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Library (computing)

In computer science, a library is a collection of non-volatile resources used by computer programs for software development. These may include configuration data, help data, message templates, pre-written code and subroutines, values or type specifications. In IBM's OS/360 and its successors they are referred to as partitioned data sets. A library is a collection of implementations of behavior, written in terms of a language, that has a well-defined interface by which the behavior is invoked. For instance, people who want to write a higher level program can use a library to make system calls instead of implementing those system calls over and over again. In addition, the behavior is provided for reuse by multiple independent programs. A program invokes the library-provided behavior via a mechanism of the language. For example, in a simple imperative language such as C, the behavior in a library is invoked by using C's normal function-call. What distinguishes the call as being to a library function, versus being to another function in the same program, is the way that the code is organized in the system.

Library code is organized in such a way that it can be used by multiple programs that have no connection to each other, while code, part of a program is organized to be used only within that one program. This distinction can gain a hierarchical notion when a program grows large, such as a multi-million-line program. In that case, there may be internal libraries that are reused by independent sub-portions of the large program; the distinguishing feature is that a library is organized for the purposes of being reused by independent programs or sub-programs, the user only needs to know the interface and not the internal details of the library. The value of a library lies in the reuse of the behavior; when a program invokes a library, it gains the behavior implemented inside that library without having to implement that behavior itself. Libraries encourage the sharing of code in a modular fashion, ease the distribution of the code; the behavior implemented by a library can be connected to the invoking program at different program lifecycle phases.

If the code of the library is accessed during the build of the invoking program the library is called a static library. An alternative is to build the executable of the invoking program and distribute that, independently of the library implementation; the library behavior is connected after the executable has been invoked to be executed, either as part of the process of starting the execution, or in the middle of execution. In this case the library is called a dynamic library. A dynamic library can be linked when preparing a program for execution, by the linker. Alternatively, in the middle of execution, an application may explicitly request that a module be loaded. Most compiled languages have a standard library although programmers can create their own custom libraries. Most modern software systems provide libraries; such libraries have commoditized the services. As such, most code used by modern applications is provided in these system libraries; the earliest programming concepts analogous to libraries were intended to separate data definitions from the program implementation.

JOVIAL brought the "COMPOOL" concept to popular attention in 1959, although it adopted the idea from the large-system SAGE software. Following the computer science principles of separation of concerns and information hiding, "Comm Pool's purpose was to permit the sharing of System Data among many programs by providing a centralized data description."COBOL included "primitive capabilities for a library system" in 1959, but Jean Sammet described them as "inadequate library facilities" in retrospect. Another major contributor to the modern library concept came in the form of the subprogram innovation of FORTRAN. FORTRAN subprograms can be compiled independently of each other. So prior to the introduction of modules in Fortran-90, type checking between FORTRAN subprograms was impossible. Historians of the concept should remember the influential Simula 67. Simula was the first object-oriented programming language, its classes were nearly identical to the modern concept as used in Java, C++, C#; the class concept of Simula was a progenitor of the package in Ada and the module of Modula-2.

When developed in 1965, Simula classes could be included in library files and added at compile time. Libraries are important in the program linking or binding process, which resolves references known as links or symbols to library modules; the linking process is automatically done by a linker or binder program that searches a set of libraries and other modules in a given order. It is not considered an error if a link target can be found multiple times in a given set of libraries. Linking may be done whenever the program is used at runtime; the references being resolved may be addresses for other routine calls. They may be in one module depending upon another, they are resolved into fixed or relocatable addresses by allocating runtime memory for the memory segments of each module referenced. Some programming languages may use a feature called smart linking whereby the linker is aware of or integrated with the compiler, such that the linker knows how external references are used, code in a library, never used though internally referenced, can be discarded from the compiled application.

For example, a program that only uses integers for arithmetic, or does no arithmetic operations at all, can e

Kobuchizawa Station

Kobuchizawa Station is a railway station on the Chuo Main Line in Kobuchisawa in the city of Hokuto, Yamanashi Prefecture, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Kobuchizawa Station is served by the Chuo Main Line and is located 173.7 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Tokyo Station. It forms the starting point of the rural Koumi Line to Komoro in Nagano Prefecture. Kobuchizawa Station has two island platforms connected to a wooden station building by a footbridge; the station has a "Midori no Madoguchi" staffed ticket office. The station opened on December 21, 1904 as a station on the Japanese Government Railways.. The Koumi Line began operations from the station on July 27, 1933.. The JGR became the Japanese National Railways after the end of World War II. With the dissolution and privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987, the station came under the control of the East Japan Railway Company; the station has been rebuilt and opened in 2017, with the new structure, designed by architectural firm Atsushi Kitagawara Architects.

