A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books, newspapers, films, prints, microform, CDs, videotapes, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs, e-books, audiobooks and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē: derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque; the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.
A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries provide quiet areas for studying, they often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources, they are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing large amounts of information with a variety of digital resources.
Libraries are becoming community hubs where programs are delivered and people engage in lifelong learning. As community centers, libraries are becoming important in helping communities mobilize and organize for their rights; the relationship between librarianship and human rights works to ensure that the rights of cultural minorities, the homeless, the disabled, LGBTQ community, as well as other marginalized groups are not infringed upon as protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC; these archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory and the start of history. Things were much the same in the temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt; the earliest discovered. There is evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC and those at Nineveh about 700 BC showing a library classification system.
Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh, providing modern scholars with an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary and administrative work. Among the findings were the Enuma Elish known as the Epic of Creation, which depicts a traditional Babylonian view of creation; the tablets were stored in a variety of containers such as wooden boxes, woven baskets of reeds, or clay shelves. The "libraries" were cataloged using colophons, which are a publisher's imprint on the spine of a book, or in this case a tablet; the colophons stated the series name, the title of the tablet, any extra information the scribe needed to indicate. The clay tablets were organized by subject and size. Due to limited to bookshelf space, once more tablets were added to the library, older ones were removed, why some tablets are missing from the excavated cities in Mesopotamia. According to legend, mythical philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty.
Evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians. Persia at the time of the Achaemenid Empire was home to some outstanding libraries; those libraries within the kingdom had two major functions: the first came from the need to keep the records of administrative documents including transactions, governmental orders, budget allocation within and between the Satrapies and the central ruling State. The second function was to collect precious resources on different subjects of science and set of principles e.g. medical science, histor
La Quintana known as the Parque Biblioteca Tomás Carrasquilla, is a culturally significant library park in Medellin, Colombia. The library was designed by Ricardo La Rotta Caballero and named after Colombian writer Tomás Carrasquilla; the building is 14,800 square feet and includes reading rooms, computers with internet, terraced architecture with views overlooking Medellin. It is located in the Aures neighborhood in the northwestern quarter of the city, it opened in 2007 and was one of five libraries constructed as part of cultural redevelopment efforts in the city targeted to serve underprivileged communities. The library was purposefully located on the basin of La Quintana creek in order to create a central cultural zone that united the surrounding neighborhoods that were separated by La Quintana; the park space was designed as a "public road" that connects with the roads to the different neighborhoods in the area. The library design consists of two giant blocks; the lower block houses the book computer lab in an enclosed space.
The upper block in an open-air public space for talking and houses a cafeteria. La Ladera Library Spain Library Belén Library San Javier Library
Hiroshi Naito is an architect from Japan. His work includes projects in other countries, he is the principal architect at Hiroshi Naito Architect & Associates. Naito was born in 1950 in Japan, his practice is based in Tokyo. He is known for his modern architecture. Naito is Professor emeritus at the University of Tokyo. Naito received a M. Arch from Graduate School of Waseda University, he was chief architect at Fernand Higueras in Madrid, from 1976 to 1978 and worked at Kikutake Architects in Tokyo from 1979 to 1981. Naito established Naito Architect & Associates in 1981. Naito designed a "dog cooler" for Spitz. Toba Sea-Folk Museum, Mie, 1992 Chihiro Art Museum, Nagano, 1993 and 1993–97 Autopolois Art Museum, Oita, 1993 Fishing Museum Wohn- und Atelierhaus, 1995 and 1997 Ushibuka Fisherman's Wharf, Kumamoto, 1997 Makino Botanical Garden main building and exhibition building, 1999 Koga Municipal Park visitor center, Ibaraki, 1999 Botanisches Museum, 2000 Bashamichi Station, Kanagawa, 2004 Shimane Arts Center, Shimane, 2005 Bethlehem Library, Colombia, 2008 Hyūgashi Station, Hyūga, Miyazaki, 2008 Kōchi Station, Kōchi, Kōchi, 2009 Asahikawa Station, Hokkaido, 2011 Hiroshi Naito NAITO, Nobuyuki, Japan Architect #46: Hiroshi Naito, A Special edition devoted to the some 20 years of his career, Publisher: Japan Architect.
