History of lidos in the United Kingdom
The golden age of lidos in the United Kingdom was in the 1930s, when outdoor swimming became popular, 169 were built across the UK as recreational facilities by local councils. Many lidos closed when foreign holidays became less expensive, but those that remain have a dedicated following; the first open air swimming pool, called a lido was "The Edmonton Lido" in Houndsfield Road, Edmonton following reopening after refurbishment on 27 July 1935. The newly built "Tottenham Lido", opened on 5 June 1937, the "West Ham Municipal Lido", opened on 30 August 1937 in London, were called lidos from the outset. Elsewhere, the Woodford Times reported on 13 May 1932 on the new "Lido" being constructed at Whipps Cross; the Kentish Times on 9 June 1933 carried the headline: "Lagoon'Lido' Opened on Bank Holiday". Neither of these two pools was called a "lido" at that time, however; the term "lido" was applied to several private sector swimming facilities, including Ruislip Lido opened in May 1936 and Rush Green Lido in old gravel pits in Romford, Essex, in September 1935.
Notable examples of open lidos are Brockwell Lido in Herne Hill, Parliament Hill Lido at Gospel Oak in Hampstead Heath, Tooting Bec Lido in South London, Jesus Green Swimming Pool in Cambridge and Sandford Parks Lido in Cheltenham. There were numerous lidos. In 2005 English Heritage published Liquid Assets - the lidos and open air pools of Britain, by Janet Smith, produced as part of the Played in Britain series; the author had spent years researching lidos around the country and her book explores the past and future of open air pools. It led to two major conferences in 2006: "Reviving Lidos" and "Making a Splash". Although there have been many setbacks, long-running campaigns have resulted in some important successes. In October 2006 the London Fields Lido re-opened in Hackney after a campaign lasting nearly 20 years; the campaign to save the Grade II* listed Saltdean Lido in East Sussex which closed in 2010 won significant funding, including over £2m from the Coastal Communities Fund, a new community interest company started work on the pool in 2015, which reopened in 2017.
The Edwardian King's Meadow swimming pool in Reading is being restored by the same group which rescued and re-opened the Clifton Lido in Bristol. The derelict Ynysangharad Lido in Pontypridd is being restored as part of the local council's redevelopment plans. Woburn Lido in Bedfordshire which opened in 1911 faced closure in 2013, but was saved from closure through the work of local residents. Other ongoing campaigns include reopening Broomhill Pool in Ipswich, Peckham Rye Lido in South East London, the Cleveland Pools at Hampton Row in Bath and Grange-over-Sands. Arundel Lido is situated in the picturesque town of Arundel within the South Downs National Park, it has heated pools, grass areas surrounding the pools suitable for sunbathing and picnics. Planning permission was granted in 2018 for the Lido Extended Activities Plan - Project LEAP to develop a all-year-round facility with heated changing facilities, a Gym, Community Hall and Cafe.date=November 2018}} Plymouth is home to the Tinside Lido, a 1935 Art Deco seawater pool built on the limestone shoreline at the base of Plymouth Hoe.
The semi-circular lido has three fountains and disabled access, is open from May to September. A London-based organisation Thames Baths was created to develop plans for a new floating lido on the Thames at Embankment, seeking to crowd-fund the £10m cost of construction. Thames Baths' design company Studio Octopi has won a design competition for plans for the creation of a new lido at Peckham Rye, where one closed in 1987 and was demolished. A new 40m bathing pond has been created as part of King's Cross developments in North London. Clevedon's Marine Lake underwent a £850,000 renovation project that included de-silting the tidally topped up pool, increasing access to the lake; the project was funded by Clevedon Town Council and North Somerset Council. Open water swimming Swimming hole Janet. Liquid assets: the lidos and open air swimming pools of Britain. English Heritage. ISBN 0-9547445-0-0. Oliver Merrington's Lidos in the UK Lidos Yahoo Group = the Lidos History Society Pooling Resources - a campaigning group for reopening closed lidos and indoor pools Anne Green Jessel's Lost Lidos Seaside History: Lidos No Diving - an oral history and film archive project supported by the Heritage Lottery Fund exoploring the role of Hilsea Lido in the memories of the local community
Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast. They occur in chains, consisting of anything from a few islands to more than a dozen, they are subject to change during storms and other action, but absorb energy and protect the coastlines and create areas of protected waters where wetlands may flourish. A barrier chain may extend uninterrupted for over a hundred kilometers, excepting the tidal inlets that separate the islands, the longest and widest being Padre Island of Texas; the length and width of barriers and overall morphology of barrier coasts are related to parameters including tidal range, wave energy, sediment supply, sea-level trends, basement controls. The amount of vegetation on the barrier has a large impact on the height and evolution of the island. Chains of barrier islands can be found along 13-15% of the world's coastlines, they display different settings, suggesting that they can form and be maintained in a variety of environmental settings.
