The pound is the currency of Guernsey. Since 1921, Guernsey has been in currency union with the United Kingdom and the Guernsey pound is not a separate currency but is a local issue of banknotes and coins denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland, it can be exchanged at par with notes. For this reason, ISO 4217 does not include a separate currency code for the Guernsey pound, but where a distinct code is desired GGP is used; until the early 19th century, Guernsey used predominantly French currency. Coins of the French livre were legal tender until 1834, with French francs used until 1921. In 1830, Guernsey began production of copper coins denominated in doubles; the double was worth 1⁄80 of a French franc. The name "double" derived from the French "double deniers", although the value of the coin was equal to the liard still circulating. Coins were issued in denominations of 2, 4 and 8 doubles; the 8 double coin was a "Guernsey penny", with twelve to the "Guernsey shilling".
However, this shilling was not equal to the British shilling. Banknotes were produced by the States of Guernsey from 1827, denominated in pounds. In 1848, an ordinance was passed that the pound sterling should be legal tender at a value of £1 1s 3d; this was rescinded two years and French currency, supplemented by local issues, continued to circulate. In 1870, British coins were made legal tender, with the British shilling circulating at 12 1⁄2 Guernsey pence. Bank of England notes became legal tender in 1873. In 1914, new banknotes appeared, some of which carried denominations in Guernsey shillings and francs. After the First World War, the value of the franc began to fall relative to sterling; this caused Guernsey to adopt a pound equal to the pound sterling in 1921. For amounts below 1 shilling, the conversion rate of 1 Guernsey penny = 1 British penny applied, allowing the Guernsey coins to continue to circulate. For amounts above 1 shilling, an exchange rate of 21 Guernsey shillings to the pound sterling was used, applying an approximation to the pre-war exchange rate of 25.2 francs = 1 pound sterling, rather than the exact rate of 25.22.
This conversion increased the value of the double from 1⁄2016 to 1⁄1920 of a pound. The World War I issues of banknotes were overstamped with the word "British" to indicate this change. New banknotes and British silver coinage circulated alongside the double coins, with 3-pence coins minted specially for Guernsey from 1956. In 1971, along with the rest of the British Isles, Guernsey decimalised, with the pound subdivided into 100 pence, began issuing a full range of coin denominations from 1⁄2p to 50p; the Guernsey pound, other notes denominated in pound sterling may be used in Guernsey. The Guernsey pound is legal tender only in the Bailiwick of Guernsey although it circulates in Jersey but cannot be used in the UK, it can be exchanged in other places at banks and bureaux de change. Between 1830 and 1956, Guernsey's four coin denominations, 1, 2, 4 and 8 doubles, all carried similar designs, with the Island's arms and name on the obverse and the denomination and date on the reverse. In addition, the 8 double coins featured a wreath on both sides.
In 1956, new designs were introduced for the 8 doubles. These featured the Island's seal and name on the obverse with the English name, the date and the Guernsey lily on the reverse. Threepence coins were issued from 1956, with the same obverse and a reverse featuring the Guernsey cow; as in the UK, 5- and 10-new-pence coins were introduced in 1968, followed by 50-new-pence coins in 1969, before decimalisation took place in 1971 and the 1⁄2-, 1- and 2-new-pence coins were introduced. These coins were the same composition as the corresponding British coins; the word "new" was dropped in 1977. The £1 coin was introduced in 1981, two years before its introduction in the UK, although the 20-pence and £2 coins were introduced at the same time as in the UK: 1982 and 1998, respectively; the thickness of the 1981 coin was thinner than the modern version and the diameter measured less. The 1-pound coin ceased to be legal tender on 15 October 2017 to coincide with the withdrawal of the circular £1 coin in the UK.
The UK's new twelve-sided £1 coin will be the only £1 coin, legal tender on the island. The first decimal issues continued with the same obverse as the last pre-decimal issues until 1985, when Raphael Maklouf's portrait of Queen Elizabeth II was added. Ian Rank-Broadley's portrait of the Queen has appeared since 1998. Designs on the reverses of Guernsey's decimal coins are: In 1827, the States of Guernsey introduced one-pound notes, with the Guernsey Banking Company and the Guernsey Commercial Banking Company issuing one-pound notes from 1861 and 1886, respectively; the commercial banks lost their right to issue notes in 1914, although the notes circulated until 1924. In 1914, the States introduced five- and ten-shilling notes denominated as 6 and 12 francs. In 1921, States notes were over-stamped with the word "British" to signify the island's conversion to a pound equal to sterling. From 1924, ten-shilling notes were issued without any reference to the franc; the five-shilling note was discontinued.
