East Germany the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line; the Soviet zone did not include it. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War; until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The SED made the teaching of Marxism -- the Russian language compulsory in schools. The economy was centrally planned and state-owned. Prices of housing, basic goods and services were set by central government planners rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Emigration to the West was a significant problem – as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically; the government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines. Several others were imprisoned for many years. In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the establishment of a government committed to liberalisation; the following year, open elections were held, international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
The GDR dissolved itself, Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990, becoming a sovereign state again. Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz, were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War. Geographically, the German Democratic Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the north. Internally, the GDR bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, known as East Berlin, administered as the state's de facto capital, it bordered the three sectors occupied by the United States, United Kingdom and France known collectively as West Berlin. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in 1961 until it was brought down in 1989; the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik abbreviated to DDR. Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in 1968.
West Germans, the western media and statesmen avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone, sogenannte DDR. The centre of political power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was increasingly used colloquially by West Germans and West German media; the term Westdeutschland, when used by West Germans, was always a reference to the geographic region of Western Germany and not to the area within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this use was not always consistent. Before World War II, Ostdeutschland was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe, as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt. Explaining the internal impact of the DDR regime from the perspective of German history in the long term, historian Gerhard A. Ritter has argued that the East German state was defined by two dominant forces – Soviet Communism on the one hand, German traditions filtered through the interwar experiences of German Communists on the other.
It always was constrained by the powerful example of the prosperous West, to which East Germans compared their nation. The changes wrought by the Communists were most apparent in ending capitalism and transforming industry and agriculture, in the militarization of society, in the political thrust of the educational system and the media. On the other hand, there was little change made in the independent domains of the sciences, the engineering professions, the Protestant churches, in many bourgeois lifestyles. Social policy, says Ritter, became a critical legitimization tool in the last decades and mixed socialist and traditional elements about equally. At the Yalta Conference during World War II, the Allies (the U. S. the UK and
Karlshorst is a locality in the borough of Lichtenberg in Berlin. Located there are a harness racing track and the Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft Berlin, the largest University of Applied Sciences in Berlin, the German-Russian Museum Berlin-Karlshorst. Established in 1895 as the Carlshorst mansion's colony, Karlshorst from 1901 had access to the railway line from Berlin to Breslau and developed to a quite affluent residential area, sometimes referred to as "Dahlem of the East"; the locality encompasses the Waldsiedlung, a garden city laid out between 1919 and 1921 according to plans by Peter Behrens. In April 1945, as the Red Army approached the Reich's capital, Marshal Georgy Zhukov, commander of the 1st Belorussian Front, established his headquarters at a former Wehrmacht officer's mess hall in Karlshorst, where on May 8, the unconditional surrender of the German forces was presented to Zhukov by Colonel-General Hans-Jürgen Stumpff as the representative of the Luftwaffe, Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel as Chief of Staff of OKW, Admiral Hans-Georg von Friedeburg as Commander-in-Chief of the Kriegsmarine.
From 1945 to 1949 the building complex served as the headquarters of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany. After the establishment of the German Democratic Republic it hosted the 6th Independent Motorized Rifle Brigade, the Soviets' "Berlin Brigade," until the last Russian soldiers left Karlshorst in 1994; the former headquarters has been made the home of the German-Russian Museum Berlin-Karlshorst called the Capitulation Museum. Karlshorst has access to the Berlin S-Bahn network at Berlin-Karlshorst railway station, served by RegionalExpress trains of the Deutsche Bahn. Joachim Fest, editor, Ilja Richter, voice actor and television presenter Max Beer, Gundelfinger Straße 47 Hans Bellmer, Ehrenfelsstraße 8 Hans and Hilde Coppi, resistance fighters, Römerweg Hedwig Courths-Mahler, writer, Dönhoffstraße 11 from 1905 to 1914 Erich Ollenhauer, dwelt in Karlshorst, Trautenauer Straße 6 August Stramm, Lehndorffstraße 16 Ernst Torgler, Liepnitzstraße 46 Max Wertheimer, Ehrlichstraße 31The engineer Georg Knorr, is buried at the Karlshorst cemetery.
Victory in Europe Day https://web.archive.org/web/20050408044705/http://www.karlshorst.de/ - official site http://www.karlshorst-info.de/ - information about Karlshorst https://web.archive.org/web/20060822091136/http://www.treskowallee.de/ - information about Karlshorst http://www.museum-karlshorst.de/ - German-Russian Museum Berlin-Karlshorst http://www.fckarlshorst.de/ - official site of FC Karlshorst 1995
Plattenbau is a building constructed of large, prefabricated concrete slabs. The word is a compound of Bau. Although Plattenbauten are considered to be typical of East Germany, the prefabricated construction method was used extensively in West Germany and elsewhere in public housing. In English the building method is called large panel system-building or LPS. Prefabrication was pioneered in the Netherlands following World War I, based on construction methods developed in the United States; the first German use of plattenbau construction is what is now known as the Splanemann-Siedlung in Berlin's Lichtenberg district, constructed in 1926–1930. These two- and three-storey apartment houses were assembled of locally cast slabs, inspired by the Dutch Betondorp in Watergraafsmeer, a suburb of Amsterdam. In East Germany, Plattenbau areas have been designated as Neubaugebiet. All new residential buildings since the 1960s were built in this style, as it was a quick and inexpensive way to curb the country's severe housing shortage, caused by wartime bombing raids and the large influx of German refugees from further east.
