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Libyan Civil War (2011)

The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. It erupted with the Libyan Revolution known as the 17 February Revolution; the war was preceded by protests in Zawiya on 8 August 2009 and ignited by protests in Benghazi beginning on Tuesday, 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security forces that fired on the crowd. The protests escalated into a rebellion that spread across the country, with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing an interim governing body, the National Transitional Council; the United Nations Security Council passed an initial resolution on 26 February, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and his inner circle and restricting their travel, referred the matter to the International Criminal Court for investigation. In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, pushed eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before reaching Benghazi.

A further UN resolution authorised member states to establish and enforce a no-fly zone over Libya, to use "all necessary measures" to prevent attacks on civilians, which turned into a bombing campaign by the forces of NATO against military installations and civilian infrastructure of Libya. The Gaddafi government announced a ceasefire, but fighting and bombing continued. Throughout the conflict, rebels rejected government offers of a ceasefire and efforts by the African Union to end the fighting because the plans set forth did not include the removal of Gaddafi. In August, rebel forces launched an offensive on the government-held coast of Libya, backed by a wide-reaching NATO bombing campaign, taking back territory lost months before and capturing the capital city of Tripoli, while Gaddafi evaded capture and loyalists engaged in a rearguard campaign. On 16 September 2011, the National Transitional Council was recognised by the United Nations as the legal representative of Libya, replacing the Gaddafi government.

Muammar Gaddafi evaded capture until 20 October 2011, when he was killed in Sirte. The National Transitional Council "declared the liberation of Libya" and the official end of the war on 23 October 2011. In the aftermath of the civil war, a low-level insurgency by former Gaddafi loyalists continued. There have been various disagreements and strife between local militia and tribes, including fighting on 23 January 2012 in the former Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid, leading to an alternative town council being established and recognized by the National Transitional Council. A much greater issue has been the role of militias which fought in the civil war and their role in the new Libya; some have refused to disarm, cooperation with the NTC has been strained, leading to demonstrations against militias and government action to disband such groups or integrate them into the Libyan military. These unresolved issues led directly to a second civil war in Libya. Muammar Gaddafi was the head of the Free Officers, a group of Arab nationalists that deposed King Idris I in 1969 in a "bloodless coup."

He abolished the Libyan Constitution of 1951. From 1969 until 1975 standards of living, life expectancy and literacy grew rapidly. In 1975 he published his manifesto The Green Book, he stepped down from power in 1977, subsequently claimed to be a "symbolic figurehead" until 2011, with the Libyan government up until also denying that he held any power. Under Gaddafi, Libya was theoretically a decentralized, direct democracy state run according to the philosophy of Gaddafi's The Green Book, with Gaddafi retaining a ceremonial position. Libya was run by a system of people's committees which served as local governments for the country's subdivisions, an indirectly elected General People's Congress as the legislature, the General People's Committee, led by a Secretary-General, as the executive branch. According to Freedom House, these structures were manipulated to ensure the dominance of Gaddafi, who continued to dominate all aspects of government. WikiLeaks' disclosure of confidential US diplomatic cables revealed US diplomats there speaking of Gaddafi's "mastery of tactical maneuvering".

While placing relatives and loyal members of his tribe in central military and government positions, he skillfully marginalized supporters and rivals, thus maintaining a delicate balance of powers and economic developments. This extended to his own sons, as he changed affections to avoid the rise of a clear successor and rival. Both Gaddafi and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, however denied that he held any power, but said that he was a symbolic figurehead. While he was popularly seen as a demagogue in the West, Gaddafi always portrayed himself as a statesman-philosopher. According to several Western media sources, Gaddafi feared a military coup against his government and deliberately kept Libya's military weak; the Libyan Army consisted of about 50,000 personnel. Its most powerful units were four crack brigades of equipped and trained soldiers, composed of members of Gaddafi's tribe or members of other tribes loyal to him. One, the Khamis Brigade, was led by his son Khamis. Local militias and Revolutionary Committees across the country were kept well-armed.

