Lichas is a genus of lichid trilobites from late Ordovician-aged marine strata of Europe and Morocco. "Largest Trilobites" by Sam M. Gon III
Women of Trachis
Women of Trachis is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles. Women of Trachis is considered to be less developed than Sophocles' other works, its dating has been a subject of disagreement among critics and scholars; the story begins with Deianeira, the wife of Heracles, relating the story of her early life and her plight adjusting to married life. She is now distraught over her husband's neglect of her family. Involved in some adventure, he visits them, she sends their son Hyllus to find him, as she is concerned over prophecies about Heracles and the land he is in. After Hyllus sets off, a messenger arrives with word that Heracles, victorious in his recent battle, is making offerings on Cape Cenaeum and coming home soon to Trachis. Lichas, a herald of Heracles, brings in a procession of captives, he tells Deianeira a false story of. He claimed Eurytus, the city's king, was responsible for Heracles being enslaved, therefore Heracles vowed revenge against him and his people. Among the captured girls is Iole, daughter of Eurytus.
Deianeira soon learns that in truth Heracles laid siege to the city just to obtain Iole, whom he has taken as a lover. Unable to cope with the thought of her husband falling for this younger woman, she decides to use a love charm on him, a magic potion that will win him back; when she was younger, she had been carried across a river by Nessus. Halfway through he made a grab at her, but Heracles came to her rescue and shot him with an arrow; as he died, he told her his blood, now mixed with the poison of the Lernaean Hydra in which Heracles' arrow had been dipped, would keep Heracles from loving any other woman more than her, if she follows his instructions. Deianeira dyes a robe with the blood and has Lichas carry it to Heracles with strict instructions that no one else is to wear it, it is to be kept in the dark until he puts it on. After the gift is sent, she begins to have a bad feeling about it, she throws some of the left-over material into sunlight and it reacts like boiling acid. Nessus had lied about the love charm.
Hyllus soon arrives to inform her. He was in such pain and fury that he killed Lichas, the deliverer of the gift: "he made the white brain to ooze from the hair, as the skull was dashed to splinters, blood scattered therewith". Deianeira feels enormous shame for what she has done, amplified by her son's harsh words, kills herself. Hyllus discovers soon after that it wasn't her intention to kill her husband; the dying Heracles is carried to his home in horrible pain and furious over what he believes was a murder attempt by his wife. Hyllus explains the truth, Heracles realizes that the prophecies about his death have come to pass: He was to be killed by someone, dead, it turned out to be Nessus. In the end, he is in so much pain. In this weakened state, he says, he makes a final wish. The play concludes with Heracles being carried off to be burned alive, as an ending to his suffering; the date of the first performance of Women of Trachis is unknown, scholars have speculated a wide range of dates for its initial performance.
Scholars such as T. F. Hoey believe the play was written early in Sophocles' career, around 450 BC. Cited as evidence for an early date is the fact that the dramatic form of Women of Trachis is not as developed as those of Sophocles' other surviving works, advancing the belief that the play comes from a younger and less skilled Sophocles. Additionally, the plot of the play is similar to a story related by Bacchylides in Bacchylides XVI, but in some respects different from earlier known versions of Bacchylides' story. From this and others have argued that Sophocles' interpretation was more to have influenced Bacchylides than vice versa. Serving as further evidence is the relationship between the character of Deianeira and that of Clytemnestra in Aeschylus' Oresteia, first produced in 458. In earlier known versions of this story, Deianeira has several masculine qualities, similar to those of Clytemnestra – who, in the Oresteia, purposely kills her husband Agamemnon. In Women of Trachis, Deianeira's character is softer and more feminine, she is only inadvertently responsible for her husband's death.