In fiscal 2017, the station was used by an average of 1,532 passengers daily. Kobuchizawa Interchange on the Chuo Expressway Resort Outlets Yatsugatake shopping center Teikyo Daisan High School List of railway stations in Japan Miyoshi Kozo. Chuo-sen Machi to eki Hyaku-niju nen. JT Publishing ISBN 453307698X JR全線全駅ステーション倶楽部編. Tokyo, Japan: Bunshun Bunko. September 1988. P. 145. ISBN 4-16-748701-2. Official website

John Cosin

John Cosin was an English churchman. He was born at Norwich, was educated at Norwich School and at Caius College, where he was scholar and afterwards fellow. On taking orders he was appointed secretary to John Overall, Bishop of Lichfield, domestic chaplain to Richard Neile, Bishop of Durham. In December 1624 he was made a prebendary of Durham, on 9 September 1625 Archdeacon of the East Riding of Yorkshire. In 1630 he received his degree of Doctor of Divinity, he first became known as an author in 1627, when he published his Collection of Private Devotions, a manual stated to have been prepared by command of King Charles I, for the use of Queen Henrietta Maria's maids of honour. This book, together with his insistence on points of ritual in his cathedral church and his friendship with William Laud, exposed Cosin to the hostility of the Puritans. In 1628 Cosin took part in the prosecution of a brother prebendary, Peter Smart, for a sermon against high church practices. On 8 February 1635 Cosin was appointed master of Cambridge.

In October of this year he was promoted to the deanery of Peterborough. A few days before his installation the Long Parliament had met, his petition against the new dean was considered. Articles of impeachment were presented against him two months but he was dismissed on bail. For sending the university plate to the king, he was deprived of the mastership of Peterhouse, he went to France, preached at Paris, served as chaplain to some members of the household of the exiled royal family. At the Restoration he returned to England, was reinstated in the mastership, restored to all his benefices, in a few months raised to the see of Durham – he therefore resigned from the Mastership of Peterhouse on 18 October 1660. Cosin noted that Auckland Castle in the town of Bishop Auckland was empty and that its chapel was in ruin, he was elected to that See on 5 November. Cosin was responsible for a style of church woodwork unique to County Durham, a sumptuous fusion of gothic and contemporary Jacobean forms.

The font cover in Durham Cathedral is a splendid example of this, as are the displays in the churches at Sedgefield and elsewhere. The Cosin woodwork at Brancepeth has sadly been destroyed by fire. At the convocation in 1661 Cosin played a prominent part in the revision of the prayer-book, endeavoured with some success to bring both prayers and rubrics into better agreement with ancient liturgies, he administered his diocese for eleven years. He died in London in 1672, he had married Frances, the daughter of Marmaduke Blakiston on 15 August 1626 at St Margaret's, Durham. Though a classical high churchman and a rigorous enforcer of outward conformity, Cosin was uncompromisingly hostile to Roman Catholicism, most of his writings illustrate this antagonism. In France he was on friendly terms with Huguenots, justifying himself on the ground that their non-episcopal ordination had not been of their own seeking, at the Savoy conference in 1661 he tried hard to effect a reconciliation with the Presbyterians.

He differed from the majority of his colleagues in his strict attitude towards Sunday observance and in favouring, in the case of adultery, both divorce and the remarriage of the innocent party. On a theological point of view, Cosin is considered to be an Arminian anti-Calvinist. In particular, his book of devotions is considered by historians as Arminian and imbued with sacramentalism. Among his writings are a Historia Transubstantiationis Papalis and Collections on the Book of Common Prayer and A Scholastical History of the Canon of Holy Scripture. A collected edition of his works, forming 5 vols of the Oxford Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology, was published between 1843 and 1855. Among his notable work was the translation of "Veni Creator Spiritus" included in the 1662 revision of the Book of Common Prayer. 1594–1623: John Cosin Esq. 1623–1624: The Reverend John Cosin 1624–1625: The Reverend Prebendary John Cosin 1625–1630: The Venerable John Cosin 1630–1640: The Venerable Doctor John Cosin 1640–1660: The Very Reverend Doctor John Cosin 1660–1672: The Right Reverend Doctor John Cosin Tyacke, Nicholas.

Anti-Calvinists: the rise of English Arminianism, c. 1590-1640. Oxford: Clarendon. Cressy, David. England on Edge: Crisis and Revolution 1640-1642. Oxford: Oxford University; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Cosin, John". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 213–214. Project Canterbury: The Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology

Robert T. Lackey

Robert T. Lackey is a Canadian born fisheries scientist and political scientist living in the United States, he is best known for his work involving the interplay between science and policy, natural resource management, assessments of the future of salmon runs. Lackey is a professor of fisheries and wildlife and adjunct professor of political science at Oregon State University. From 1981-2008, he held senior leadership posts at the United States Environmental Protection Agency research laboratory in Corvallis, Oregon. Robert Thomas Lackey received a B. S. from Humboldt State University in 1967. He entered the Zoology graduate program at the University of Maine to study “Seasonal abundance and availability of forage fishes and their utilization by landlocked Atlantic salmon and brook trout in Echo Lake, Mount Desert Island, Maine“ under the advisement of Professor W. Harry Everhart. After obtaining an M. S. in 1968, Lackey enrolled in the graduate program at Colorado State University to pursue a doctorate.

