Muzaffarpur is a sub-metropolitan city located in Muzaffarpur district in the Tirhut region of Bihar. It serves as the headquarters of Tirhut division, Muzaffarpur district and the Muzaffarpur Railway District, it is the fourth most populous city in Bihar. Muzaffarpur is famous for Shahi is known as the Lychee Kingdom. Shahi litchi is set to become the fourth product from Bihar, after jardalu mango, katarni rice and Magahi paan to get the Geographical Indication tag, it is situated on the banks of the perennial Burhi Gandak River, which flows from the Someshwar Hills of Himalayas. The current city was established in 1875 by the British Raj for administrative convenience by diving up Tirhut district and was named after one Muzaffar Khan. In 1972 both Sitamarhi and Vaishali districts were split off from Muzaffarpur; the significance of Muzaffarpur in Indian civilisation arises out of its position on the frontier line between prominent spiritual influences, it is a meeting place of Hindu and Islamic culture and thoughts.
Muzaffarpur fostered political leaders and statesmen alike, among whom were Rajendra Prasad, George Fernandes and J. B. Kripalani; the vernacular language of the region is Bajjika, as per the linguist George Grierson. Muzaffarpur is located at 26°07′N 85°24′E; the city lies in a active seismic zone of India. In the disastrous earthquake on 15 January 1934, much of the town suffered severe damage and many lives were lost, it has an average elevation of 47 meters. This saucer shaped, low-centered town lies on the great Indo-Gangetic plains of Bihar, over Himalayan silt and sand brought by the glacier-fed and rain-fed meandering rivers of the Himalayas. Muzaffarpur has humid subtropical climate under Köppen climate classification; the summer, between April and June, is hot and humid and winter is pleasantly cool, around 06/20 °C. Rainfall in Muzaffarpur Town is comparatively less to the other parts of Bihar; the lychee crop, available from May to June, is cultivated in the districts of Muzaffarpur and surrounding districts.
Cultivation of litchi covers an area of about 25,800 hectares producing about 300,000 tonnes every year. Litchi are exported to big cities of India like Bombay, to other countries. India's share in the world litchi market amounts to less than 1%; the names of the litchi produced in Muzaffarpur are China. The fruits are known for excellent quality. Bihar's contribution in the production of lychee in about 40 percent of lychee produced in India. Bihar has emerged as a brewery hub with major domestic and foreign firms setting up production units in the state. Vijay Mallya's group, United Breweries Group, is setting up a production unit to make litchi-flavoured wine, in Muzaffarpur in 2012; the company has leased litchi gardens. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Muzaffarpur one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the 36 districts in Bihar receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. As of the 2011 India census, Muzaffarpur had a population of 393,724.
Males constituted 52.96% of the population and females 47.04%. Muzaffarpur had a literacy rate of 85.07%. Male literacy was 88.77%, female literacy was 80.91%. Muzaffarpur Junction railway station is a main railway junction, with two suburban stations, Ram Dayalu Nagar and Narayanpur Anant, it is well connected to major cities of Bihar like Patna, Gaya, Chakia and Darbhanga. National Highway 57 comes via Gorakhpur, Motihari and crosses Muzaffarpur and National Highway 57 goes to Darbhanga, Purnia; the East–West Corridor crosses Muzaffarpur thus connecting it to all the major towns and cities in India. National Highway 77 starting from Hajipur passes through Muzaffarpur and connects Muzaffarpur to Sitamarhi. National Highway 28 connects Muzaffarpur to Barauni, all 6 National Highways having junction there. Yogendra Shukla revolutionary, Indian freedom movement activist, served time at Kalapani Basawon Singh revolutionary, Indian freedom movement activist Rajendra Prasad, India's first President Baikunth Shukla revolutionary hanged by the British in 1934 Rambriksh Benipuri Indian freedom movement activist, eminent writer of Hindi literature Kishori Sinha Indian politician, educationist & first Woman MP Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi, political activist Janki Ballabh Shastri, Hindi poet and critic Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh and freedom fighter Devaki Nandan Khatri, the author of Chandrakanta Jubba Sahni, freedom fighter Mridula Sinha, Governor of Goa J. B.
