Malla (Ancient India)
Malla was an ancient Indian republic that constituted one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas of ancient India. The republic is notable for being the chosen death place of Gautama Buddha. Malla was one of the solasa mahajanapadas of ancient India mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya, it was named after the ruling clan of the same name. The Mahabharata mentions the territory as the Mallarashtra; the Malla mahajanapada was situated north of Magadha. It was a small mahajanapada; the mahajanapada was divided into two main parts and the river Kakuttha was the dividing line. The capital of these two parts were Pava, modern Fazilnagar, 12 miles from Kasia. Kusinara and Pava are important in the history of Buddhism since Buddha took his last meal and was taken ill at Pava and went to his Mahaparinirvaṇa at Kusinara. After his death, the Mallas wanted to keep the ashes, but the other kingdoms wanting their part went to war and besieged the city of Kushinagar. An agreement was reached, the Buddha's cremation relics were divided among 8 royal families and his disciples.
A famous view in Sanchi shows the siege of Kushinagar, giving a view of the city, relied on for the understanding of ancient Indian constructions. The Mallas were a powerful clan of eastern India at the time of Gautama Buddha and they are mentioned in Buddhist and Jaina works; the Mahabharata mentions that the second Pandava Bhima is said to have conquered the chief of the Mallas in course of his expedition to eastern India. The Mahabharata mentions Mallas along with the Angas and Kalingas as eastern tribes; the Mallas were republican people with their dominion consisting of nine territories, one of each of the nine confederated clans. The Mallas, like the Licchavis, are mentioned by Manusmriti as Vratya Kshatriyas, they are called Vasishthas in the Mahapparnibbana Suttanta. The Mallas were a warlike people. Jainism and Buddhism found many followers among the Mallas; the Mallas had a monarchical form of government but they switched to Gana of which the members called themselves rajas. The Gana were taking decisions from their Santhagara.
The Mallas appeared to have formed alliance with Lichchhavis for self-defense. They however, lost their independence not long after Buddha's death and their dominions were annexed to the Magadhan empire; the two main towns of the Malla mahajanapada were Pava, where the Jain founder Mahavira died and Kusinara, where Buddha went to his Mahaparinirvaṇa. The Cullavagga of the Vinaya Pitaka mentions another town named Anupiya. A fourth town called; the fifth town was named as "Bhoganagara". Kingdoms of Ancient India Gaṇa sangha Koliya Sankrityayan, Rahul. "Buddhacharya"- Life and Teachings of the Buddha. Gautam Book Centre. ISBN 9789380292175. Gorakhpur Janpad aur Uski Kshatriya Jatiyon Ka Itihaas By Dr. Rajbali Pandey, pp. 291–292 Kshatriya Rajvansh by Dr. Raghunath Chand Kaushik Bhagwan Buddh ke Samkalin Anuyayi tatha Buddha Kendra By Tripatkacharya, Mahopadhyaya Bikshu Buddhamitra, pp. 274–283
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas of ancient India. Magadha played an important role in the development of Jainism and Buddhism, two of India's greatest empires, the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire, originated in Magadha; the existence of Magadha is recorded in Vedic texts much earlier in time than 600 BCE. The earliest reference to the Magadha people occurs in the Atharvaveda, where they are found listed along with the Angas and Mujavats; the core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges. Rajagriha was known as'Girivrijja' and came to be known as so during the reign of Ajatashatru. Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Vajji confederation and Anga, respectively; the kingdom of Magadha came to encompass Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, eastern Uttar Pradesh, the areas that are today the nations of Bangladesh and Nepal. The ancient kingdom of Magadha is mentioned in Jain and Buddhist texts.
It is mentioned in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas. The Mauryan Empire and Gupta Empire, both of which originated in Magadha, saw advancements in ancient India's science, astronomy and philosophy and were considered the Golden Age of India; the Magadha kingdom included republican communities such as the community of Rajakumara. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas, their administrations were divided into executive and military functions. The kingdom of the Magadh, before its expansion, corresponded to the modern districts of Patna, Nalanda, Arwal Nawada and Gaya in southern Bihar, parts of Bengal in the east, it was bounded on the north by the river Ganges, on the east by the river Champa, on the south by the Vindhya Range, on the west by the Son River. This region of Greater Magadha had a belief system of its own that predated Hinduism. Much of the second urbanisation took place here from c. 500 BCE onwards and it was here that Jainism became strong and Buddhism arose.