By contrast, regular military units were poorly armed and trained, were armed with outdated military equipment. By the end of Gaddafi's 42-year rule, Libya's population had a per capita income of $14,000, though a third was estimated to still live below the national poverty line. A broadly secular society was imposed. Child marriage was banned, women enjoyed equality of equal pay for equal work, equal rights in divorce and acce

Thomas Dehany Bernard

Thomas Dehany Bernard was an English Anglican cleric, Bampton Lecturer in 1864. He was an evangelical interested in mission work; the second son of Charles Bernard of Eden Estate and his wife Margaret, daughter of John Baker of Waresley House, Worcestershire, he was born at Clifton, Bristol on 11 November 1815. After private education he matriculated in December 1833 at Exeter College, Oxford, He graduated B. A. in 1838, when he won the Ellerton theological prize with an essay On the Conduct and Character of St. Peter. In 1839 he was awarded the chancellor's prize for an English essay on The Classical Taste and Character compared with the Romantic. In 1840 Bernard was licensed to the curacy of Great Baddow, Essex. Ordained priest in 1841, he succeeded to the vicarage of Great Baddow, where he remained until 1846. After working for a short time as curate of Harrow-on-the-Hill, he became in 1848 vicar of Terling, Essex, he showed more interest in foreign missions than many contemporaries. He was select preacher at Oxford in 1858, 1862, 1882.

In 1864 Bernard was appointed by Charles Simeon's trustees to the rectory of Walcot, Bath, a reflection of his strong evangelical sympathies. He built St. Andrew's church and schools. In 1867 Robert Eden, the bishop of Bath and Wells, collated him to a prebendal stall in Wells Cathedral, he succeeded to the chancellorship of the cathedral in 1879, from 1880 to 1895 represented the chapter in Convocation. Bernard revived the cathedral grammar school, at his own cost provided buildings for it, established a high school for girls, he was a frequent speaker at the Islington clerical meeting, He resigned Walcot in 1886, went to live at Wimborne. In 1901 he retired from his canonry. Bernard died at High Hall, Wimborne, on 7 December 1904. In 1864 Bernard delivered. Other works were: Before His Presence with a Song, 1885; the Central Teaching of Jesus Christ, 1892. Songs of the Holy Nativity, 1895; the Word and Sacraments, 1904. Bernard married in daughter of Benjamin Linthorne, of High Hall, Wimborne. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed..

"Bernard, Thomas Dehany". Dictionary of National Biography. 1. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Medri Bahri

Medri Bahri was a medieval semi-unified political entity in the Horn of Africa. Known as Marab Melash, it was situated in modern-day Eritrea and was ruled at times by the Bahri Negus and lasted from the 15th century to the Ethiopian occupation in 1879, it survived several threats like the invasion of Imam Gran and the Ottoman Red Sea expansion, albeit Medri Bahri irretrievably lost its access to the Red Sea due to the latter. The relation to the Ethiopian empire in the south varied from time to time, ranging from independence to tributary status to de facto annexation. At first the residence of the Bahr Negash was at Debarwa, but during the 17th century it was relocated to the village of Tsazega due to the same-named clan taking control of the kingdom. After the Aksumite empire, the area from the Eritrean highlands to the Red Sea was known as Ma'ikele Bahr, it was renamed as the domain of the Bahr Negash, the Medri Bahri. The first time the title Bahr Negash appears is during the reign of emperor Zara Yaqob, who even introduced that office.

His chronicle explains how he put much effort into increasing the power of that office, placing the Bahr Negash above other local chiefs and making him the sovereign of a territory covering the Shire, a region south of the Mareb river in what is now Ethiopia and Bur, which stretched from the north-eastern highlands to the Gulf of Zula. To strengthen the imperial presence in Medri Bahri, Zara Yaqob established a military colony consisting of Maya warriors from the south of his realm. In the 1520s, Medri Bahri was described by priest Francisco Alvares; the current Bahr Negash bore the name Dori and resided in Debarwa, a town on the northern edge of the highlands. Dori was an uncle of emperor Lebna Dengel; these tributes were traditionally paid with imported cloth and carpets. Dori was said to wield considerable power and influence, with his kingdom reaching as far north as Suakin, plus he was a promoter of Christianity, gifting the churches everything they needed. By the time of Alvares' visit, Dori was engaged in warfare against some Nubians after the latter had killed his son.