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
The pound is the currency of Jersey. Jersey is in currency union with the United Kingdom, the Jersey pound is not a separate currency but is an issue of banknotes and coins by the States of Jersey denominated in pound sterling, in a similar way to the banknotes issued in Scotland and Northern Ireland, it can be exchanged at par with notes. For this reason, ISO 4217 does not include a separate currency code for the Jersey pound, but where a distinct code is desired JEP is used. Both Jersey and Bank of England notes are legal tender in Jersey and circulate together, alongside the Guernsey pound and Scottish banknotes; the Jersey notes are not legal tender in the United Kingdom but are legal currency, so creditors and traders may accept them if they so choose. The livre was the currency of Jersey until 1834, it consisted of French coins which, in the early 19th century, were exchangeable for sterling at a rate of 26 livres = 1 pound. After the livre was replaced by the franc in France in 1795, the supply of coins in Jersey dwindled leading to difficulties in trade and payment.
In 1834, an Order in Council adopted the pound sterling as Jersey's sole official legal tender, although French copper coins continued to circulate alongside British silver coins, with 26 sous equal to the shilling. Because the sous remained the chief small-change coins, when a new copper coinage was issued for Jersey in 1841, it was based on a penny worth 1⁄13 of a shilling, the equivalent of 2 sous; this system continued until 1877. Along with the rest of the British Isles, Jersey decimalised in 1971 and began issuing a full series of circulating coins from 1⁄2p to 50p. £1 and £2 denominations followed later. As of December 2005, there was £64.7m of Jersey currency in circulation. A profit of £2.8m earned on the issue of Jersey currency was received by the Treasurer of the States in 2005. £1 coins have a different design each year. Each new coin featured one of the coats of arms of the 12 parishes of Jersey; these were followed by a series of coins featuring sailing ships built in the island.
The motto round the milled edge of Jersey pound coins is: Caesarea Insula. Jersey £1 coins ceased to be legal tender in Jersey on 15 October 2017 to coincide with the withdrawal of the circular £1 coin in the UK; the UK's new 12-sided £1 coin is the only £1 coin, legal tender in the Island. In 1834, an Order in Council adopted the pound sterling as Jersey's sole official legal tender to replace the Jersey livre, although French copper coins continued to circulate alongside British silver coins, with 26 sous equal to the shilling; because the sous remained the chief small-change coins, when a new copper coinage was issued for Jersey in 1841, it was based on a penny worth 1⁄13 of a shilling, the equivalent of 2 sous. In 1841, copper 1⁄52, 1⁄26 and 1⁄13 shilling coins were introduced, followed by bronze 1⁄26 and 1⁄13 shilling in 1866. In 1877 a penny of 1⁄12 of a shilling was introduced, the system changed to 12 pence to the shilling. Bronze 1⁄48, 1⁄24 and 1⁄12 shilling were introduced.
This was the only issue of the 1⁄48 shilling denomination. Between 1949 and 1952 the end of the German occupation of the Channel Islands was marked by one million commemorative Liberation pennies that were struck for Jersey. In 1957, a nickel-brass 3 pence coin was introduced carrying the denomination "one fourth of a shilling"; the 1957 and 1960 issues were round, with a dodecagonal version introduced in 1964. In 1968, 5 and 10 pence coins were introduced, followed by 50 pence in 1969 and 1⁄2p, 1p and 2 pence in 1971 when decimalisation took place. All had the same size as the corresponding British coins; the reverse of the first issue of decimal coinage bore the coat of arms of Jersey as had previous coins. The ½ penny coin was last minted in 1981. A square £1 coin was issued in circulation in 1981 to mark the bicentenary of the Battle of Jersey; the square pound could not be accepted by vending machines and was not issued after 1981 although it remains in circulation today. When the rest of the British Isles started to introduce a standardised pound coin in 1983, Jersey changed to a round coin to match.
The square version although rare is still used in the islands. Neither round nor square versions of the coin are as common in Jersey as the £1 note. 20 pence coins were introduced in 1982 and £2 coins in 1998. In 1797 Hugh Godfray and Company, a wine merchant, issued £ 1 notes. Due to the shortage of livre tournois coinage and companies issued a large number of low value notes until in 1813 the States laid down that notes had to have a minimum value of £1; until 1831, a large number of bodies and individuals in Jersey issued their own banknotes. The parishes of Jersey issued notes. Legislation in 1831 attempted to regulate such issues by requiring note issuers to be backed by two guarantors, but the parishes and the Vingtaine de la Ville were exempted from the regulatory provisions. Most of the notes were 1 pound denominations; these locally produced notes, which were issued to fund public works, ceased to be issued after the 1890s. During the German occupation in the Second World War, a shortage of coinage led to the passing of the Currency Notes Law on 29 April 1941.