Kripalani, politician Veena Devi, Indian politician Dinesh Prasad Singh, Indian politician George Fernandes, trade unionist and politician Aishwarya Nigam, a Bollywood playback singer Shahbaz Nadeem, Indian cricketer Sudhir Kumar Chaudhary, sports spectator and fan of the Indian Cricket Team Shreya Narayan, Bollywood actress Arunabh Kumar, Founder and ex-CEO of TVF Subrat Saurabh, a writer Appan Samachar Baba Garib Sthan Mandir Muzaffarpur district List of cities in Bihar Sujini embroidery work of Bihar Official website of Muzaffarpur District Official website of Tirhut Division "Muzaffarpur". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
The Kathmandu Valley known as Nepal Valley or Nepa Valley, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of the Indian subcontinent and the broader Asian continent, has at least 130 important monuments, including several pilgrimage sites for Hindus and Buddhists. There are seven World Heritage Sites within the valley; the valley and adjoining areas made up a confederation known as the Nepal Mandala. Until the 15th century, Bhaktapur was its capital, when two other capitals and Lalitpur, were established; the Kathmandu Valley is the most populated place in Nepal. The majority of offices and headquarters are located in the valley, making it the economic hub of Nepal, it is popular with tourists for its unique architecture, rich culture that includes the highest number of jatras in Nepal. The valley itself was referred to as "Nepal Proper" by British historians. In 2015, Kathmandu Valley was hit by the April 2015 Nepal earthquake; the earthquake caused thousands of deaths and destruction of many infrastructures across the Kathmandu Valley, which includes the towns of Lalitpur, Madhyapur Thimi, Bhaktapur making the total population to five million people and the municipalities across Kathmandu valley.
Kathmandu is the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region. Kathmandu is not the native name used by the indigenous Nepa people of the valley; the term "Nepa-al" was traditionally used to refer this valley. The Pahari name Kathmandu comes from a structure in Durbar Square called by the Sanskrit name Kāsṣtha mandapa "Wooden shelter"; this unique temple known as the Maru Sattal, was built in 1596 by King Lakshminarasimha Malla. The entire structure contained no iron nails or supports and was made from wood. Legend has it. City of Banepa and Dhulikhel is considered part of Kathmandu valley as it has a similar culture; the Kathmandu Valley may have been inhabited as early as 300 BCE, since the oldest known objects in the valley date to a few hundred years BCE. The earliest known inscription is dated 185 CE; the oldest dated building in the earthquake-prone valley is over 2,000 years old. Four stupas around the city of Patan that are said to have been erected by a Charumati, a purported daughter of the Maurya emperor Ashoka, in the third century BCE, attest to the ancient history present within the valley.
As with the tales of the Buddha's visit, there is no evidence supporting Ashok's visit, but the stupas date to that century. The Licchavis, whose earliest inscriptions date to 464, were the next rulers of the valley and had close ties with the Gupta Empire of India; the Mallas ruled the Kathmandu Valley and the surrounding area from the 12th until the 18th century CE, when the Shah dynasty of the Gorkha Kingdom under Prithvi Narayan Shah conquered the valley as he created present-day Nepal. His victory in the Battle of Kirtipur was the beginning of his conquest of the valley; the Newars are the indigenous inhabitants and the creators of the historic civilization of the valley. Their language is today known as Nepal Bhasa, they are understood to be the descendants of the various ethnic and racial groups that have inhabited and ruled the valley in the two-millennium history of the place. Scholars have described the Newars as a nation, they have developed a division of labour and a sophisticated urban civilization not seen elsewhere in the Himalayan foothills.
They are known for their contributions to art, architecture, literature, industry, trade and cuisine, left their mark on the art of Central Asia. Newa architecture consists of the pagoda, shikhara and other styles; the valley's trademark is the multiple-roofed pagoda which may have originated in this area and spread to India, China and Japan. The most famous artisan who influenced stylistic developments in China and Tibet was Araniko, a Newar who traveled to the court of Kublai Khan in the 13th century AD, he is known for building the white stupa at the Miaoying Temple in Beijing. At present, people from other parts of Nepal tend to migrate to the valley for a better life due to its high level of cultural and economic development. With urbanization taking pace, the Newars have sustained their culture in Kathmandu Valley. According to Swayambhu Puran, the Kathmandu Valley was once a lake, deemed by scientists as Paleo Kathmandu Lake; the hill where the Swayambu Stupa rests had lotus plants with flowers in bloom.