The Nubians were known as robbers and had a rather bad reputation. They originated somewhere five to six days away from Medri Bahri Taka; the Bahre-Nagassi alternately fought with or against the Abyssinians and the neighbouring Muslim Adal Sultanate depending on the geopolitical circumstances. Medri Bahri was thus part of the Christian resistance against Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi of Adal's forces, but joined the Adalite states and the Ottoman Empire front against Abyssinia in 1572. During the 16th century said Ottomans began making inroads in the Red Sea area; the territory became an Ottoman eyalet known as the Habesh Eyalet. Massawa served as the new province's first capital; when the city became of secondary economic importance, the administrative capital was soon moved across the Red Sea to Jeddah. Its headquarters remained there from the end of the 16th century to the early 19th century, with Medina temporarily serving as the capital in the 18th century. Turks occupied the highland parts of Baharnagash in 1559 and withdrew after they encountered resistance and pushed back by the Bahrnegash and highland forces.

In 1578 they tried to expand into the highlands with the help of Bahr negus Yeshaq who has switched alliances due to power struggle, by 1589 once again they were compelled to withdraw their forces to the coast. After that Ottomans abandoned their ambitions to establish themselves on the highlands and remained in the lowlands until they left the region by 1872. After the death of Yeshaq, emperor Sarsa Dengel elected a new Bahr Negash and temporarily merged that office with the governorate of Tigray. In 1587, the Ottomans attacked the highlands yet again, conquered Debarwa and routed the current governour / Bahr Negash, Dejazmach Daherno. Thereafter they tried to cross the Mareb, but while doing so they got ambushed by a local chief named Aquba Michael, whom Sarsa Dengel awarded with the office of Bahr Negash; the imperial army reconquered Debarwa and killed the current Turkish Pasha, while Aquba Michael killed Wäd Ezum, appointed as Bahr Negash by the Ottomans. Afterwards, the Ottomans abandoned their ambitions to conquer the highlands for good.

The Scottish traveler James Bruce reported in 1770 that Medri Bahri was a distinct political entity from Abyssinia, noting that the two territories were in conflict. The kingdom was occupied in 1879, when Ras Alula seized control of the region and imprisoned Woldemichael Solomon, the last Bahr Negash. Alula, as governour of Mareb Mellash under the sovereignty of the Ethiopian Empire, organized the resistance against the encroaching Italians and even defeated them at Dogali in 1887. Woldemichael Solomon was sent to the Amba Salama prison with his son Masfen and his son-in-law Kaffal Goffar. However, the son-in-law of Woldemichael Solomon continued the rebellion against the Ethiopian Empire by siding with the Italians in 1885. In 1888, Woldemichael Solomon had tried to urge his son-in-law to bring the Italians up to the highlands. By 1889 Alula was, forced to retreat to Tigray and the region that once constitut

4A Engine

The 4A Engine is a graphics middleware engine developed by 4A Games for use in their video game Metro 2033, published by THQ. It supports Direct3D APIs 9, 10, 11, 12, OpenGL 3.2, along with NVidia's PhysX, NVidia's 3D Vision. The engine was developed in Ukraine by a set of people who split off from GSC Game World a year before the release of S. T. A. L. K. E. R.: Shadow of Chernobyl, notably Oles Shishkovtsov and Oleksandr Maksimchuk, the programmers who worked on the development of the X-Ray engine used in the S. T. A. L. K. E. R. Video game series; the engine itself is capable of running on PC, the Xbox 360, the PlayStation 3. Shishkovtsov and his colleagues split from the development of S. T. A. L. K. E. R because that "its inherent inability to be multi-threaded, the weak and error-prone networking model, awful resource and memory management which prohibited any kind of streaming or keeping the working set small enough for'next-gen' consoles" along with its "terrible text-based scripting", which he explained led to the delays in the original game.