A series of 2 shilling notes were issued. The law was amended on 29 November 1941 to provide for further issues of notes of various denominations, a series of banknotes desi
A currency, in the most specific sense is money in any form when in use or circulation as a medium of exchange circulating banknotes and coins. A more general definition is that a currency is a system of money in common use for people in a nation. Under this definition, US dollars, pounds sterling, Australian dollars, European euros, Russian rubles and Indian Rupees are examples of currency; these various currencies are recognized as stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies. Currencies in this sense are defined by governments, each type has limited boundaries of acceptance. Other definitions of the term "currency" are discussed in their respective synonymous articles banknote and money; the latter definition, pertaining to the currency systems of nations, is the topic of this article. Currencies can be classified into two monetary systems: fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the currency's value.
Some currencies are legal tender in certain political jurisdictions. Others are traded for their economic value. Digital currency has arisen with the popularity of the Internet. Money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia and in Ancient Egypt. In this first stage of currency, metals were used as symbols to represent value stored in the form of commodities; this formed the basis of trade in the Fertile Crescent for over 1500 years. However, the collapse of the Near Eastern trading system pointed to a flaw: in an era where there was no place, safe to store value, the value of a circulating medium could only be as sound as the forces that defended that store. A trade could only reach as far as the credibility of that military. By the late Bronze Age, however, a series of treaties had established safe passage for merchants around the Eastern Mediterranean, spreading from Minoan Crete and Mycenae in the northwest to Elam and Bahrain in the southeast.
It is not known what was used as a currency for these exchanges, but it is thought that ox-hide shaped ingots of copper, produced in Cyprus, may have functioned as a currency. It is thought that the increase in piracy and raiding associated with the Bronze Age collapse produced by the Peoples of the Sea, brought the trading system of oxhide ingots to an end, it was only the recovery of Phoenician trade in the 10th and 9th centuries BC that led to a return to prosperity, the appearance of real coinage first in Anatolia with Croesus of Lydia and subsequently with the Greeks and Persians. In Africa, many forms of value store have been used, including beads, ivory, various forms of weapons, the manilla currency, ochre and other earth oxides; the manilla rings of West Africa were one of the currencies used from the 15th century onwards to sell slaves. African currency is still notable for its variety, in many places, various forms of barter still apply; these factors led to the metal itself being the store of value: first silver both silver and gold, at one point bronze.
Now we have other non-precious metals as coins. Metals were mined and stamped into coins; this was to assure the individual accepting the coin that he was getting a certain known weight of precious metal. Coins could be counterfeited, but the existence of standard coins created a new unit of account, which helped lead to banking. Archimedes' principle provided the next link: coins could now be tested for their fine weight of metal, thus the value of a coin could be determined if it had been shaved, debased or otherwise tampered with. Most major economies using coinage had several tiers of coins of different values, made of copper and gold. Gold coins were the most valuable and were used for large purchases, payment of the military and backing of state activities. Units of account were defined as the value of a particular type of gold coin. Silver coins were used for midsized transactions, sometimes defined a unit of account, while coins of copper or silver, or some mixture of them, might be used for everyday transactions.
This system had been used in ancient India since the time of the Mahajanapadas. The exact ratios between the values of the three metals varied between different eras and places. However, the rarity of gold made it more valuable than silver, silver was worth more than copper. In premodern China, the need for credit and for a medium of exchange, less physically cumbersome than large numbers of copper coins led to the introduction of paper money, i.e. banknotes. Their introduction was a gradual process which lasted from the late Tang dynasty into the Song dynasty, it began as a means for merchants to exchange heavy coinage for receipts of deposit issued as promissory notes by wholesalers' shops. These notes were valid for temporary use in a small regional territory. In the 10th century, the Song dynasty government began to circulate these notes amongst the traders in its monopolized salt industry; the Song government granted several shops the right to issue banknotes, in the early 12th century the government took over these shops to produce state-issued currency.