The importance of Magadha's culture can be seen in that Buddhism and Hinduism adopted some of its features, most a belief in rebirth and karmic retribution. There is little certain information available on the early rulers of Magadha; the most important sources are the Jain Agamas and the Hindu Puranas. Based on these sources, it appears that Magadha was ruled by the Haryanka dynasty for some 200 years, c. 543 to 413 BCE. Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived much of his life in the kingdom of Magadha, he attained enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath and the first Buddhist council was held in Rajgriha. The Hindu Mahabharata calls Brihadratha the first ruler of Magadha. King Bimbisara of the Haryanka dynasty led an active and expansive policy, conquering the Kingdom of Anga in what is now West Bengal. King Bimbisara was killed by Prince Ajatashatru. King Pasenadi, king of neighbouring Kosala and brother-in-law of King Bimbisara, promptly retook the gift of the Kashi province.
Accounts differ as to the cause of King Ajatashatru's war with the Licchavi, an area north of the river Ganges. It appears that Ajatashatru sent a minister to the area who worked for three years to undermine the unity of the Licchavis. To launch his attack across the Ganges River, Ajatashatru built a fort at the town of Pataliputra. Torn by disagreements the Licchavis fought with Ajatashatru, it took fifteen years for Ajatashatru to defeat them. Jain texts tell how Ajatashatru used two new weapons: a catapult, a covered chariot with swinging mace, compared to a modern tank. Pataliputra began to grow as a centre of commerce and became the capital of Magadha after Ajatashatru's death; the Haryanka dynasty was overthrown by the Shishunaga dynasty. The last Shishunaga ruler, was assassinated by Mahapadma Nanda in 345 BCE, the first of the so-called "Nine Nandas", i. e. Mahapadma and his eight sons. In 326 BCE, the army of Alexander approached the western boundaries of Magadha; the army and frightened at the prospect of facing another giant Indian army at the Ganges, mutinied at the Hyphasis and refused to march further east.
Alexander, after the meeting with his officer Coenus, was persuaded that it was better to return and turned south, conquering his way down the Indus to the Ocean. Around 321 BCE, the Nanda Dynasty ended and Chandragupta Maurya became the first king of the great Mauryan dynasty and Mauryan Empire with the help of Chanakya; the Empire extended over most of South Asia under King Ashoka, at first known as'Ashoka the Cruel' but became a disciple of Buddhism and became known as'Dharma Ashoka'. The Mauryan Empire ended, as did the Shunga and Khārabēḷa empires, to be replaced by the Gupta Empire; the capital of the Gupta Empire remained Pataliputra in Magadha. Several Śramaṇic movements have existed before the 6th century BCE, these influenced both the āstika and nāstika traditions of Indian philosophy; the Śramaṇa movement gave rise to diverse range of heterodox beliefs, ranging from accepting or denying the concept of soul, antinomian ethics, atheism, fatalism to free will, idealization of extreme asceticism to that of family life, strict ahimsa and vegetarianism to permissibility of violence and meat-eating.
Magadha kingdom was the nerve centre of this revolution. Jainism was revived and re-established after Mahavira, the last and the 24th Tirthankara and revived the philoso
Mahavira known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth tirthankara who revived Jainism. In the Jain tradition, it is believed that Mahavira was born in the early part of the 6th century BC into a royal Kshatriya family in present-day Bihar, India, he abandoned all worldly possessions at the age of 30 and left home in pursuit of spiritual awakening, becoming an ascetic. Mahavira practiced intense meditation and severe austerities for 12 years, after which he is believed to have attained Kevala Jnana, he preached for 30 years and is believed by Jains to have attained moksha in the 6th century BC, although the year varies by sect. Scholars such as Karl Potter consider his biography uncertain. Mahavira attained nirvana at the age of 72, his body was cremated. After attaining Kevala Jnana, Mahavira taught that observance of the vows of ahimsa, asteya and aparigraha is necessary for spiritual liberation, he taught the principles of Anekantavada: nayavada. Mahavira's teachings were compiled by Indrabhuti Gautama as the Jain Agamas.