According to some scholars, Deianeira's character in Women of Trachis is intended as a commentary on Aeschylus' treatment of Clytemnestra. Hoey sees echoes of Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound in the relevance of Women of Trachis to debates that were occurring during the 450s on the "relationship between knowledge and responsibility."Other scholars, such as Cedric H. Whitman, argue for a production date during the 430s, close to but before Oedipus Rex. Evidence for a date near Oedipus Rex include a thematic similarity between the two plays. Whitman believes the two plays represent "another large step in the metaphysics of evil, to which Sophocles devoted his life." Thomas B. L. Webster estimates a date in the 430s, close to 431, for a variety of reasons. One reason Webster gives for this dating is that there are a number of similarities between Women of Trachis and plays by Euripides that were known to be written between 438 and 417, so may help narrow the range of dates, although it is unknow
Shirt of Nessus
In Greek mythology, the Shirt of Nessus, Tunic of Nessus, Nessus-robe, or Nessus' shirt was the poisoned shirt that killed Heracles. It was once a popular reference in literature. In folkloristics, it is considered an instance of the "poison dress" motif. Fearing that Heracles had taken a lover, his wife Deianeira gives him the "shirt", stained with the blood of the centaur Nessus, she had been tricked by the dying Nessus into believing it would serve as a potion to ensure her husband's faithfulness. In fact, it contained the venom of the Lernaean Hydra with which Heracles had poisoned the arrow he used to kill Nessus; when Heracles puts it on, the Hydra's venom begins to cook him alive, to escape this unbearable pain he builds a funeral pyre and throws himself on it. Metaphorically, it represents "a source of misfortune from. During the anabaptist Münster Rebellion of 1534, a fifteen-year-old girl named Hille Feyken attempted to deceive Münster’s Prince-Bishop Franz von Waldeck, commanding a protracted siege of the city.
Her plan was to pretend to defect and entice the Bishop with information about the cities' defenses while giving him a handsome shirt soaked in poison. Before her plan could be carried out she was betrayed by another defector, who warned the bishop, Feyken was tortured and killed. Major-General Henning von Tresckow, one of the primary conspirators in the July 20 plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, famously referred to the "Robe of Nessus" following the realization that the assassination plot had failed and that he and others involved in the conspiracy would lose their lives as a result: "None of us can complain about our own deaths. Everyone who joined our circle put on the'Robe of Nessus'." In Act 4.12 of Shakespeare's play Antony and Cleopatra, Mark Antony is in a rage after losing the Battle of Actium and exclaims, "The shirt of Nessus is upon me." In his work The Count of Monte Cristo, after Benedetto reveals in court that the crown prosecutor Monsieur de Villefort was his illegitimate father, he forfeits his job and he removes his robes because it was a burden and torment to him, using the shirt of Nessus as a metaphor.
In section IV of his poem "Little Gidding", the final poem of Four Quartets, Eliot alludes to the Nessus myth and the Herculean "Shirt of Flame" in his lines:... Love is the unfamiliar Name Behind the hands that wove The intolerable shirt of flame Which human power cannot remove.... The Shirt of Nessus is the title of the master's thesis of noted American postmodern novelist John Barth. Written for the Writing Seminars program at Johns Hopkins University, which Barth himself ran, The Shirt of Nessus is not a dissertation, but rather a short novel or novella, it can be considered Barth's first full-length fictional work, it is to remain his most elusive. Barth, not unlike a fair number of other authors, has revealed himself to be embarrassed by his early unpublished work—in his case, most work before The Floating Opera; the Shirt of Nessus is referenced in both of Barth's nonfiction collections, The Friday Book and Further Fridays, but little is known of its actual content. The only known copies not held by the author were kept in the Johns Hopkins school library and the Writing Seminars Department thesis copies, but recent inquiries by devoted Barth fans have shown that the copy held by the Writing Seminars at Johns Hopkins disappeared in the mid-1960s, while the other seems to have mysteriously "walked out" of the school's special collections division of the library.
It is the opinion of some notable JHU faculty members who talk to Barth that he may have been the mastermind behind these disappearances himself. While that remains speculation, when the special collections division notified Barth in 2002, Barth responded that he "was not altogether unhappy the library no longer had a copy". Update: Novelist and scholar David Morell, in the updated, e-book edition of his study of Barth John Barth: An Introduction, notes that he long ago obtained a photocopy of Barth's "The Shirt of Nessus." In the "Introduction" to Bending the Bow: "Pound sought coherence in The Cantos and comes in Canto 116 to lament'and I cannot make it cohere.' But the'SPLENDOUR, IT ALL COHERES' of the poet's Herakles in The Women of Trachis is a key or recognition of a double meaning that turns in the lock of the Nessus shirt." In Audit/Poetry IV.3, issue featuring Robert Duncan, in his long polemic with Robin Blaser's translation of The Chimeres of Gerard de Nerval, which Duncan believes deliberately and fatally omit the mystical and gnostic overtones of the original, Duncan writes: "The mystical doctrine of neo-Pythagorean naturalism has become like a Nessus shirt to the translator, in the translation we hear Heracles' tortured cry from Pound's version of the Women of Trachis from Sophokles:'it all coheres.'"