Yet the banknotes issued w
The Israeli pound or Israeli lira was the currency of the State of Israel from 9 June 1952 until 23 February 1980, when it was replaced with the shekel on 24 February 1980, again replaced with the New Shekel in 1985. Until 1952, the name used on the notes of the Anglo-Palestine Bank was Palestine pound, in Hebrew לירה א"י. In Arabic, the name was given as junayh filisţīnī. On 1 May 1951, all the assets and liabilities of the Anglo Palestine Bank were transferred to a new company called Bank Leumi Le-Yisrael and the currency name became: lira yisraelit in Hebrew, junayh isrāīlī in Arabic, Israel pound in English; the new currency was issued in 1952, entered circulation on June 9. From 1955, after the Bank of Israel was established and took over the duty of issuing banknotes, only the Hebrew name was used, along with the symbol "I£"; the British Mandate of Palestine, which administered the territory now known as Israel, the West Bank and Gaza prior to May 15, 1948, issued the Palestine pound, a currency equal in value and pegged to the British pound, divided into 1000 mils.
Banknotes in circulation were issued by the Palestine Currency Board, subject to the British Secretary of State for the Colonies. Israel inherited the Palestine pound, but shortly after the establishment of the state, new banknotes were issued by the London-based Anglo-Palestine bank of the Zionist movement; the new coins were the first to bear the new state's name, the banknotes had "The Anglo-Palestine Bank Limited" written on them. While the first coins minted by Israel still bore the name "mil", the next ones bore the Hebrew name prutah. A second series of banknotes was issued after the Anglo-Palestine Bank moved its headquarters to Tel Aviv and became the Bank Leumi; the pegging to the UK Pound was abolished on January 1, 1954, in 1960, the subdivision of the pound was changed from 1000 prutot to 100 agorot. During the 1960s, a debate over the non-Hebrew name of the Israeli currency resulted in a law ordering the Minister of Finance to change the name pound into a Hebrew name, shekel; the law allowed the minister to decide on a proper date for the change.
The law did not come into effect until February 1980, when the Israeli government decided to change the monetary system and introduce the Israeli old shekel, at a rate of 1 shekel = 10 pounds. Israel's first coins were aluminium 25 mil pieces, dated 1948 and 1949, which were issued in 1949 before the adoption of the pruta. In 1949, coins were issued in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 250 prutah; the coins were conceived, by Israeli graphic designer Otte Wallish. All coins and banknotes issued in Israel before June 1952 were part of the Palestine pound. In 1960, coins were issued denominated in agora. There were 5, 10 and 25 agorot pieces. In 1963, 1/2 and 1 pound coins were introduced, followed by 5 lirot coins in 1978. In 1948, the government issued fractional notes for 100 mils; the Anglo-Palestine Bank issued banknotes for 500 mils, 1, 5, 10 and 50 lirot between 1948 and 1951. In 1952, the government issued a second series of fractional notes for 50 and 100 prutah with 250 prutah notes added in 1953.
In 1952, the "Bank Leumi Le-Israel" took over paper money production and issued the same denominations as the Anglo-Palestine Bank except that the 500 mils was replaced by a 500 prutah note. The Bank of Israel began note production in 1955 issuing notes for 500 pruta, 1, 5, 10 and 50 lirot. In 1968, 100 lirot notes were introduced, followed by 500 lirot notes in 1975. In the third banknote issue, released between 1973 and 1975, a feature was added to assist vision-impaired and blind people in identifying the denomination of a note. A tactile set of dots was used, with three on the five pound note, two on the 10 pound note, one on the 50 pound note, none on the 100 pound note, a large bar the length of three dots on the 500 pound note. Bank of Israel Economy of Israel Paul Kor Bank of Israel catalogue of Israeli currency since 1948 Israeli Lirah coins with pictures
Idris of Libya
Idris was a Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and as the King of Libya from 1951 to 1969. He was the chief of the Senussi Muslim order. Idris was born into the Senussi Order; when his cousin, Ahmed Sharif as-Senussi, abdicated as leader of the Order, Idris took his place. Cyrenaica was facing invasion from the Italians. Idris formed an alliance with the British, through whom he entered into negotiations with the Italians, resulting in two treaties. Idris led his Order in an unsuccessful attempt to conquer the eastern part of the Tripolitanian Republic. Following the Second World War, the United Nations General Assembly called for Libya to be granted independence, it established the United Kingdom of Libya through the unification of Cyrenaica and Fezzan, appointing Idris to rule it as king. Wielding significant political influence in the impoverished country, he banned political parties and in 1963 replaced Libya's federal system with a unitary state, he established links to the Western powers, allowing the United Kingdom and United States to open military bases in the country in return for economic aid.
