eleos/Soteria/Clementia, Zadkiel/Zachariel 5 Astraea, 24 Themis, 99 Dike and 269 Justitia, main belt asteroids all named for Astraea, Themis and Justitia, Classical goddesses of justice.
Durga, Hindu goddess of justice Lady Luck Lady Liberty Statue of Liberty DOJ Seal - History and Motto Origin of Lady of Justice Images of the Goddess of Justice Photos of Lady Justice ladyjusticesculpture.com
Sagittarius is the ninth astrological sign, associated with the constellation Sagittarius and spans 240–270th degrees of the zodiac. Under the tropical zodiac, the sun transits this sign between November 23 and December 21. Greek mythology associates Sagittarius with the centaur Chiron, who mentored Achilles, a Greek hero of the Trojan War, in archery. Sagittarius, the half human and half horse, is the centaur of mythology, the learned healer whose higher intelligence forms a bridge between Earth and Heaven. Known as the Archer, Sagittarius is represented by the symbol of a bow and arrow. Along with Aries and Leo, Sagittarius is a part of the Fire Trigon as well as the last of the reproductive trinity, it follows Gemini and Virgo as third of the mutable signs, which are the signs that feature changeable quality. The symbol of the zodiac sign is a Centaur armed with arrows following an old tradition coming from Ancient Greece and from other cultures of the past; the image of the sign says a lot about his features: he's able to be violent or wise, brave or mild.
When Sagittarius is depicted as an archer he is classified as human but when represented as a centaur, he is nonhuman. However, the classification of the astrological sign as a human or bestial does not carry practical consequences for interpretation; as an archer, Sagittarius is said never to fail in hitting the mark and this depiction alludes to the power of prophecy, the claim that seers and prophets are born in this sign. Anastasi, Sandy. Astrology: Art and Science. Bloomington, IN: Balboa Press. ISBN 9781452583921. Astronomical Applications Department. Multiyear Computer Interactive Almanac. 2.2.2. Washington DC: US Naval Observatory. Longitude of Sun, apparent geocentric ecliptic of date, interpolated to find time of crossing 0°, 30°.... Atsma, Aaron J.. "Kheiron: Greek goddess of justice". Leo, Alan. Astrology for All. New York: Cosimo,Inc. ISBN 1596059249. Lewis, James; the Astrology Book: The Encyclopedia of Heavenly Influences. Canton, MI: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 1578591449. Reid, Lori; the Guide to Astrology.
Parragon, flo Street house, 4 Queen Street, Bath BA1 1HU, usa: isaiah. ISBN 9781407511306. Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends 8° north or south of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year. The paths of the Moon and visible planets are within the belt of the zodiac. In Western astrology, astronomy, the zodiac is divided into twelve signs, each occupying 30° of celestial longitude and corresponding to the constellations Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius, Capricorn and Pisces; the twelve astrological signs form a celestial coordinate system, or more an ecliptic coordinate system, which takes the ecliptic as the origin of latitude and the Sun's position at vernal equinox as the origin of longitude. The English word zodiac derives from zōdiacus, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek zōidiakòs kýklos, meaning "cycle or circle of little animals". Zōidion is the diminutive of zōion; the name reflects the prominence of animals among the twelve signs. The zodiac was in use by the Roman era, based on concepts inherited by Hellenistic astronomy from Babylonian astronomy of the Chaldean period, which, in turn, derived from an earlier system of lists of stars along the ecliptic.
The construction of the zodiac is described in the Almagest. Although the zodiac remains the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system in use in astronomy besides the equatorial one, the term and the names of the twelve signs are today associated with horoscopic astrology; the term "zodiac" may refer to the region of the celestial sphere encompassing the paths of the planets corresponding to the band of about eight arc degrees above and below the ecliptic. The zodiac of a given planet is the band. By extension, the "zodiac of the comets" may refer to the band encompassing most short-period comets; the division of the ecliptic into the zodiacal signs originates in Babylonian astronomy during the first half of the 1st millennium BC. The zodiac draws on stars in earlier Babylonian star catalogues, such as the MUL. APIN catalogue, compiled around 1000 BC; some of the constellations can be traced further back, to Bronze Age sources, including Gemini "The Twins", from MAŠ. TAB. BA. GAL. GAL "The Great Twins", Cancer "The Crab", from AL.