In Hyam Plutzik's poem "Portrait", which appears in his collection Apples From Shinar, the poet writes of a Jewish-American character in the late 1950s who has assimilated, is able to "ignore the monster, the mountain—/A few thousand years of history." Except for one problem, "one ill-fitting garment…The shirt, the borrowed shirt, /The Greek shirt." The last line reveals the "Greek shirt" is "a shirt by Nessus." In Robertson Davies's novel Fifth Business, Dunstan buys an expensive silk shirt at a cost beyond his means. He purchases it out of envy for his rival, Boy Staunton, living a life of wealth while attending the same university. "It burned me like the shirt of Nessus, but I wore it to rags, to get my money out of it, gar
The Geographica, or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent. Work can have begun on it no earlier than 20 BC. A first edition was published in 7 BC followed by a gap, resumption of work and a final edition no than 23 AD in the last year of Strabo's life. Strabo worked on his Geography and now missing History concurrently, as the Geography contains a considerable amount of historical data. Except for parts of Book 7, the complete work is known. Strabo refers to his Geography within it by several names: geōgraphia, "description of the earth" chōrographia, "description of the land" periēgēsis, "an outline" periodos gēs, "circuit of the earth" periodeia tēs chōrās, "circuit of the land" Apart from the "outline", two words recur, "earth" and "country." Something of a theorist, Strabo explains what he means by Geography and Chorography:It is the sea more than anything else that defines the contours of the land and gives it its shape, by forming gulfs, deep seas and isthmuses, promontories.
It is through such natural features that we gain a clear conception of continents, favourable positions of cities and all the other diversified details with which our geographical map is filled. From this description it is clear that by geography Strabo means ancient physical geography and by chorography, political geography; the two are combined in this work, which makes a "circuit of the earth" detailing the physical and political features. Strabo uses the adjective geōgraphika with reference to the works of others and to geography in general, but not of his own work. In the Middle Ages it became the standard name used of his work; the date of Geographica is a large topic because Strabo worked on it along with his History for most of his adult life. He traveled extensively, undoubtedly gathering notes, made extended visits to Rome and Alexandria, where he is sure to have spent time in the famous library taking notes from his sources. Strabo visited Rome in 44 BC at age 19 or 20 for purposes of education.
He studied under various persons, including Tyrannion, a captive educated Greek and private tutor, who instructed Cicero's two sons. Cicero says:The geographical work I had planned is a big undertaking...if I take Tyrannion's views too... If one presumes that Strabo acquired the motivation for writing geography during his education, the latter must have been complete by the time of his next visit to Rome in 35 BC at 29 years old, he may have been gathering notes but the earliest indication that he must have been preparing them is his extended visit to Alexandria 25–20 BC. In 20 he was 44 years old, his "numerous excerpts" from "the works of his predecessors" are most to have been noted at the library there. Whether these hypothetical notes first found their way into his history and into his geography or were ported along as notes remains unknown. Most of the events of the life of Augustus mentioned by Strabo occurred 31–7 BC with a gap 6 BC – 14 AD, which can be interpreted as an interval after first publication in 7 BC.
In 19 AD a specific reference dates a passage: he said that the Carni and Norici had been at peace since they were "stopped... from their riotous incursions...." by Drusus 33 years ago, 15 BC, dating the passage 19 AD. The latest event mentioned is the death of Juba at no than 23 AD, when Strabo was in his 80's; these events can be interpreted as a second edition unless he saved all his notes and wrote the book after the age of 80. Strabo is his own best expounder of his principles of composition:In short, this book of mine should be... useful alike to the statesman and to the public at large – as was my work on History.... And so, after I had written my Historical Sketches... I determined to write the present treatise also. For it, too, is a colossal work, in that it deals with the facts about large things only, wholes.... An outline of the encyclopedia follows, with links to the appropriate Wikipedia article. Pages C1 through C67, Loeb Volume I pages 3–249; some thirty manuscripts of Geographica or parts of it have survived all of them medieval copies of copies, though there are fragments from papyrus rolls which were copied out c.