The texts, transmitted orally by Jain monks, are believed to have been lost by about the 1st century. The surviving versions of the Agamas taught by Mahavira are some of Jainism's foundation texts. Mahavira is depicted in a sitting or standing meditative posture, with the symbol of a lion beneath him, his earliest iconography is from archaeological sites in the North Indian city of Mathura, is dated from the 1st century BC to the 2nd century AD. His birth is celebrated as Mahavir Jayanti, his nirvana is observed by Jains as Diwali. Surviving early Jain and Buddhist literature uses several names for Mahavira, including Nayaputta, Samana, Niggantha and Bhagavan. In early Buddhist suttas, he is referred to as Veyavi, he is known as Sramana in the Kalpa Sūtra, "devoid of love and hate". According to Jain texts, Mahavira's childhood name was Vardhamāna because of the kingdom's prosperity at the time of his birth. According to the Kalpasutras, he was called Mahavira by the gods in the Kalpa Sūtra because he remained steadfast in the midst of dangers, fears and calamities.
He is known as a tirthankara. Although it is universally accepted by scholars of Jainism that Mahavira lived in ancient India, the details of his life and the year of his birth are subjects of debate. According to the Digambara Uttarapurana text, Mahavira was born in Kundpur in the Kingdom of the Videhas. Although it is thought to be the town of Basu Kund, about 60 kilometres north of Patna, his birthplace remains a subject of dispute. Mahavira renounced his material wealth and left home when he was twenty-eight, by some accounts, lived an ascetic life for twelve years and preached Jainism for thirty years. Where he preached has been a subject of disagreement between the two major traditions of Jainism: the Śvētāmbaras and the Digambaras; the Śvētāmbara tradition believes that Mahavira was born in 599 BC and died in 527 BC, the Digambara tradition believes that he died in 510 BC. The controversy arises from efforts to date the Buddha. All Indologists and historians, says Paul Dundas and others, date Mahavira's birth at about 497 BC and his death at about 425 BC.
However, the Vira Nirvana Samvat era began in 527 BC and is a firmly-established part of Jain tradition. The 12th-century Jain scholar Hemachandra placed Mahavira in the 5th century BC. Kailash Jain writes that Hemachandra performed an incorrect analysis, which along has been a source of confusion and controversy about Mahavira's nirvana. According to Jain, the traditional date of 527 BC is accurate; the place of his nirvana, Pavapuri in present-day Bihar, is a pilgrimage site for Jains. According to Jain cosmology, 24 Tirthankaras have appeared on earth. A Tirthankara signifies the founding of a tirtha, a passage across the sea of birth-and-death cycles. A member of the Kashyapa gotra, Mahavira was born into the royal kshatriya family of King Siddhartha and Queen Trishala of the Ikshvaku dynasty; this is the dynasty in which Hindu epics place Rama and the Ramayana, Buddhist texts place the Buddha, the Jains attribute another twenty-one of their twenty-four tirthankaras. According to Digambara Jains, Mahavira was born in 540 BC.
His birthday falls on the thirteenth day of the rising moon in the month of Chaitra in the Vira Nirvana Samvat calendar era. It falls in March or April of the Gregorian calendar, is celebrated by Jains as Mahavir Jayanti. Kundagrama is traditionally believed to be near Vaishali, an ancient town on the Indo-Gangetic Plain, its location in present-day Bihar is unclear because of migrations from ancient Bihar for economic and political reasons. According to the "Universal History" in Jain my
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Samudragupta was a ruler of the Gupta Empire of present-day India. As a son of the Gupta emperor Chandragupta I and the Licchavi princess Kumaradevi, he expanded his dynasty's political power; the Allahabad Pillar inscription, a prashasti composed by his courtier Harishena, credits him with extensive military conquests. It suggests that he defeated several kings of northern India, annexed their territories to his empire, he marched along the south-eastern coast of India, advancing as far as the Pallava kingdom. In addition, he subjugated several frontier kingdoms and tribal oligarchies, his empire extended from Ravi River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east, from the Himalayan foothills in the north to central India in the south-west. Samudragupta performed the Ashvamedha sacrifice to prove his imperial sovereignty, according to his coins, remained undefeated, his gold coins and inscriptions suggest that he was an accomplished poet, played music. His expansionist policy was continued by his son Chandragupta II.