LUL "The Crayfish", among others. Around the end of the 5th century BC, Babylonian astronomers divided the ecliptic into twelve equal "signs", by analogy to twelve schematic months of thirty days each; each sign contained thirty degrees of celestial longitude, thus creating the first known celestial coordinate system. According to calculations by modern astrophysics, the zodiac was introduced between 409 and 398 BC and within a few years of 401 BC Unlike modern astronomers, who place the beginning of the sign of Aries at the place of the Sun at the vernal equinox; the divisions do not correspond to where the constellations started and ended in the sky. The Sun in fact passed through at least 13, not 12 Babylonian constellations. In order to align with the number of months in a year, designers of the system omitted the major constellation Ophiuchus. Including smaller figures, astronomers have counted up to 21 eligible zodiac constellations. Changes in the orientation of the Earth's axis of rotation means that the time of year the sun is in a given constellation has changed since Babylonian times.
Because the division was made into equal arcs, 30° each, they constituted an ideal system of reference for making predictions about a planet's longitude. However, Babylonian techniques of observational measurements were in a rudimentary stage of evolution and they measured the position of a planet in reference to a set of "normal stars" close to the ecliptic as observational reference points to help positioning a planet within this ecliptic coordinate system. In Babylonian astronomical diaries, a planet position was given with respect to a zodiacal sign alone, less in specific degrees within a sign; when the degrees of longitude were given, they were expressed with reference to the 30° of the zodiacal sign, i.e. not with a reference to the continuous 360° ecliptic. In astronomical ephemerides, the positions of significant astronomical phenomena were computed in sexagesimal fractions of a degree. For daily ephemerides, the daily positions of a planet were not as important as the astrologically significant dates when the planet crossed from one zodiacal sign to the next.
Knowledge of the Babylonian zodiac is reflected in the Hebrew Bible. Some authors have linked the twelve tribes of Israel with the twelve signs and/or the lunar Hebrew calendar having 12 lunar months in a lunar year. Martin and others have argued that the arrangement of the tribes around the Tabernacle corresponded to the order of the Zodiac, with Judah, Reuben and Dan representing the middle signs of Leo, Aquarius and Scorpio, respectively; such connectio
Aries is the first astrological sign in the zodiac, spanning the first 30 degrees of celestial longitude. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun transits this sign from March 20 to April 21 each year; this time duration is the first month of the Solar Hijri calendar. The symbol of the ram is based on the flying ram that provided the Golden Fleece. According to the tropical system of astrology, the Sun enters the sign of Aries when it reaches the March equinox, which occurs on average on March 21; because the Earth takes 365.24 days to go around the Sun, the precise time of the equinox is not the same each year, will occur about six hours from one year to the next until reset by a leap year. February 29 of a leap year causes that year's vernal equinox to fall about eighteen hours earlier compared with the previous year. From 1800 to 2050 inclusive the vernal equinox date has range from March 19 at 22:34 UT1 in 2048 to March 21 at 19:15 UT1 in 1903. Under the sidereal zodiac, the sun transits Aries from April 15 to 14 May.