100–300 AD. Scholars have struggled for a century and a half to produce an accurate edition close to what Strabo wrote. A definitive one has been in publication since 2002. Bibliotheca historica Diodorus Siculus Codex Vaticanus 2061 Kramer, Gustav, ed. Strabonis Geographica, 3 vols, containing Books 1–17. Berlin: Friedericus Nicolaus, 1844–52. Strabo. Horace Leonard Jones, ed; the Loeb Classical Library: The Geography of Strabo: in Eight Volumes. Translated by Jones. Cambridge, Massachusetts/London: Harvard University Press/William Heinemann. ISBN 0-674-99055-2. Contains Books 1–17, Greek on the left page, English on the right. Sterrett translated Books I and II and wrote the introduction before dying in 1915. Jones finished the translation; the Introduction contains a major bibliography on all aspects of Strabo and a definitive presentation of the
Antonio Canova was an Italian Neoclassical sculptor, famous for his marble sculptures. Regarded as the greatest of the Neoclassical artists, his artwork was inspired by the Baroque and the classical revival, but avoided the melodramatics of the former, the cold artificiality of the latter. In 1757, Antonio Canova was born in the Venetian Republic city of Possagno to Pietro Canova, a stonecutter. In 1761, his father died. A year his mother remarried; as such, in 1762, he was put into the care of his paternal grandfather Pasino Canova, a stonemason, owner of a quarry, was a "sculptor who specialized in altars with statues and low reliefs in late Baroque style". He led Antonio into the art of sculpting. Before the age of ten, Canova began making models in clay, carving marble. Indeed, at the age of nine, he executed two small shrines of Carrara marble. After these works, he appears to have been employed under his grandfather. In 1770, he was an apprentice for two years to Giuseppe Bernardi, known as'Torretto'.
Afterwards, he was under the tutelage of Giovanni Ferrari until he began his studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia. At the Academy, he won several prizes. During this time, he was given his first workshop within a monastery by some local monks; the Senator Giovanni Falier commissioned Canova to produce statues of Orpheus and Eurydice for his garden – the Villa Falier at Asolo. The statues were begun in 1775, both were completed by 1777; the pieces exemplify the late Rococo style. On the year of its completion, both works were exhibited for the Feast of the Ascension in Piazza S. Marco. Praised, the works won Canova his first renown among the Venetian elite. Another Venetian, said to have commissioned early works from Canova was the abate Filippo Farsetti, whose collection at Ca' Farsetti on the Grand Canal he frequented. In 1779, Canova opened his own studio at Calle Del Traghetto at S. Maurizio. At this time, Procurator Pietro Vettor Pisani commissioned Canova's first marble statue: a depiction of Daedalus and Icarus.
The statue inspired great admiration for his work at the annual art fair. At the base of the statue, Daedalus' tools are scattered about. With such an intention, there is suggestion that Daedalus is a portrait of Canova's grandfather Pasino. Canova arrived in Rome, on 28 December 1780. Prior to his departure, his friends had applied to the Venetian senate for a pension. Successful in the application, the stipend allotted amounted to three hundred ducats, limited to three years. While in Rome, Canova spent time sketching the works of Michelangelo. In 1781, Girolamo Zulian – the Venetian ambassador to Rome – hired Canova to sculpt Theseus and the Minotaur; the statue depicts the victorious Theseus seated on the lifeless body of a Minotaur. The initial spectators were certain that the work was a copy of a Greek original, were shocked to learn it was a contemporary work; the regarded work is now in the collection of the Victoria & Albert Museum, in London. Between 1783 – 1785, Canova arranged and designed a funerary monument dedicated to Clement XIV for the Church of Santi Apostoli.
After another two years, the work met completion in 1787. The monument secured Canova's reputation as the pre-eminent living artist. In 1792, he completed another cenotaph, this time commemorating Clement XIII for St. Peter's Basilica. Canova harmonized its design with the older Baroque funerary monuments in the basilica. In 1790, he began to work on a funerary monument for Titian, abandoned by 1795. During the same year, he increased his activity as a painter; the following decade was productive, beginning works such as Hercules and Lichas and Psyche, Tomb of Duchess Maria Christina of Saxony-Teschen, The Penitent Magdalene. In 1797, he went to Vienna, but only a year in 1798, he returned to Possagno for a year. By 1800, Canova was the most celebrated artist in Europe, he systematically promoted his reputation by publishing engravings of his works and having marble versions of plaster casts made in his workshop. He became so successful that he had acquired patrons from across Europe including France, Russia, Poland and Holland, as well as several members from different royal lineages, prominent individuals.
Among his patrons were Napoleon and his family, for whom Canova produced much work, including several depictions between 1803 and 1809. The most notable representations were that of Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker, Venus Victrix, portrayal of Pauline Bonaparte. Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker had its inception after Canova was hired to make a bust of Napoleon in 1802; the statue was begun in 1803, with Napoleon requesting to be shown in a French General's uniform, Canova rejected this, insisting on an allusion to Mars, the Roman god of War. It was completed in 1806. In 1811, the statue arrived in Paris, but not installed. In 1815, the original went to the Duke of Wellington, after his victory at Waterloo against Napoleon. Venus Victrix was conceived as a robed and recumbent sculpture of Pauline Borghese in the guise of Diana. Instead, Pauline ordered Canova to make the statue a nude Venus; the work was not intended for public viewing. Other works for the Napoleon family include, a bust of Napoleon, a statue of Napoleon's mother, Marie Louise as Concordia.