Numerous theories have been given to explain their formation. Lower shorefaceThe shoreface is the part of the barrier where the ocean meets the shore of the island; the barrier island body itself separates the shoreface from the backshore and lagoon/tidal flat area. Characteristics common to the lower shoreface are fine sands with mud and silt. Further out into the ocean the sediment becomes finer; the effect from the waves at this point is weak because of the depth. Bioturbation is common and many fossils can be found here. Middle shorefaceThe; the middle shoreface is influenced by wave action because of its depth. Closer to shore the grain size will be medium size sands with shell pieces common. Since wave action is heavier, bioturbation is not likely. Upper shorefaceThe upper shore face is affected by wave action; this results in development of herringbone sedimentary structures because of the constant differing flow of waves. Grain size is larger sands. ForeshoreThe foreshore is the area on land between low tide.
Like the upper shoreface, it is affected by wave action. Cross bedding and lamination are present and coarser sands are present because of the high energy present by the crashing of the waves; the sand is very well sorted. BackshoreThe backshore is always above the highest water level point; the berm is found here which marks the boundary between the foreshore and backshore. Wind is the important factor here, not water. During strong storms high waves and wind can erode sediment from the backshore. DunesThe dunes are typical of a barrier island, located at the top of the backshore. Dunes are made by the wind. See Coastal Dunes for more information; the dunes will display characteristics of typical aeolian wind blown dunes. The difference here is that dunes on a barrier island contain coastal vegetation roots and marine bioturbation. Lagoon and tidal flatsThe lagoon and tidal flat area is located behind the backshore area. Here the water is still and this allows for fine silts and mud to settle out.
Lagoons can become host to an anaerobic environment. This will allow high amounts of organic rich mud to form. Vegetation is common. Moreton Bay, on the east coast of Australia and directly east of Brisbane, is sheltered from the Pacific Ocean by a chain of large barrier islands. Running north to south they are Bribie Island, Moreton Island, North Stradbroke Island and South Stradbroke Island. North Stradbroke Island is the second largest sand island in the world and Moreton Island is the third largest. Fraser Island, another barrier island lying 200 km north of Moreton Bay on the same coastline, is the largest sand island in the world, they are seen most prominently on the United States' East Coast and Gulf Coast, where every state, stretching from Maine to Florida and Florida to Texas on each coast has at least part of a barrier island, stretching to more than twenty-five for Florida. However, this chain is international, it ends in Mexico. No barrier islands are found on the Pacific coast of the United States due to the rocky shore and short continental shelf, but barrier peninsulas can be found.
Barrier islands can be seen on Alaska's Arctic coast. Barrier Islands can be found in Maritime Canada, other places along the coast. A good example is found at Miramichi Bay, New Brunswick, where Portage Island as well as Fox Island and Hay Island protect the inner bay from storms in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Mexico's Gulf Coast has numerous barrier islands and barrier Peninsulas. Barrier islands are more prevalent in the north of both of New Zealand's main islands. Notable barrier islands in New Zealand include Matakana Island, which guards the entrance to Tauranga Harbour, Rabbit Island, at the southern end of Tasman Bay. See Nelson Harbour's Boulder Bank, below. Barrier islands can be observed in the Baltic Sea and are a distinct feature of the Wadden Islands, which stretch from the Netherlands to Denmark; the Lido di Venezia is a notable barrier island which has for centuries protected the city of Venice in Italy. Barrier Islands can be observed except Antarctica. Migration and overwashWater levels may be higher than the island during storm events.