Modern scholars variously assign the start of Samudragupta's reign from c. 319 CE to c. 350 CE. The inscriptions of the Gupta kings are dated in the Gupta calendar era, whose epoch is dated to c. 319 CE. However, the identity of the era's founder is a matter of debate, scholars variously attribute its establishment to Chandragupta I or Samudragupta. Chandragupta I had a long reign, as the Allahabad Pillar inscription suggests that he appointed his son as his successor after reaching an old age. However, the exact period of his reign is uncertain. For these reasons, the beginning of Samudragupta's reign is uncertain. If Samudragupta is regarded as the founder of the Gupta era, his ascension can be dated to c. 319-320 CE. On the other hand, if his father Chandragupta I is regarded as the founder of the Gupta era, Samudragupta's ascension must be dated to a date. Samudragupta was a contemporary of king Meghavarna of Anuradhapura Kingdom, but the regnal period of this king is uncertain. According to the traditional reckoning adopted in Sri Lanka for Buddha's death, he ruled during 304-332 CE.
Accepting the former date would place Samudragupta's ascension to c. 320 CE. The end of Samudragupta's reign is uncertain. Samudragupta's granddaughter Prabhavatigupta is known to have married during the reign of his son Chandragupta II, in c. 380 CE. Therefore, the end of Samudragupta's reign can be placed before this year. Various estimates of Samudragupta's regnal period include: A. S. Altekar: c. 330-370 CE A. L. Basham: c. 335-376 CE S. R. Goyal: c. 350-375 CE Tej Ram Sharma: c. 353-373 CE Samudragupta was a son of the Gupta king Chandragupta I and queen Kumaradevi, who came from a Licchavi family. His fragmentary Eran stone inscription states that his father selected him as the successor because of his "devotion, righteous conduct, valour", his Allahabad Pillar inscription describes how Chandragupta called him a noble person in front of the courtiers, appointed him to "protect the earth". These descriptions suggest that Chandragupta renounced the throne in his old age, appointed his son as the next king.
According to the Allahabad Pillar inscription, when Chandragupta appointed him as the next ruler, the faces of other people of "equal birth" bore a "melancholy look". One interpretation suggests that these other people were neighbouring kings, Samudagupta's ascension to the throne was uncontested. Another theory is that these other people were Gupta princes who made a rival claim to the throne. If Chandragputa I indeed had multiple sons, it is that Samudragupta's background as the son of a Lichchhavi princess worked in his favour; the coins of a Gupta ruler named Kacha, whose identity is debated by modern scholars, describe him as "the exterminator of all kings". These coins resmble the coins issued by Samudragupta. According to one theory, Kacha was an earlier name of Samudragupta: the king adopted the regnal name Samudra, after extending his territory up to the ocean. An alternatively theory is that Kacha was a distinct king who flourished before or after Samudragupta; the Gupta inscriptions suggest.
The Eran stone inscription of Samudragupta states that he had brought "the whole tribe of kings" under his suzerainty, that his enemies were terrified when they thought of him in their dreams. The inscription does not name any of the defeated kings, but it suggests that Samudragupta had subdued several kings by this time; the Allahabad Pillar inscription, a panegyric written by Samudragupta's minister and military officer Harishena, credits him with extensive conquests. It gives the most detailed account of Samudragupta's military conquests, listing them in geographical and chronological order, it states that Samudragupta fought a hundred battles, acquired a hundred wounds that looked like marks of glory, earned the title Prakrama. The Mathura stone inscription of Chandragupta II describes Samudragupta as an "exterminator of all kings", as someone who had no powerful enemy, as a person whose "fame was tasted by the waters of the four oceans". Modern scholars offer various opinions regarding Samudragupta's possible motivations behind his extensive military campaigns.