One story says that the God Manjusri cut a gorge at a valley called Kashapaal with a sword called Chandrahrasha and drained away the waters in order to establish a habitable land. According to Gopal Banshawali, Krishna cut the gorge with his Sudarshana Chakra to let the water out, he handed the drained valley to the Gopal Vansi people, who were nomadic cow herders. Kathmandu valley is bowl-shaped, its central lower part stands at 1,425 metres above sea level. Kathmandu valley is surrounded by four mountain ranges: Shivapuri, Phulchowki and Chandragiri; the major river flowing through the Kathmandu Valley is the Bagmati. The valley is made up of the Kathmandu District, Lalitpur District and Bhaktapur District covering an area of 220 square miles; the valley consists of the municipal areas of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Madhyapur Thimi.
Banepa, a municipality and historical town is a valley situated at about 4,800 ft above sea level in central Nepal, at about 25 kilometres east from Kathmandu. At the time of the 2011 Nepal census, it has a population of 24,764; the main attraction of Banepa is the temple of Chandeshwori, located 1 km northeast of the town along the Rudramati River. The Dhaneshwor Temple is 1 km south of the town. Banepa is known for its eight different temples of Lord Ganesh, Narayanthan and eight different ponds; some of the ancient names of Banepa were Banepur, Banipur. As it had trade relationship with Tibet from ancient period, Banepa is known as "Bhont", "Bhonta", "Bhon dey". Banepa is the combination of two words i.e. "Bane" means'Business' and "Pa" means'Place'. Therefore, "Banepa" means'Place of Business', it is believed that when entire Kathmandu Valley was covered with lake, there was a settlement in Banepa. By early Lichchavi period, settlements existed at Sanga, Nala, Khopasi, Palanchowk and Dolakha, Chitlang valley and upto Gorkha..
Thakuri period: Bhaktapur and Banepa was the core political area. Malla Period: King Anandedeva Malla united the scattered villages and made modern Banepa surrounded by eight gates with a Ganesh at each of the gates in eight different directions in Kaligat Year 4197, he built a temple of Chandeshwori and arranged a trust fund for the goddess. After having had the favours and directions of goddess Chandeshwori, King Anandadeva Malla founded seven villages, Banepa near Chandeshwori Pitha Shreekhandapur near Dhaneshwor Panauti near Prayaga Tirtha of Nepal Nala near Nala Bhagawati Dhulikhel near Narayana Chaukot near the resident of Chaukora Rishi Sanga, near Nasika Pitha; the old Newa: town is located at the central part of the City. It is surrounded by 8 ganesh temples with Phalchaa; the name of the Ganesh temples are: Tukampwo Ganesh at South Kobha Ganesh at Southeast Waku Ganesh at East Thachhu Ganesh at North Kanthu Ganesh at Northeast Kwonla Ganesh at Southwest Talapukhu Ganesh at West Jyasanani Ganesh at NorthwestThese Ganesh temples are said to be the boundaries of old Banepa.
The main temple of Banepa city was Chandeswori Temple along Rudramati River. Along with this, King Ananda Dev Malla built wells and taps for providing the people of Banepa with the good source of water, but many of those ponds have been used for public uses and some'Phalchaa' do not have any existence today. A lot of festivals are celebrated in Banepa as follows: Chandeshwori Jatra from Baisakh Purnima to next two days. Kanya Pooja during Gunla, Krishna Janmasthami Nawadurga Jatra Ganesh Jatra during Vijaya Dashami भीमसेन जात्रा Bhimsen Jatra Jaaludyo Jatra on the day of Ashwin Krishna Pratipada, the next day of Indra Jatra. Naradevi Shvetkali Naach (नरदेवी श्वेतकाली नाच, once in twelve years, it was re-continued after about after 38 years. Krishna Janmasthami Above mentioned, but there were many other besides these, discontinued due to various reasons. Some of those festivals are listed as follows: Kumari Nritya had been discontinued about 108 years ago. Jatras of Tukwampo Ganesh Narayan and Bhimsen.