At the same time, many buildings from earlier eras had substantial drawbacks, such as coal heat, no hot running water, or bathrooms shared by multiple units. As these buildings fell into disrepair, many of their inhabitants moved into newer Plattenbau housing. Today,'Plattenbau' are no longer desirable, due in part to their rapid deterioration as a direct result of their cheap and quick construction methods, while older housing stock has undergone extensive renovation or been replaced with more modern dwelling units. There were several common plattenbau designs; the most common series was the P2, followed by the WBS 70, the WHH GT 18, Q3A. The designs could be built as towers or rows of apartments of various heights. There have been projects with low rise "plattenbauten" such as the town of Bernau just north of Berlin; this town had an complete historic center of wooden framed buildings within its preserved city walls. Most of these were torn down after 1975 and during the eighties to be replaced by 2–4 storey buildings constructed of prefabricated concrete slabs.
However, it is to be noted that this'development' and'modernization' is today regarded as disastrous, an enormous cultural loss, with the town replaced by drab concrete buildings of exceeding mediocrity. To fit in with the medieval church and the complete city wall, the houses used rather small design units and decreased in height the farther away they were from the Church and the nearer they came to the city wall. A similar project was the Nikolaiviertel around the historic Nikolai church in Berlin's old centre. In the case of the Nikolaiviertel the buildings were made to look more historic. Plattenbau apartments were once considered desirable in East Germany due to the lack of any other viable alternative; the main alternatives of the time were overcrowded, deteriorating prewar housing with wartime damage still visible, due to policies that chose not to repair the damaged housing stock. Since reunification a combination of decreasing population, renovation of older buildings, construction of modern alternative housing has led to high vacancy rates, with some estimates placing the number of unoccupied units at around a million.
Many plattenbau apartments were built in giant settlements on the edge of cities, making them inconveniently located. Their inconvenient locations were also a factor in their rapid deterioration. However, despite the centrally located buildings of the International Building Exposition in Berlin, the neighbourhood today is not considered desirable, is characterised by deserted streets and apartment buildings isolated from one another in a lifeless garden. While some plattenbau apartments have been renovated to a high standard, some are being torn down, although a lack of funds means many have been left to become derelict, as without extensive renovation, the cheap and low-quality construction of the original buildings meant that after only a few years, they had become deteriorated; because of the modular construction some are dismantled and moved to a new location, which only proves that they were cheap and temporary constructions, which were not built to last, evident at the time when they were new.
Eastern Berlin has many Plattenbauten: reminders of Eastern Bloc planned residential areas, with shops and schools in a ratio fixed to the number of residents. Berlin-based architect David Chipperfield has suggested that the plain appearance of Plattenbau housing does not promote gentrification, may be a factor that helps preserve social continuity for local residents and neighborhoods. Gemeindebau Hansaviertel Panelák Panelház Structural robustness KhrushchyovkaArchitecture Grosvenor Atterbury Unité d'Habitation Urban planning in communist countriesSafety Ronan Point FIB international Bulletin 43 - structural connections for precast concrete buildings
Mozambique the Republic of Mozambique, is a country located in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, Eswatini and South Africa to the southwest. The sovereign state is separated from the Comoros and Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east; the capital of Mozambique is Maputo. Between the first and fifth centuries AD, Bantu-speaking peoples migrated to present-day Mozambique from farther north and west. Northern Mozambique lies within the monsoon trade winds of the Indian Ocean. Between the 7th and 11th centuries, a series of Swahili port towns developed here, which contributed to the development of a distinct Swahili culture and language. In the late medieval period, these towns were frequented by traders from Somalia, Egypt, Arabia and India; the voyage of Vasco da Gama in 1498 marked the arrival of the Portuguese, who began a gradual process of colonisation and settlement in 1505. After over four centuries of Portuguese rule, Mozambique gained independence in 1975, becoming the People's Republic of Mozambique shortly thereafter.