His research on the “Effects of artificial destratification on a lake ecosystem“ was supervised by Professor Everhart who had left the University of Maine to become head of the fisheries program at Colorado State University. In 1971, Lackey was awarded a PhD and was hired by Virginia Tech as an assistant professor of fisheries. In 1973, he was promoted to Associate Professor at Virginia Tech. In 1976-77, he spent a sabbatical year in Washington, D. C. working with the United States Fish and Wildlife Service Environment Program as the national program coordinator. In 1977, he resumed teaching and research, he left Virginia Tech in 1979 to assume leadership of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s National Water Resources Analysis Group located in Leetown, West Virginia. In 1981, he accepted a job as senior biologist with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency research laboratory in Corvallis, Oregon. In 1982, he became Courtesy Professor in the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University, a position that he continues to hold.

Lackey’s career with the EPA laboratory in Corvallis included a variety of senior leadership posts, including Deputy Director, a position he held from 1989 to 2000. In 1999, Lackey was awarded a senior Fulbright Fellowship and spend his tenure at the University of Northern British Columbia in Prince George. Lackey retired from the Environmental Protection Agency in 2008 to work at Oregon State University. Lackey career evolved from his early focus on solving practical fisheries problems to his more recent efforts to better define the appropriate role of scientific information and scientists in natural resource policy. Lackey’s leadership in developing policy options to restore wild salmon to the west coast of the United States is well known and controversial, it has been criticized for being overly pessimistic, but is regarded by others as a blunt assessor of reality. In 2005, he completed the Salmon 2100 Project; this project mobilized three dozen senior scientists and policy exports to develop practical policy options that, if implemented, would restore wild salmon runs in California, Washington and southern British Columbia.

The book of the same title was published in 2006. He lectures advocating the view that scientists should be vigilant about keeping their personal policy preferences out of their scientific activities, he is a proponent of the view that the pervasive use of normative science is undermining the credibility of the scientific enterprise. His current work focuses on education developing online graduate courses in ecological and natural resource policy. Books Lackey, Robert T. 1974. Introductory Fisheries Science. Sea Grant, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, 280 pp. Lackey, Robert T. and Wayne A. Hubert. Editors. 1978. Analysis of Exploited Fish Populations. Sea Grant, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, 97 pp. Lackey, Robert T. and Larry A. Nielsen. Editors. 1980. Fisheries Management.

John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York, 422 pp. Mazaika, Robert T. Lackey, Stephen L. Friant. Editors. 1995. Ecological Risk Assessment: Use and Alternatives. Amherst Scientific Publishers, Massachusetts. Http:// Lackey, Robert T. Denise H. Lach, Sally L. Duncan. Editors. 2006. Salmon 2100: The Future of Wild Pacific Salmon. American Fisheries Society, Maryland, 629 pp. Journal Publications Lackey, Robert T. 1998. Seven pillars of ecosystem management. Landscape and Urban Planning. 40: 21-30. Http:// Lackey, Robert T. 2003. Pacific Northwest salmon: forecasting their status in 2100. Reviews in Fisheries Science. 11: 35-88. Http:// Lackey, Robert T. 2006.

Axioms of ecological policy. Fisheries. 31: 286-290. Http:// Lackey, Robert T. 2007. Science, scien

Minuscule 350

Minuscule 350, ε 413, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Paleographically it has been assigned to the 11th century, it has marginalia. The codex contains a complete text of the four Gospels on 305 parchment leaves with only one lacuna; the text is written in 21 lines per page. The text is divided according to the κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the margin, with their τιτλοι at the top of the pages. There is a division according to the Ammonian Sections, without references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains lectionary markings at the margin, pictures. Synaxarion, Menologion were added in the 14th century; the first four paper leaves with text of Matthew 1:1-4:25 was added in the 16th century. The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden classified it as Kak. Aland placed it in Category V. According to the Claremont Profile Method it creates to the textual family M350 in Luke 1, Luke 10, Luke 20; the manuscript was bought in 1606 in Taranto.

It was examined by Scholz. The manuscript was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Scholz. C. R. Gregory saw it in 1886; the manuscript is housed at the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism J. M. A. Scholz, Biblisch-kritische Reise, p. 70-73. Catalogus graecorum Bibliothecace Ambrosianae, vol. I, pp. 109–110

Binaca (brand)

Binaca is an oral hygiene brand, marketed in India and owned by Dabur. It was launched in 1951–52 as a toothpaste brand Binaca Top, it sponsored an popular music show on Radio Ceylon and on All India Radio, Binaca Geetmala, hosted by noted radio personality Ameen Sayani. It was owned by Reckitt Benckiser. Dabur launched a toothpowder under the Binaca brand but withdrew within a year as sales volumes were low. Dabur appointed PricewaterhouseCoopers to sell the Binaca brand in 2002 and was looking at a valuation of ₹200 million. However, after it was unable to sell the brand at the price it expected, it announced that it would revive it by marketing a new herbal toothpaste under the Binaca brand. Dabur markets toothbrushes under the Binaca brand. List of toothpaste brands Index of oral health and dental articles Cibaca