The Allahabad Pillar insc
Bihar is state in eastern India. It is the thirteenth-largest Indian state, with an area of 94,163 km2; the third-largest state by population, it is contiguous with Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, with Jharkhand to the south. The Bihar plain is split by the river Ganges. Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh and Bhojpur. On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand. Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh. Additionally 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state. In ancient and classical India, the area, now Bihar was considered a centre of power and culture. From Magadha arose India's first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world's most adhered-to religions, Buddhism. Magadha empires, notably under the Maurya and Gupta dynasties, unified large parts of South Asia under a central rule.
Another region of Bihar is Mithila, an early centre of learning and the centre of the Videha kingdom. Since the late 1970s, Bihar has lagged far behind other Indian states in terms of social and economic development. Many economists and social scientists claim that this is a direct result of the policies of the central government, such as the Freight equalisation policy, its apathy towards Bihar, lack of Bihari sub-nationalism, the Permanent Settlement of 1793 by the British East India Company; the state government has, made significant strides in developing the state. Improved governance has led to an economic revival in the state through increased investment in infrastructure, better health care facilities, greater emphasis on education, a reduction in crime and corruption; the name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit and Pali word vihāra, meaning "abode". The region encompassing the present state was dotted with Buddhist vihara, the abodes of Buddhist monks in the ancient and medieval periods.
Medieval writer Minhaj al-Siraj Juzjani records in the Tabaqat-i Nasiri that in 1198 Bakhtiyar Khalji committed a massacre in a town identified with the word known as Bihar Sharif, about 70 km away from Bodh Gaya. Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age. Regions of Bihar—such as Magadha and Anga—are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India. Mithila gained prominence after establishment of the Videha Kingdom in Āryāvarta. During the late Vedic period, Videha became one of the major political and cultural centers of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla; the kings of the Videha Kingdom were called Janakas. Sita, a daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila is mentioned as the consort of Lord Rama, in the Hindu epic, written by Valmiki; the Videha Kingdom became incorporated into the Vajji confederacy which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, in Mithila. Vajji had a republican form of government. Based on the information found in texts pertaining to Jainism and Buddhism, Vajji was established as a republic by the 6th century BCE, before the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563 BCE, making it the first known republic in India.
The region of modern-day southwestern Bihar called Magadha remained the centre of power and culture in India for 1000 years. The Haryanka dynasty, founded in 684 BC, ruled Magadha from the city of Rajgriha; the two well-known kings from this dynasty were Bimbisara and his son Ajatashatru, who imprisoned his father to ascend the throne. Ajatashatru founded the city of Pataliputra which became the capital of Magadha, he conquered the Vajji. The Haryanka dynasty was followed by the Shishunaga dynasty; the Nanda Dynasty ruled a vast tract stretching from Bengal to Punjab. The Nanda dynasty was replaced by India's first empire; the Maurya Empire and the religion of Buddhism arose in the region. The Mauryan Empire, which originated from Magadha in 325 BC, was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, born in Magadha, it had its capital at Pataliputra. The Mauryan emperor, born in Pataliputra is believed to be one of the greatest rulers in the history of the world; the Gupta Empire, which originated in Magadha in 240 AD, is referred as the Golden Age of India in science, astronomy, commerce and Indian philosophy.
Bihar and Bengal was invaded by Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty in the 11th century. Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed, it was claimed. D. N. Jha suggests, that these incidents were the result of Buddhist-Brahmin skirmishes in a fight for supremacy. After fall of Pala Empire, Chero dynasty ruled some parts of Bihar from 12th century to 16th century till Mughal rule. In 1540, the great Pathan chieftain, Sher Shah Suri, from Sasaram, took northern India from the Mughals, defeating the Mughal army of Emperor Humayun. Sher Shah declared Delhi his capital. From the 11th century to the 20th century, Mithila was ruled by various indigenous dynasties; the first of these were the Karnatas, followed by the Oinwar dynasty and Raj Darbhanga. It was during this period that the capital of Mithila was shi