The game is multi-threaded in such that only PhysX had a dedicated thread and uses a task-model without any pre-conditioning or pre/post-synchronising, allowing tasks to be done in parallel. When the Xbox 360 iteration had been measured during development, they were running it at "approximately 3,000 tasks per 30ms frame on Xbox 360 on CPU-intensive scenes with all hardware threads at 100 per cent load". Shishkovtsov said that the GeForce 6 series architecture of the RSX Reality Synthesizer in the PlayStation 3 proved to be useful during development noted that there were many "wasted cycles"; the engine can utilise a deferred shading pipeline, uses tesselation for greater performance, has HDR, real-time reflections, colour correction, film grain and noise, the engine supports multi-core rendering. The 4A Engine implementation of Metro 2033 features volumetric fog, double PhysX precision, object blur, sub-surface scattering for skin shaders, parallax mapping on all surfaces and greater geometric detail with a less aggressive LOD.

Using PhysX, the engine uses many features such as destructible environments, cloth and water simulations, particles that can be affected by environmental factors. The audio in the engine features 3D sound positioning and attenuation. There have been accusations that the 4A Engine is a modified version of the X-Ray engine used in the S. T. A. L. K. E. R series, instead of an original development. 4A denied the accusations. Shishkovtsov noted that porting the original engine to consoles would have proved difficult. Metro 2033 Metro: Last Light Arktika.1 Metro Exodus

Dreams That Money Can't Buy

Dreams That Money Can't Buy is the second solo album by English singer Holly Johnson, released by MCA Records in 1991. The album was produced by Andy Richards, except "Penny Arcade", produced by Dan Hartman. Following his 1989 UK chart topping debut album Blast, Johnson began writing and recording his second album in 1990; the first single preceding the album was "Where Has Love Gone?", released in November 1990 and reached No. 73 in the UK. The follow-up was "Across the Universe", which reached No. 99 following its release in March 1991. The entire album had been completed in early 1991, however Johnson's relations with MCA collapsed when the label, disappointed by the limited success of the two singles, decided to limit the marketing budget for the album. Dreams That Money Can't Buy was given a half-hearted release in the year and with little promotion it failed to chart; the third and final single, "The People Want to Dance", was released in September but failed to chart. Having left the label by the time of the album's release, Johnson discovered he was HIV positive in November 1991, which resulted in him withdrawing from music.

In a 2014 interview with The Arts Desk, Johnson spoke of the failure of the album and the making of it: "It was written under pressure. I'd had this validation of a No.1 album and found myself with a contractual obligation to deliver an album in a certain time period. I was chained to the sampling machine for what seemed like an eternity. I still stand by some of the songs; the person who signed me to MCA was either pushed out or left and, as so happens in that situation, with my champion gone the label turned on me. In a way it was blessing because soon after that I was ill and had a whole other challenge in my life." In a 2011 fan question interview, Johnson chose "Penny Arcade" and "The Great Love Story" as his two favourite tracks from the album. He added that he would have liked to have seen "Penny Arcade" released as a single, noting "there could have been some good remixes done for that". English singer-songwriter and friend Kirsty MacColl appeared on the album track "Boyfriend'65"; the song was reputed to have been written after Johnson applied William Burroughs' fold-in method to the Boyfriend Annual 1965.

Johnson recalled in 2011 of working with MacColl: "Oh, I had wanted to do the song as a duet with her as far back as 1984, but Island Records and MCA wouldn't allow it for some reason, so I asked her to do it as a backing vocalist when I got round to recording it properly." In a retrospective review, Jon O'Brien of AllMusic stated: "Even taking into account the fact that the dated production would have sounded a little fresher back in the early'90s, it's not difficult to see why the label appeared to have such a lack of confidence. With nothing here approaching a "Love Train" or "Americanos," let alone a "Relax" or "Two Tribes," it's a disappointingly bland affair from an artist whose previous career was anything but."Terry Staunton of Record Collector said in a review of the 2011 re-issue: "1991's Dreams... lack the joyousness of Blast and proved to be a lacklustre swansong. Both "Across the Universe" and "Where Has Love Gone?" Come across as half-formed synth dance workouts, their elevation to single status baffling.