Year: 2002, Tokyo, ISBN 4786901679, Book Id: 50431 Naito Architect & Associates
Medellín the Municipality of Medellín, is the second-largest city in Colombia and the capital of the department of Antioquia. It is located in a central region of the Andes Mountains in South America. According to the National Administrative Department of Statistics, the city has an estimated population of 2.5 million as of 2017. With its surrounding area that includes nine other cities, the metropolitan area of Medellín is the second-largest urban agglomeration in Colombia in terms of population and economy, with more than 3.7 million people. In 1616 the Spaniard Francisco Herrera Campuzano erected a small indigenous village known as "Saint Lawrence of Aburrá", located in the present-day El Poblado commune. On 2 November 1675, the queen consort Mariana of Austria founded the "Town of Our Lady of Candelaria of Medellín" in the Aná region, which today corresponds to the center of the city and first describes the region as "Medellín". In 1826, the city was named the capital of the Department of Antioquia by the National Congress of the nascent Republic of Gran Colombia, comprised by present-day Colombia, Venezuela and Panama.
After Colombia won its independence from Spain, Medellín became the capital of the Federal State of Antioquia until 1888, with the proclamation of the Colombian Constitution of 1886. During the 19th century, Medellín was a dynamic commercial center, first exporting gold producing and exporting coffee. At the beginning of the 21st century the city regained industrial dynamism, with the construction of the Medellín Metro commuter rail, liberalized development policies, improved security and improved education. Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have lauded the city as a pioneer of a post-Washington consensus "local development state" model of economic development; the city is promoted internationally as a tourist destination and is considered a global city type "Gamma -" by GaWC. The Medellín Metropolitan Area produces 67% of the Department of Antioquia's GDP and 11% of the economy of Colombia. Medellín is important to the region for its universities, commerce, science, health services, flower-growing and festivals.
In February 2013, the Urban Land Institute chose Medellín as the most innovative city in the world due to its recent advances in politics and social development. In the same year, Medellín won the Verónica Rudge Urbanism Award conferred by Harvard University to the Urban Development Enterprise due to the North-Western Integral Development Project in the city. In September 2013, the United Nations ratified Colombia's petition to host UN-Habitat's 7th World Urban Forum in Medellín, from April 5–11, 2014. Medellín won the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize 2016; the award seeks to recognize and celebrate efforts in furthering innovation in urban solutions and sustainable urban development. The valley and its Spanish settlement have gone by several names over the years, including Aburrá de los Yamesíes, "Valley of Saint Bartholomew", "Saint Lawrence of Aburrá", "Saint Lawrence of Aná", Villa de la Candelaria de Medellín, "Medellín"; the name "Medellín" comes from Medellín, Spain, a small village in the Badajoz province of Extremadura.
The village is known for being the birthplace of Hernán Cortés. The Spanish Medellín, in turn, was called "Metellinum" and was named after the Roman General Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius in 75 BC who founded the village as a military base; some of the Conquistadors, such as Gaspar de Rodas, the first governor of Antioquia, came from the region of Badajoz. Count Pedro Portocarrero y Luna, President of the Council for the West Indies, asked the Spanish monarchy to give the name of his town, Medellín in Extremadura, to the new settlement in America, his request was accepted on November 22, 1674, when the Regent Mariana of Austria proclaimed the city's name to be Villa de Nuestra Señora de Medellín. Miguel Aguinaga y Mendiogoitia, made the name official on November 2, 1675; the Crown granted a coat of arms to the city on June 24, 1676. In August 1541, Marshal Jorge Robledo was in the place known today as Heliconia when he saw in the distance what he thought was a valley, he sent Jerónimo Luis Tejelo to explore the territory, during the night of August 23 Tejelo reached the plain of what is now Aburrá Valley.
The Spaniards gave it the name of "Valley of Saint Bartholomew", but this was soon changed for the native name Aburrá, meaning "Painters", due to the textile decorations of the natives. In 1574, Gaspar de Rodas asked the Antioquia's Cabildo for 10 square kilometers of land to establish herds and a ranch in the valley; the Cabildo granted him 8 square kilometers of land. In 1616, the colonial visitor Francisco de Herrera y Campuzano founded a settlement with 80 Amerindians, naming it Poblado de San Lorenzo, today "El Poblado". In 1646 a colonial law ordered the separation of Amerindians from mestizos and mulattos, so the colonial administration began the construction of a new town in Aná, today Berrío Park, where the church of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria de Aná was built. Three years the Spaniards started the construction of the Basilica of Our Lady of Candelaria, rebuilt at the end of the 18th century. After 1574, with Gaspar de Rodas settled in the valley, population started to grow. According to the church records of the San Lorenzo Church, six couples married between 1646 and 1650, 41 between 1671 and 1675.