After oil was discovered in Libya in 1959, he oversaw the emergence of a growing oil industry that aided economic growth. Idris' regime was weakened by growing Arab nationalist and Arab socialist sentiment in Libya as well as rising frustration at the country's high levels of corruption and close links with Western nations. While in Turkey for medical treatment, Idris was deposed in a 1969 coup d'etat by army officers led by Muammar Gaddafi. Born at Al-Jaghbub, the headquarters of the Senussi movement, on 12 March 1889, the son of Sayyid Muhammad al-Mahdi bin Sayyid Muhammad al-Senussi and his third wife Aisha bint Muqarrib al-Barasa, Idris was a grandson of Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi, the founder of the Senussi Muslim Sufi Order and the Senussi tribe in North Africa, he became chief of the Senussi order in 1916 following the abdication of his cousin Sayyid Ahmed Sharif es Senussi. He was recognized by the British under the new title "emir" of the territory of Cyrenaica, a position confirmed by the Italians in 1920.
He was installed as Emir of Tripolitania on 28 July 1922. Idris' family claimed descent from the Prophet Muhammad through Fatimah; the Senussi were a revivalist Sunni Islamic sect who were based in Cyrenaica, a region in modern eastern Libya. By the end of the nineteenth century the Senussi Order had established a form of government in Cyrenaica, unifying its tribes, controlling its pilgrimage and trade routes, collecting taxes. After the Italian army invaded Cyrenaica in 1913 as part of their wider invasion of Libya, the Senussi Order fought back against them; when the Order's leader, Ahmed Sharif as-Senussi, abdicated his position, he was replaced by Idris, his cousin. Pressured to do so by the Ottoman Empire, Ahmed had pursued armed attacks against British military forces stationed in neighbouring Egypt. On taking power, Idris put a stop to these attacks. Instead he established a tacit alliance with the British, which would last for half a century and accord his Order de facto diplomatic status.
Using the British as intermediaries, Idris led the Order into negotiations with the Italians in July 1916. These resulted in two agreements, Al-Zuwaytina in April 1916 and Akrama in April 1917; the latter of these treaties left most of inland Cyrenaica under the control of the Senussi Order. Relations between the Senussi Order and the newly established Tripolitanian Republic were acrimonious; the Senussi attempted to militarily extend their power into eastern Tripolitania, resulting in a pitched battle at Bani Walid in which the Senussi were forced to withdraw back into Cyrenaica. At the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire signed an armistice agreement in which they ceded their claims over Libya to Italy. Italy however was facing serious economic and political problems domestically, was not prepared to re-launch its military activities in Libya, it issued statutes known as the Legge Fondamentale with both the Tripolitanian Republic in June 1919 and Cyrenaica in October 1919. These brought about a compromise by which all Libyans were accorded the right to a joint Libyan-Italian citizenship while each province was to have its own parliament and governing council.
The Senussi were happy with this arrangement and Idris visited Rome as part of the celebrations to mark the promulgation of the settlement. In October 1920, further negotiations between Italy and Cyrenaica resulted in the Accord of al-Rajma, in which Idris was given the title of the Emir of Cyrenaica and permitted to autonomously administer the oases around Kufra, Jaghbub and Ajdabiya; as part of the Accord he was given a monthly stipend by the Italian government, who agreed to take responsibility for policing and administration of areas under Senussi control. The Accord stipulated that Idris must fulfil the requirements of the Legge Fondamentale by disbanding the Cyrenaican military units, however he did not comply with this. By the end of 1921, relations between the Senussi Order and the Italian government had again deteriorated. Following the death of Tripolitanian leader Ramadan Asswehly in August 1920, the Republic descended into civil war. Many tribal leaders in the region recognised that this discord was weakening the region's chances of attaining full autonomy from Italy, in November 1920 they met in Gharyan to bring an end to the violence.
In January 1922 they agreed to request that Idris extend the Sanui Emirate of Cyrenaica into Tripolitania in ord
The Biafran pound was the currency of the breakaway Republic of Biafra between 1968 and 1970. The first notes denominated in 5 shillings and £1 were introduced on January 29, 1968. A series of coins was issued in 1969. In February 1969, a second family of notes was issued consisting of 5 shilling, 10 shilling, £1, £5 and £10 denominations. Despite not being recognised as currency by the rest of the world when they were issued, the banknotes were afterwards sold as curios and are now traded among banknote collectors at well above their original nominal value; the most common note is the 1968 and 1969 1 pound notes, with the 10 pound note and all coins being rare. Nigerian pound Nigerian naira Postage stamps and postal history of Biafra Banknotes of Biafra."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2006-01-13. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Coins with Nigerian naira Information from Biafraland. A detailed article on the banknotes of the Biafran pound pjsymes.com.au Coins from Biafra - Online Coin Club