Many other festivals were discontinued which were forgotten. Punyamata River, the major source of drinking water and many other activities, is being polluted day by day; the bank of Punyamata River has been a place. The sewage has been connected directly to the river without any treatment and in an unmanaged way has adversely affected the river water. Waste materials produced from local industry have turned the river water black; the surrounding countryside is being polluted. Although Banepa is a small place of an area of 5.56 square kilometres, it has got the population density of 4,454 per square kilometre. Due to the connection of Banepa with other places through roadways, about 300 buses, cars, motorcycles altogether are helping in the transportation in a day. Along with this, the gases emitted from those vehicles have polluted the environment of Banepa. In the boundary of three municipalities of Kavrepalanchowk District, namely. All the three cities have been declared as the'Cyber City'. Banepa has a Seventh-day Adventist hospital called Scheer Memorial Hospital, established in 1957.
This hospital has been expanded as a medical college associated with Vanderbilt University in the USA and Kathmandu University. Many students enroll in the B. Sc. Nursing programs at this hospital. Banepa is the location of the Hospital and Rehabilitation Centre for Disabled Children and Reiyukai Eiko Masunaga Eye Hospital. Banepa is a major trade route to Tibet, with the Arniko Rajmarg, the only highway that connects Nepal and China, running through this town. Furthermore B. P. Koirala Highway passes through Banepa. Though it is a small town, but it is well
Middle kingdoms of India
The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE. The period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, starting with Simuka, from 230 BCE; the "Middle" period lasted for about 1500 years and ended in the 13th century, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate, founded in 1206, the end of the Later Cholas. This period encompasses two eras: Classical India, from the Maurya Empire up until the end of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century CE, early Medieval India from the 6th century onwards, it encompasses the era of classical Hinduism, dated from 200 BCE to 1100 CE. From 1 CE until 1000 CE, India's economy is estimated to have been the largest in the world, having between one-third and one-quarter of the world's wealth, it is followed by the late Medieval period in the 13th century. During the 2nd century BCE, the Maurya Empire became a collage of regional powers with overlapping boundaries.
The whole northwest attracted a series of invaders between 200 BCE and 300 CE. The Puranas speak of many of these tribes as foreigners and impure barbarians. First the Satavahana dynasty and the Gupta Empire, both successor states to the Maurya Empire, attempt to contain the expansions of the successive before crumbling internally due to the pressure exerted by these wars; the invading tribes were influenced by Buddhism which continued to flourish under the patronage of both invaders and the Satavahanas and Guptas and provides a cultural bridge between the two cultures. Over time, the invaders became "Indianized" as they influenced society and philosophy across the Gangetic plains and were conversely influenced by it; this period is marked by both intellectual and artistic achievements inspired by cultural diffusion and syncretism as the new kingdoms straddle the Silk Road. The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Sakas who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Arachosia, Kashmir and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE.
The first Saka king in India was Maues or Moga who established Saka power in Gandhara and extended supremacy over north-western India. Indo-Scythian rule in India ended with the last of the Western Satraps, Rudrasimha III, in 395 CE; the invasion of India by Scythian tribes from Central Asia referred to as the "Indo-Scythian invasion", played a significant part in the history of India as well as nearby countries. In fact, the Indo-Scythian war is just one chapter in the events triggered by the nomadic flight of Central Asians from conflict with Chinese tribes which had lasting effects on Bactria, Kabul and India as well as far off Rome in the west; the Scythian groups that invaded India and set up various kingdoms, besides the Sakas, other allied tribes, such as the Medes, Massagetae, Parama Kamboja Kingdom, Bahlikas and Parada Kingdom. The Indo-Greek Kingdom covered various parts of the Northwestern South Asia during the last two centuries BCE, was ruled by more than 30 Hellenistic kings in conflict with each other.
The kingdom was founded when Demetrius I of Bactria invaded the Hindu Kush early in the 2nd century BCE. The Greeks in India were divided from the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom centered in Bactria; the expression "Indo-Greek Kingdom" loosely describes a number of various dynastic polities. There were numerous cities, such as Pushkalavati and Sagala; these cities would house a number of dynasties in their times, based on Ptolemy's Geography and the nomenclature of kings, a certain Theophila in the south was probably a satrapal or royal seat at some point. Euthydemus I was, his son, founder of the Indo-Greek kingdom, was therefore of Greek descent from his father at minimum. A marriage treaty was arranged for Demetrius with a daughter of Antiochus III the Great, who had partial Persian descent; the ethnicity of Indo-Greek rulers is less clear. For example, Artemidoros Aniketos may have been of Indo-Scythian descent. Intermarriage occurred, as exemplified by Alexander the Great, who married Roxana of Bactria, or Seleucus I Nicator, who married Apama of Sogdia.