After only two years of independence, the country descended into an intense and protracted civil war lasting from 1977 to 1992. In 1994, Mozambique held its first multiparty elections, has since remained a stable presidential republic, although it still faces a low-intensity insurgency. Mozambique is endowed with extensive natural resources; the country's economy is based on agriculture, but industry is growing food and beverages, chemical manufacturing and aluminium and petroleum production. The tourism sector is expanding. South Africa is Mozambique's main trading partner and source of foreign direct investment, while Belgium, Brazil and Spain are among the country's most important economic partners. Since 2001, Mozambique's annual average GDP growth has been among the world's highest. However, the country is still one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world, ranking low in GDP per capita, human development, measures of inequality and average life expectancy; the only official language of Mozambique is Portuguese, spoken as a second language by about half the population.
Common native languages include Makhuwa and Swahili. The country's population of around 29 million is composed overwhelmingly of Bantu people; the largest religion in Mozambique is Christianity, with significant minorities following Islam and African traditional religions. Mozambique is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Southern African Development Community, is an observer at La Francophonie; the country was named Moçambique by the Portuguese after the Island of Mozambique, derived from Mussa Bin Bique or Musa Al Big or Mossa Al Bique or Mussa Ben Mbiki or Mussa Ibn Malik, an Arab trader who first visited the island and lived there. The island-town was the capital of the Portuguese colony until 1898, when it was moved south to Lourenço Marques. Between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, waves of Bantu-speaking people migrated from the west and north through the Zambezi River valley and gradually into the plateau and coastal areas.
They established agricultural societies based on herding cattle. They brought with them the technology for smithing iron. From the late first millennium AD, vast Indian Ocean trade networks extended as far south into Mozambique as evidenced by the ancient port town of Chibuene. Beginning in the 9th century, a growing involvement in Indian Ocean trade led to the development of numerous port towns along the entire East African coast, including modern day Mozambique. Autonomous, these towns broadly participated in the incipient Swahili culture. Islam was adopted by urban elites, facilitating trade. In Mozambique, Sofala and Mozambique Island were regional powers by the 15th century; the towns traded with merchants from both the broader Indian Ocean world. Important were the gold and ivory caravan routes. Inland states like the Kingdom of Zimbabwe and Kingdom of Mutapa provided the coveted gold and ivory, which were exchanged up the coast to larger port cities like Kilwa and Mombasa. From about 1500, Portuguese trading posts and forts displaced the Arabic commercial and military hegemony, becoming regular ports of call on the new European sea route to the east.
The voyage of Vasco da Gama around the Cape of Good Hope in 1498 marked the Portuguese entry into trade and society of the region. The Portuguese gained control of the Island of Mozambique and the port city of Sofala in the early 16th century, by the 1530s, small groups of Portuguese traders and prospectors seeking gold penetrated the interior regions, where they set up garrisons and trading posts at Sena and Tete on the River Zambezi and tried to gain exclusive control over the gold trade. In the central part of the Mozambique territory, the Portuguese attempted to legitimise and consolidate their trade and settlement positions through the creation of prazos tied to their settlement and administration. While prazos were developed to be held by Portuguese, through intermarriage they became African Portuguese or African Indian centres defended by large African sl
The German-Russian Museum Berlin-Karlshorst is dedicated to German-Soviet and German-Russian relations with a focus on the German-Soviet war 1941-1945. The museum is located at the historical venue of the unconditional surrender of the German armed forces on 8 May 1945. With this act of ratification in Karlshorst of the surrender document signed the day before in Rheims, World War II came to an end in Europe; the building was the officers' mess of the Wehrmacht pioneer school and the headquarters of the Soviet Military Administration in Germany. In 1949 at this location the Soviets handed over administrative authority to the first government of the German Democratic Republic. From 1967 to 1994 the building contained a branch of the “Central Museum of Armed Forces Moscow” featuring the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany in the Great Patriotic War. After German-Soviet agreements on the withdrawal of armed forces from Germany in 1990, Germany and the Soviet Union decided to jointly recollect in the museum the history of the German-Soviet war and the end of Nazi rule.
After restructuring the permanent exhibition, the German-Russian Museum Berlin-Karlshorst opened to the public in May 1995. The permanent exhibition, which attracts about 40,000 visitors annually, conveys on ca. 1,000 square meters an impression of the history of German-Soviet relations from 1917 to 1990. The focus is on the German-Soviet War 1941-1945, including the political background and hostile stereotypes, the day-to-day life of soldiers and civilians on both sides of this conflict during different phases of the war; the heart of the museum is the surrender room, in its original state and where a film continuously shows the signing the Act of Surrender in 1945. In addition to the redesigned modern exhibition rooms, parts of the original Soviet exhibition designed for Soviet soldiers stationed in Berlin can be seen, as well as monuments from Soviet times. On the grounds there is a memorial in which a Soviet T34 tank is integrated on a pedestal, as well as an exhibit of large items of Soviet military equipment from World War II and the postwar period.