In 1802, Canova was assigned the post of'Inspector-General of Antiquities and Fine Art of the Papal State', a
Strabo was a Greek geographer and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus in around 64 BC, his family had been involved in politics since at least the reign of Mithridates V. Strabo was related to Dorylaeus on his mother's side. Several other family members, including his paternal grandfather had served Mithridates VI during the Mithridatic Wars; as the war drew to a close, Strabo's grandfather had turned several Pontic fortresses over to the Romans. Strabo wrote that "great promises were made in exchange for these services", as Persian culture endured in Amasia after Mithridates and Tigranes were defeated, scholars have speculated about how the family's support for Rome might have affected their position in the local community, whether they might have been granted Roman citizenship as a reward. Strabo's life was characterized by extensive travels, he journeyed to Egypt and Kush, as far west as coastal Tuscany and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and the time he spent in Rome.
Travel throughout the Mediterranean and Near East for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus. He moved to Rome in 44 BC, stayed there and writing, until at least 31 BC. In 29 BC, on his way to Corinth, he visited the island of Gyaros in the Aegean Sea. Around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae, after which point there is little record of his proceedings until AD 17, it is not known when Strabo's Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 BC, others around AD 17 or 18; the latest passage to which a date can be assigned is his reference to the death in AD 23 of Juba II, king of Maurousia, said to have died "just recently". He worked on the Geography for many years and revised it not always consistently, it is an encyclopaedical chronicle and consists of political, social, geographic description of whole Europe: British Isles, Iberian Peninsula, Germania, The Alps, Greece.
The Geography is the only extant work providing information about both Greek and Roman peoples and countries during the reign of Augustus. On the presumption that "recently" means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next, when he died, he was influenced by Homer and Aristotle. The first of Strabo's major works, Historical Sketches, written while he was in Rome, is nearly lost. Meant to cover the history of the known world from the conquest of Greece by the Romans, Strabo quotes it himself and other classical authors mention that it existed, although the only surviving document is a fragment of papyrus now in possession of the University of Milan. Strabo studied under several prominent teachers of various specialties throughout his early life at different stops along his Mediterranean travels, his first chapter of education took place in Nysa under the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, who had taught the sons of the same Roman general who had taken over Pontus. Aristodemus was the head of two schools of rhetoric and grammar, one in Nysa and one in Rhodes, the former of the two cities possessing a distinct intellectual curiosity of Homeric literature and the interpretation of epics.
Strabo was an admirer of Homer's poetry a consequence of his time spent in Nysa with Aristodemus. At around the age of 21, Strabo moved to Rome, where he studied philosophy with the Peripatetic Xenarchus, a respected tutor in Augustus's court. Despite Xenarchus's Aristotelian leanings, Strabo gives evidence to have formed his own Stoic inclinations. In Rome, he learned grammar under the rich and famous scholar Tyrannion of Amisus. Although Tyrannion was a Peripatetic, he was more relevantly a respected authority on geography, a fact significant, considering Strabo's future contributions to the field; the final noteworthy mentor to Strabo was Athenodorus Cananites, a philosopher who had spent his life since 44 BC in Rome forging relationships with the Roman elite. Athenodorus endowed to Strabo three important items: his philosophy, his knowledge, his contacts. Unlike the Aristotelian Xenarchus and Tyrannion who preceded him in teaching Strabo, Athenodorus was Stoic in mindset certainly the source of Strabo's diversion from the philosophy of his former mentors.
Moreover, from his own first-hand experience, Athenodorus provided Strabo with information about regions of the empire which he would not otherwise have known. Strabo is most notable for his work Geographica, which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era. Although the Geographica was utilized in its contemporary antiquity, a multitude of copies survived throughout the Byzantine Empire, it first appeared in Western Europe in Rome as a Latin translation issued around 1469. The first Greek edition was published in 1516 in Venice. Isaac Casaubon, classical scholar and editor of Greek texts, provided the first critical edition in 1587. Although Strabo cited the antique Greek astronomers Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, acknowledging their astronomical and mathematical efforts towards geography, he claimed that