Aries is the first fire sign in the zodiac, the other fire signs being Sagittarius. Individuals born between these dates, depending on which system of astrology they subscribe to, may be called Arians or Ariens; the equivalent in the Hindu solar calendar is Meṣa. Astronomical Applications Department. Multiyear Computer Interactive Almanac. 2.2.2. Washington DC: US Naval Observatory. For time of Sun's entry or exit from a sign, calculate Longitude of Sun, apparent geocentric ecliptic of date, interpolated to find time of crossing 0°, 30°..... For list of vernal equinox dates calculate phenomena: solstices/equinoxes, choosing UT1 and years 1800 through 2050. Atsma, Aaron J.. "Chrysomallus". The Theoi Project: Greek mythology. Oxford Dictionaries. N.d. Retrieved December 23, 2018. Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
Virgo, is the sixth astrological sign in the Zodiac. It spans the 150-180th degree of the zodiac. Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun transits this area on average between August 23 and September 22, the Sun transits the constellation of Virgo from September 16 to October 30. Individuals born during these dates, depending on which system of astrology they subscribe to, may be called Virgos or Virgoans; the symbol of the maiden is based on Astraea. In Greek mythology, she was the last immortal to abandon Earth at the end of the Silver Age, when the gods fled to Olympus – hence the sign's association with Earth; the constellation Virgo has multiple different origins depending on which mythology is being studied. Most myths view Virgo as a virgin/maiden with heavy association with wheat. In Greek and Roman mythology they relate the constellation to Demeter, mother of Persephone, or Proserpina, the Roman goddess of the harvest. Another association is with the myth of Parthenos, which explains how the actual constellation Virgo came to be.
In the legend, Parthenos is the daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis, sister to Rhoio and Molpadia. Rhoio had been impregnated by Apollo, but when her father discovered her pregnancy, he assumed it was by a random suitor and was ashamed; as punishment, he threw her in a river. After the terrible fate of their sister and Molpadia lived in fear of their father's terrible wrath. One evening, Staphylus left his daughters in charge of a valuable bottle of wine; when they both accidentally fell asleep, one of their swine broke the bottle. Terrified of their father, the sisters threw themselves off, but because of his previous relations with Rhoio, Apollo saved her two sisters and delivered them to the safety of nearby cities in Cherronseos. Molpadia ended up in Castabus where she changed her name to Hemithea and was worshipped as a local goddess for many years. Parthenos settled in Bubastus where she was worshipped as a local goddess. According to another story, Parthenos was a daughter of Apollo who made the constellation to commemorate her death at a young age.
While this is only one myth of the origin of Virgo, she is seen throughout all manner of myths. In Egyptian mythology, the time when the constellation Virgo was in the sun was the beginning of the wheat harvest, thus connecting Virgo back to the wheat grain. Virgo has the equivalent sign in Indian astrology as the Kanya, has been connected with the Virgin Mary. Allen, Richard Hinckley. Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning. Nineola: Dover Publications. Astronomical Applications Department. Multiyear Computer Interactive Almanac. 2.2.2. Washington DC: US Naval Observatory. Longitude of Sun, apparent geocentric ecliptic of date, interpolated to find time of crossing 0°, 30°.... Atsma, Aaron J.. "ASTRAEA: Greek goddess of justice". Rigoglioso, Marguerite. "Artemis's Divine Birth Priestesshood". The Cult of Divine Birth in Ancient Greece. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Shapiro, Lee. "The Real Constellations of the Zodiac". International Planetarium Society. Retrieved September 9, 2018. "Virgo". Encyclopedia Britannica.
N.d. Retrieved 2018-09-20. "Virgo". Oxford Dictionaries. N.d. Retrieved December 23, 2018. "Virgoan – Dictionary definition and pronunciation - Yahoo! Education". Education.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on October 8, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2012. Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
In astrology, a planet's domicile is the zodiac sign over which it has rulership. This is a separate concept from the houses of the horoscope. A planetary ruler is given to each sign, over which the planet is said to have a more powerful influence when positioned therein. A planet is considered to be in domal dignity; this is the strongest of the five essential dignities of a planet. The assignments of the ruling planets appear to be based upon the Northern Hemisphere seasons, as the sun and the moon, the principal bearers of light and heat, were awarded to Leo and Cancer since the months the sun passed through these signs were the warmest and had the longest days. Conversely, the most distant of the planets known to ancients, was accorded the rulership of Aquarius and Capricorn, the signs opposite Leo and Cancer, respectively. Jupiter, being next farthest away, was given the signs on either side of Aquarius and Capricorn, Mars, next in order, received the next two. Since Mercury never appears more than one sign from the sun in either direction, it was deemed to rule the two signs on either side of Leo and Cancer, since Venus can never be found more than two signs from the Sun, it obtained the rulership of Libra and Taurus.