Two to three times a year the museum presents special exhibits in a room of about 100 square meters which became available end of 1997. Topics include memories of the war as well as subjects relating to German-Soviet/Russian relations; the museum staff draws on its extensive collection of documents, war relics and photographs to prepare these exhibits. Parts of these special exhibits have been shown in other German and Ukrainian cities. In addition to the displays, for each special exhibit the museum publishes a catalog in German and Russian, also available in the book trade. Other activities include scientific colloquia, educational museum tours for school classes, thematic study tours to Belarus and Russia. By means of its exhibits and public events the museum strives to create a space for a critical analysis of history, for education, for encounters, for increased understanding between Germans and Russians. A museum celebration takes place annually on May 8, the date World War II ended in Europe.
The German-Russian Museum Berlin-Karlshorst is a so-far unique bi-national institution supported by the Federal Republic of Germany and the Russian Federation. The board of trustees was jointly established in 1994 and contains an equal number of German and Russian bodies; the chairmanship alternates between the General Director of the German Historical Museum and the Director of the Central Museum of Armed Forces Moscow. Additional board members include representatives of the Great Patriotic War Museums in Minsk and Kiev; the collection contains many objects from the Central Museum of Armed Forces Moscow. In addition there are items and loans from other German and Eastern European collections and legacies; the museum collects documents, items revealing day-to-day military life during the war, militaria with an emphasis on military medicine, photographs. The image archive contains photographs taken by Soviet and German professional and amateur photographers during the war; the museum has a specialized library on German-Soviet relations with a focus on the war on the Eastern Front.
It contains some 3,000 volumes as well as an extensive collection of photographs and can be consulted by outside users for research purposes on request. Offizielle Homepage des Deutsch-Russischen Museums Berlin-Karlshorst
Biesdorf is a locality within the Berlin borough of Marzahn-Hellersdorf. Until 2001 it was part of the former borough of Marzahn. Biesdorf was mentioned for the first time in a document of 1375, the "Landbuch" of Charles IV, with its ancient names Bysterstorff and/or Bisterstorff; until 1920 it was a municipality of the former Niederbarnim district, merged in Berlin with the "Greater Berlin Act", part of Lichtenberg district until 1933. From 1949 to 1990, during the "Cold War", it was part of East Berlin. Located in the eastern suburb of Berlin, Biesdorf border with Marzahn, Kaulsdorf, Karlshorst and Köpenick, its tallest point is Biesdorfer Höhe, of 82 amsl, part of the Wuhletal park. Biesdorf counts the lakes of Biesdorfer Baggersee, Dreiecksee and Wuhlebecken, on the river Wuhle, that separates it from Kaulsdorf. Little portions of Tierpark and Erholungspark Marzahn belongs to Biesdorf. Biesdorf is divided into 2 zones: Biesdorf-Nord Biesdorf-Süd As urban rail, the locality is served both by S-Bahn and U-Bahn, at the stations of Biesdorf, Biesdorf-Süd and Elsterwerdaer Platz.
"Allee der Kosmonauten", a road in Marzahn bordering with Biesdorf, is crossed by the tramway lines M8 and 18. As road transport, Biesdorf is crossed by the federal highways B1 and B5. Günther Peters: "Biesdorf – mitten in Berlin". Kai Homilius Verlag, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-89706-102-3 Bernd Maether: "Schloss Biesdorf". Kai Homilius Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-931121-41-0 Media related to Biesdorf at Wikimedia Commons Biesdorf page on www.berlin.de Biesdorf page on info-marzahn-hellersdorf.de
Wartenberg is a German locality within the borough of Lichtenberg, Berlin. Until 2001 it was part of the former borough of Hohenschönhausen; the locality was established in the course of the German Ostsiedlung after the establishment of the Margraviate of Brandenburg by Albert the Bear in 1157. It was first mentioned in a 1270 margravial deed as Wardenberge and again in the 1375 domesday book of Emperor Charles IV; the estates of Wartenberg manor were acquired by the City of Berlin in 1882. Until 1920, it was a municipality in the former Niederbarnim district of the Prussian Brandenburg Province merged into Berlin with the "Greater Berlin Act". Wartenberg is located in the north-eastern suburb of Berlin and borders with the Brandenburger village of Lindenberg, in Barnim district, it borders with the Berliner localities of Falkenberg, Neu-Hohenschönhausen and Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow. Wartenberg is divided into 4 zones: Dorfkern Falkenhöhe Margaretenhöhe Siedlung Wartenberg The locality is served by the S-Bahn line S75 at Wartenberg station, located in Neu-Hohenschönhausen.
The tramway terminal stop "Falkenberg" is not too far from Dorfkern and Falkenhöhe and the bus lines 256, 359 and 893 cross the settlement. Media related to Wartenberg at Wikimedia Commons Wartenberg page on www.berlin.de