During the two centuries of their rule, the Indo-Greek kings combined the Greek and Indian languages and symbols, as seen on their coins, blended Greek and Buddhist religious practices, as seen in the archaeological remains of their cities and in the indications of their support of Buddhism, pointing to a rich fusion of Indian and Hellenistic influences. The diffusion of Indo-Greek culture had consequences which are still felt today through the influence of Greco-Buddhist art; the Indo-Greeks disappeared as a political entity around 10 CE following the invasions of the Indo-Scythians, although pockets of Greek populations remained for several centuries longer under the subsequent rule of the Indo-Parthians and Kushan Empire. The Yavana or Yona people "Ionian" and meaning "Western foreigner", were described as living beyond Gandhara. Yavanas, the Pahlavas and Hunas were sometimes described as mlecchas, "barbarians". Kambojas and the inhabitants of Madra, the Kekeya Kingdom, the Indus River region and Gandhara were sometimes classified as mlecchas.
This name was used to indicate their cultural differences with the culture of the Kuru Kingdom and Panchala. The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was founded by Gondophares around 20 BCE; the kingdom lasted only until its conquest
The Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa, or is a Mahayana Buddhist sutra. It was influential in East Asia, but most of less importance in the Indian and Tibetan sub-traditions of Mahāyāna Buddhism; the word nirdeśa in the title means "instruction, advice", Vimalakīrti is the name of the main protagonist of the text, means "Taintless Fame". The sutra teaches, among other subjects, the meaning of nondualism, the doctrine of the true body of the Buddha, the characteristically Mahāyāna claim that the appearances of the world are mere illusions, the superiority of the Mahāyāna over other paths, it places in the mouth of the upāsaka Vimalakīrti a teaching addressed to both arhats and bodhisattvas, regarding the doctrine of śūnyatā. In most versions, the discourse of the text culminates with a wordless teaching of silence. Translator Burton Watson argues that the Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa was composed in 100 CE. Although it had been thought lost for centuries, a version in Sanskrit was recovered in 1999 among the manuscripts of the Potala Palace in Lhasa.
The Sanskrit was published in parallel with the Tibetan and three Chinese versions by the Study Group on Buddhist Sanskrit Literature at the Institute for Comprehensive Studies of Buddhism at Taisho University in 2004, in 2006, the same group published a critical edition that has become the standard version of the Sanskrit for scholarly purposes. In 2007 the Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods published a romanized Sanskrit version under the title Āryavimalakīrtinirdeśo Nāma Mahāyānasūtram. For a recent and thorough summary of the present scholarly understanding of the text, readers should consult Felbur. Various translations circulate, an greater number are known or claimed to have existed in the past. Tradition holds. A supposed first translation is said in some classical bibliographic sources, beginning with the notoriously unreliable Lidai sanbao ji 歷代三寶紀 T2034 in 598 C. E. to have been produced by Yan Fotiao 嚴佛調. Three canonical Chinese versions are extant: an earlier version ascribed to Zhi Qian 支謙, entitled Weimojie jing 維摩詰經 T474.
E. under the title Weimojie suoshuo jing 維摩詰所說經 T475. Of these, the Kumārajīva version is the most famous; the principal Tibetan version is that found in the Kanjur, by Chos nyid tshul khrims, Dri ma med par grags pas bstan pa D176/Q843.' An additional version was found at Dunhuang in the early 20th century. In modern English, four main translations exist, two Kumārajīva's Chinese, two others from the Tibetan. A erudite French translation by Étienne Lamotte was made from the Tibetan. Lamotte's French was re-translated into English by Sara Boin-Webb, bringing the total number of English versions to five; the English translations are: Charles. Ordinary Enlightenment: A Translation of the Vimalakirti Nirdesa. Shambhala Publications. ISBN 0394730658. Lamotte, Etienne; the Teaching of Vimalakirti: Vimalakirtinirdesa. Pali Text Society. ISBN 0860130770. - Translation from French Watson, Burton. The Vimalakirti Sutra. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231106564. Thurman, Robert; the Holy Teaching of Vimalakirti: A Mahayana Scripture.
Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0271012099. McRae, John; the Sutra of Queen Śrīmālā of the Lion's the Vimalakīrti Sutra. Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. ISBN 1886439311. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Jan Nattier has discussed and compared most of these translations in considerable detail, as an interesting case in the agendas and resulting shortcomings of various approaches to modern Buddhist Studies. No English translation directly from the rediscovered Sanskrit has yet been published. There exist or existed various translations into the Japanese, Khotanese, Mongolian and Manchurian languages. Most Japanese versions are based on Kumārajīva, but two translations directly from the rediscovered Sanskrit text into vernacular Japanese have now been published, one by Takahashi Hisao 高橋尚夫 and Nishino Midori 西野翠, one by Ueki Masatoshi 植木雅俊; the Vimalakirti Sutra can be summarised. Chapter 1 The scene is Āmrapāli's garden outside Vaiśālī. In this setting, we may see evidence of the literary sophistication of the authors, the foreshadowing of key themes: Āmrapāli was a famously accomplished courtesan, ascribed in narrative with various roles in relation to promulgation of the Dharma.
Five hundred Licchavi youths offer parasols to the Buddha, who miraculously transforms them into a single gigantic parasol that covers the entire cosmos. The youths ask; the Buddha responds. The buddhakṣetra is equated with various other exalted
History of India
Anatomically modern humans are thought to have arrived on the Indian subcontinent between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago. Settled life, which involves the transition from foraging to farming and pastoralism, began in South Asia around 7,000 BCE. By 4,500 BCE, settled life had become more prevalent, evolved into the Indus Valley Civilization. Considered a cradle of civilisation, the Indus Valley civilisation, which spread and flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1300 BCE, was the first major civilisation in South Asia. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE. Indus Valley Civilisation was noted for developing new techniques in handicraft, carnelian products, seal carving, urban planning, baked brick houses, efficient drainage systems, water supply systems and clusters of large non-residential buildings; this civilisation collapsed at the start of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilisation.
In the beginning of the second millennium BCE climate change, with persistent drought, led to the abandonment of the urban centers of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Its population resettled in smaller villages, and, in the north-west, mixed with Indo-Aryan tribes, who moved into the area in several waves of Aryan migration driven by the effects of this climate change; the Vedic period was marked by the composition of the Vedas, large collections of hymns of some of the Aryan tribes, whose postulated religious culture, through synthesis with the preexisting religious cultures of the subcontinent, gave rise to Hinduism. The era saw the eventual emergence of Janapadas, social stratification based on caste, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors and laborers; the Later Vedic Civilisation extended over the Indo-Gangetic plain and much of the Indian subcontinent, as well as witnessed the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms, Gautama Buddha and Mahavira propagated their Śramaṇic philosophies during the fifth and sixth centuries BCE.
Most of the Indian subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. From the 3rd century BCE onwards Prakrit and Pali literature in the north and the Tamil Sangam literature in southern India started to flourish. Wootz steel originated in south India in the 3rd century was exported to foreign countries. During the Classical period, various parts of India were ruled by numerous dynasties for the next 1,500 years, among which the Gupta Empire stands out; this period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration and religion spread to much of Asia, while kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia, which led to the establishment of Indianised kingdoms in Southeast Asia; the most significant event between the 7th and 11th century was the Tripartite struggle centred on Kannauj that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire, Rashtrakuta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara Empire.
Southern India saw the rise of multiple imperial powers from the middle of the fifth century, most notably the Chalukya, Pallava, Chera and Western Chalukya Empires. The Chola dynasty conquered southern India and invaded parts of Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Bengal in the 11th century. In the early medieval period Indian mathematics, including Hindu numerals, influenced the development of mathematics and astronomy in the Arab world. Islamic conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Sindh as early as the 8th century, the Delhi Sultanate was founded in 1206 CE by Central Asian Turks who ruled a major part of the northern Indian subcontinent in the early 14th century, but declined in the late 14th century; this period saw the emergence of several powerful Hindu states, notably Vijayanagara and Ahom, as well as Rajput states, such as Mewar. The 15th century saw the advent of Sikhism; the early modern period began in the 16th century, when the Mughal Empire conquered most of the Indian subcontinent, becoming the biggest global economy and manufacturing power, with a nominal GDP that valued a quarter of world GDP, superior than the combination of Europe's GDP.