The discovery of planets outside of the geocentric field of vision in modern times provided a dilemma for astrologers, which most resolved by a general consensus declaring Uranus to be Aquarius' ruling planet, while assigning Neptune to Pisces and Pluto was given to Scorpio. Some modern authorities uses the concept of "night rulerships" to find room for the additional dignities. Uranus was designated the day ruler of Aquarius. Neptune was the day ruler of Pisces, leaving Jupiter as the night ruler, Pluto was the day ruler of Scorpio with Mars as the night ruler; this notion had its origin in the concept of astrological sect, but this was the only vestige of sect in the modern tradition. No allowance was made for these modern suggestions in the complex traditional doctrine of essential dignities, but the idea was popular; the use of dual rulerships in a manner such as this was be known as "co-rulership". Some astrologers believed that the new co-rulers were primary rulers of the signs with which they were associated and might have been sole rulers of those signs, if, the case, two other planets, one linked to Libra or Taurus, the other to Virgo or Gemini, may await discovery, thus eliminating the need for dual rulership of a sign altogether.
Although the status of Ceres is unknown at the moment in astrology, due to its new definition as a dwarf planet, it has been suggested as the ruler of Virgo or Taurus. For some modern astrologers it is the ruling planet of Virgo and co-ruler of the 6th house with Mercury, for some others the ruling planet of Taurus and the 2nd house with Venus; the possibility exists that it isn't involved with any sign, but in any event, it can definitely be attributed to the Earth element. Many modern astrologers assign what is called a "natural" rulership of each house of the horoscope to a different planet, in the same way as the zodiac signs are said to have rulers. Traditionally, rulership of houses was understood to apply only in the individual birth-chart, in what is called an "accidental" rulership. In this case, co-rulership of a house in the "native's" horoscope is shared by planets that rule the sign on the cusp and any sign intercepted within the house and planets occupying that house. There are several different scenarios that one can use to determine rulership of a house:- If by chance the first house cusp is, say, 0 degrees Aries and the second house cusp is 0 degrees Taurus, the house will be ruled by Aries.
If, for example, the second house cusp is 0 degrees Taurus and the third house cusp is 5 degrees Gemini the house will have Venus as its primary ruler and Mercury as its secondary ruler. If, as an example, the fourth house cusp as 27 degrees Libra on it and the fifth house cusp has 8 degrees Sagittarius the house will be intercepted, it will have Venus as its primary ruler, but in addition to Venus, Pluto and Jupiter will be secondary rulers. When a person attempts to determine the rulership of a house, the more planets or bodies that rule that house will reveal its complexity; the sign on the cusp will be the outward representation of the rulership, but the ruler of the sign inside the house will not be apparent, but will manifest itself at critical points in a person's life. As in the case of intercepted houses, the sign, in the middle of the house is the sign that the native must transcend before he can progress to the next phase of the house's rulership. Therefore, as in the previous example, if a house is intercepted with the sign of Scorpio the native must will be presented with many Libran qualities, but must work through those intense issues of sex and regeneration before he will be able to enjoy the benefits of Jupiter, which will be the last and ultimate state the native must work through before he has experienced all of the aspects of that house.
No consensus has been reached by astrologers accepting the so-called "modern" rulership of either Ceres or Earth in lieu of traditional, rather than'ancient', rulers. A distinction must be made between'ancient', modern rulerships in light of the fact that ancient astrology is not known to have assigned what we think of as domicile rulerships, it isn'