There's little variation in the overall sound, the drama of Johnson's voice struggling to find comfort in the soulless, mechanical rhythms, only making a strong impression on the tropical pop of "Boyfriend'65", a fun duet with Kirsty MacColl." All tracks written by Holly Johnson. "Across the Universe" – 3:55 "When the Party's Over" – 3:59 "The People Want to Dance" – 4:20 "I Need Your Love" – 3:57 "Boyfriend'65" – 3:08 "Where Has Love Gone?" – 4:17 "Penny Arcade" – 4:07 "Do It for Love" – 3:45 "You're a Hit" – 3:29 "The Great Love Story" – 4:58 "Across the Universe" – 3:55 "When the Party's Over" – 4:01 "The People Want to Dance" – 4:21 "I Need Your Love" – 3:57 "Boyfriend'65" – 3:08 "Where Has Love Gone?" – 4:18 "Penny Arcade" – 4:07 "Do It for Love" – 3:47 "You're a Hit" – 3:30 "The Great Love Story" – 4:59 "Perfume" – 4:26 "Funky Paradise" – 4:15 "The People Want to Dance" – 4:22 "Where Has Love Gone?" – 7:28 "Where Has Love Gone?" – 4:20 "Where Has Love Gone?" – 6:34 "Across the Universe" – 6:34 "Across the Universe" – 3:59 "Across the Universe" – 7:04 "The People Want to Dance" – 3:25 "The People Want to Dance" – 5:12 "The People Want to Dance" – 6:23 "The People Want to Dance" – 5:55 "Americanos" – 4:11 "Atomic City" – 6:37 "Natural" – 3:33 "Where Has Love Gone?"

"Across the Universe" "Blast Promo" Holly Johnson – lead vocals, keyboard programming executive producer Beverly Skeete, Claudia Fontaine, Derek Green, Don Snow, Stevie Lange, Glenn Gregory – backing vocals Kirsty MacColl – backing vocals on "Boyfriend 65" Andy Richards – producer, keyboard programming Nick Bagnall – keyboard programming Mike "Spike" Drake – engineer Dan Hartman – producer Mark McGuire – engineer Christian Allen, Heidi Cavanough, Peter Lewis, Richard Morris, Stephen Bray – assistant engineersOtherRichard Houghton – photography Me Company – artwork design Paul Bevoir – design Barney Ashton – project manager Wolfgang Kühle – management

Aldinga Reef Aquatic Reserve

Aldinga Reef Aquatic Reserve is a marine protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located in waters adjoining the east coast of Gulf St Vincent including land within the intertidal zone in the suburbs of Aldinga Beach and Port Willunga about 40 kilometres south of the state capital of Adelaide. It was declared on 30 November 1971 to protect ‘aquatic plants and animals associated with the large intertidal limestone reef and the spectacular precipitous underwater cliff known as the ‘drop-off’ and the surrounding sandy substrate for the purposes of education and recreation’. ‘Fishing and collecting or removing any marine organism is prohibited’, however the following activities are permitted - use of boats, snorkelling, scuba diving and walking on intertidal reef exposed at low water. The reserve extends seaward a distance of about 2 kilometres around a headland named Snapper Point from Thomas Street, Aldinga Beach in the south and Seaborne Avenue, Port Willunga in the north.

Since 2012, it has been located within the boundaries of a “sanctuary zone” within the Encounter Marine Park. The aquatic reserve is classified as an IUCN Category II protected area. Protected areas of South Australia List of protected areas in Adelaide Webpage for Aldinga Reef Aquatic Reserve on the Protected Planet website