The Mughals suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century, which provided opportunities for the Marathas, Sikhs and Nawabs of Bengal to exercise control over large regions of the Indian subcontinent. From the late 18th century to the mid-19th century, large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company of the British Empire. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of rapid development of infrastructure, economic decline and major famines. During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched, led by the Indian National Congress, joined by other organisations; the Indian subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states. Hominins expansion from Africa
The Licchavis were a clan amongst the Vajji Mahajanapada of ancient India. Vaishali the capital and homeland of the Licchavis, was the capital of the Vajji mahajanapada also, it was occupied by Ajatashatru, who annexed the Vajji territory into his kingdom. Kautilya in his Arthaśāstra, describes the Licchavis as a tribal confederation, whose leader uses the title of rājā. A Buddhist text, the Mahāparinibbāna Suttanta refers them as Kshatriyas and one of the claimants of the relics of Buddha, they have claimed Kshatriya status themselves. According to the Dīgha Nikāya, the Licchavis were of the Vasiṣṭha gotra. Buhler assumes that, in the Manusmriti, the Licchavis are placed in the category of the Vratya Kshatriyas. Buddhaghośa in his Paramatthajotikā, traced the origin of the Licchavis to Benaras; the date of the establishment of the Licchavi domination over the area consisting of present-day north Bihar and Terai region of Nepal is not known. By the time of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha this clan was well settled in the area around their capital Vaiśālī.
Buddhist tradition has preserved the names of a number of eminent Licchavis, which include prince Abhyaya, Oṭṭhaddha, generals, Sīha and Ajita and Sunakkhata. The Kalpasūtra of Bhadravāhu refers to the nine Licchavi gaṇarājas who along with the nine Malla gaṇarājas and the eighteen Kāśī-Kośala gaṇarājas formed a league against Magadha; the leader of this alliance was Chetaka. Only scattered reports of the Licchavi government system survive; the introductory portions of the Cullakalinga Jātaka and the Ekapaṇṇa Jātaka mention the Licchavi as having 7,707 Rājās. The number is one of convention, unlikely to have been exact, it does demonstrate. Ultimate authority rested with the 7,707 raja who met each year to elect one of their member as ruler and a council of nine to assist him, it was far from a modern democracy, as only a small portion of the Licchavi population qualified to vote. Those with raja status were only the male heads of households; the seat of the Licchavi administration was in the capital of the Vajjiian confederacy.
The Rājā was judicial authority. The introductory portion of the Bhaddasāla Jātaka mentions about a tank, the water of, used for the Abhiṣeka of the Gaṇarājas of Vaiśālī; the assembly hall where these Gaṇarājas met for discussion was known as the Santhāgāra. The Aṭṭhakathā mentions about the three chief functionaries of the Licchavi administration, the Rājā, the Uparājā and the Senāpati; the introductory portion of the Ekapaṇṇa Jātaka adds one more with the Bhāṇḍāgārika. According to the Aṭṭhakathā, an accused criminal had to pass through seven layers of judges, each of whom investigated and interrogated the accused; these judges were the Viniccaya Mahāmātta, the Vohārika, the Sūttadhāra, Aṭṭhakūlakā. The Senāpati and the Uparājā; the final judge was the Rājā, who could find him guilty, whereupon the convict received the punishment prescribed in the Paveṇipotthaka for the offence committed by him. The Gupta emperor Chandragupta I married a Licchavi princess Kumaradevi and the legend Licchavayah is found along with a figure of goddess Lakshmi on the reverse of the Chandragupta I-Kumaradevi type gold coins of Samudragupta.
In the Allahabad Pillar inscription of Samudragupta, he is described as the Licchavidauhitra. These suggest Licchavi occupation of Magadha before the rise of the imperial Guptas, although there is no direct evidence to prove it; the Licchavi feud with Ajatashatru from 484 BCE to 468 BCE lasted with the victory of the latter. The Licchavi kingdom of Nepal Singh, Upinder, A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson, ISBN 978-81-317-1677-9