Gold mines were developed northeast of Antioquia, thus they needed food supply from nearby agriculture. The
Urban open space
In land use planning, urban open space is open space areas for "parks," "green spaces," and other open areas. The landscape of urban open spaces can range from playing fields to maintained environments to natural landscapes. Considered open to the public, urban open spaces are sometimes owned, such as higher education campuses, neighborhood/community parks/gardens, institutional or corporate grounds. Areas outside city boundaries, such as state and national parks as well as open space in the countryside, are not considered urban open space. Streets, piazzas and urban squares are not always defined as urban open space in land use planning; the terms "urban open space" can describe many types of open areas. One definition holds that, "As the counterpart of development, urban open space is a natural and cultural resource, synonymous with neither'unused land' nor'park and recreation areas." Another is "Open space is land and/or water area with its surface open to the sky, consciously acquired or publicly regulated to serve conservation and urban shaping function in addition to providing recreational opportunities."
In all instances, the space referred to by the term is, in fact, green space. However, there are examples of urban green space which, though not publicly owned/regulated, are still considered urban open space. From another standpoint public space in general is defined as the meeting or gathering places that exist outside the home and workplace that are accessible by members of the public, which foster resident interaction and opportunities for contact and proximity; this definition implies a higher level of community interaction and places a focus on public involvement rather than public ownership or stewardship. The benefits that urban open space provides to citizens can be broken into three basic forms. Psychological benefits gained by visitors to urban green spaces increased with their biodiversity, indicating that'green' alone is not sufficient. Urban open space is appreciated for the recreational opportunities it provides. Recreation in urban open space may include active recreation or passive recreation, which may entail being in the open space.
Research shows that when open spaces are attractive and accessible, people are more to engage in physical activity. Time spent in an urban open space for recreation offers a reprieve from the urban environment and a break from over-stimulation. Studies done on physically active adults middle aged and older show there are amplified benefits when the physical activities are coupled with green space environments; such coupling leads to decreased levels of stress, lowers the risk for depression as well as increase the frequency of participation in exercise. Casual group walks in a green environment increase one's positive attitude and lower stress levels as well as risk of depression; the conservation of nature in an urban environment has direct impact on people for another reason as well. A Toronto civic affairs bulletin entitled Urban Open Space: Luxury or Necessity makes the claim that "popular awareness of the balance of nature, of natural processes and of man’s place in and effect on nature – i.e. "ecological awareness" – is important.
As humans live more and more in man-made surroundings – i.e. cities – he risks harming himself by building and acting in ignorance of natural processes." Beyond this man-nature benefit, urban open spaces serve as islands of nature, promoting biodiversity and providing a home for natural species in environments that are otherwise uninhabitable due to city development. In a sense, by having the opportunity to be within a natural urban green space people gain a higher appreciation for the nature around them; as Bill McKibben mentions in his book The End of Nature, people will only understand nature if they are immersed within it. He follows in Henry David Thoreau's footsteps when he isolated himself in the Adirondack Mountains in order to get away from society and the overwhelming ideals it carries. There he writes how society and human impact follows him as he sees airplanes buzzing overhead or hears the roar of motorboats in the distance; the aesthetic value of urban open spaces is self-evident.
People enjoy viewing nature when it is otherwise extensively deprived, as is the case in urban environments. Therefore, open space offers the value of "substituting gray infrastructure." One researcher states how attractive neighborhoods contribute to positive attitudes and social norms that encourage walking and community values. Properties near urban open space tend to have a higher value. One study was able to demonstrate that, "a pleasant view can lead to a considerable increase in house price if the house overlooks water or open space." Certain benefits may be derived from exposure to virtual versions of the natural environment, too. For example, people who were shown pictures of scenic, natural environments had increased brain activity in the region associated with recalling happy memories, compared to people that were shown pictures of urban landscapes; the advocacy for mental health is becoming rampant, given the psychiatric illnesses that contribute to morbidity and mortality in the United States.
Health disparities existing within and amongst communities make this issue of paramount importance. The correlation between psychological distress and socioeconomic status has been examined. Sugiyama demonstrates that psychological distress is positively correlated with lower SES. A contributing factor to this socioeconomic disparity is the higher amounts
Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
Bethlehem Library is one of ten library parks in Medellín, located in Comuna 16. The library was designed by Japanese architect Hiroshi Naito in collaboration with the University of Tokyo, it is named after its location in the Belén commune of Medellín. The library park has public spaces with three different ambiances: a green plaza, a water plaza, a plaza for the public. Universities in Colombia began a program of sharing with the University of Tokyo in 2006; as part of this exchange, a group of architects from the University of Tokyo, under the direction of Hiroshi Naito, donated the design of Bethlehem Library. Official Library Homepage