This situation can lead to overwash, which brings sand from the front of the island to the top and/or landward side of the island. This process leads to the migration of the barrier island. Critical width conceptBarrier islands are formed to h
Lido di Venezia
The Lido, or Venice Lido, is an 11-kilometre-long sandbar in Venice, northern Italy. The Venice Film Festival takes place at the Lido every September; the island is home to three settlements. The Lido itself, in the north, is home to the Film Festival, the Grand Hotel des Bains, the Venice Casino and the Hotel Excelsior Venice Lido. Malamocco, in the centre, was the first and, for a long time, the only settlement, it was at one time home to the Doge of Venice. Alberoni at the southern end is home to the golf course. Frequent public buses run the length of the island along the main street. At least half the Adriatic side of the island is a sandy beach, much of it belonging to the various hotels that house the summer tourists; these include the renowned Hotel Excelsior and the Grand Hotel des Bains, setting for Thomas Mann's classic novel Death in Venice undergoing major renovation. These beaches are private, though towards the northern and southern ends of the island there are two enormous public beaches.
The Adriatic Sea is clean and warm, ideal for children, with only the occasional jellyfish to disturb swimming. The heart of the island is the Gran Viale Santa Maria Elisabetta, a wide street 700 m long that leads from the lagoon and vaporetto stop on one side across to the sea on the other, it houses hotels and tourist-centric restaurants. Venezia Lido, a public airport suitable for smaller aircraft, is found on the NE end of Lido di Venezia, it has a 1000 m grass runway. In 1177, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and Pope Alexander III signed the Treaty of Venice here following Frederick's defeat at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. In 1202, at the beginning of the Fourth Crusade, it was used as a camp by tens of thousands of crusaders, who were blockaded there by the Venetians when they could not pay for the Venetian ships they needed for transport. In 1857, the first sea bathing facility was set up; this was the first time that anything like it had been seen in Europe and soon, the lido became "The Lido", a byword for a beach resort.
The Lido's success and the fascination of Venice nearby made the Lido famous worldwide. Lido was famous for its brothels in the first half of the 20th century. Major beach facilities and private summer villas have remained the heart of an island, still known as the "Golden Island". In the 1960s, the improving post-war Italian economy created a real-estate boom in the island, many Venetians moved to Lido to benefit from its modern infrastructure; the Lido di Venezia is home to the Venice International Film Festival. The fifth festival established its home. Designed and completed in 1937, the Palazzo del Cinema di Venezia was built on the Lido and has since been the Festival’s official site except for a three year exception from 1940 to 1942 when the festival was moved away from Venice for fear of bombing. Coincidentally, the city received no damage; the Lido has hosted numerous film shoots such as the 1971 Italian-French drama film Death in Venice directed by Luchino Visconti and starring Dirk Bogarde and Björn Andrésen, based on the eponymous novella by German author Thomas Mann.
The term Lido coming from this island, is used to refer to certain types of outdoor swimming pools in Great Britain, the "Lido deck" on a cruise ship. It forms the first part of many place names in coastal locations throughout Italy; the British travel writer Robin Saikia has written a literary history, The Venice Lido, charting the island's story from its early beginnings to the present day, published by Blue Guides. In art List of islands of Italy Satellite image of the Venetian Lido from Google Maps Venice Lido Beaches Lido di Venezia The Venice Lido by Robin Saikia
Brighton and Hove
Brighton and Hove is a seaside city in East Sussex, in South East England. The towns of Brighton and Hove formed a unitary authority in 1997 and in 2001 were granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II. "Brighton" is referred to synonymously with the official "Brighton and Hove" although many locals still consider the two to be separate towns. At the 2011 census, the city was England's most populous seaside resort, with a population of 273,400. Brighton and Hove is the result of a number of historic local government reorganisations: Brighton was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1854 becoming a county borough under the Local Government Act 1888. Both Brighton and Hove became non-metropolitan districts of East Sussex. On 15 October 2004, Hove was granted Fairtrade City status. Elections are held every four years, with the last elections occurring on 7 May 2015. Brighton and Hove was the first council in the United Kingdom where the Green Party were both the largest group and led the council.
In February 2019 long-standing Labour councillor Anne Meadows defected to the Conservatives. She was deselected as a candidate for the 2019 elections by the Moulsecoomb and Bevendean ward Labour Party in 2018. Former Labour group leader Councillor Warren Morgan left the Labour Party in February 2019, he affiliated with The Independent Group along with fellow former Labour councillor Michael Inkpen-Leissner. This change in political structure saw the Conservatives become the largest party on the council, as one former Labour seat was vacant following a councillor’s resignation within six months of elections. In March 2019, an extraordinary council meeting was called by the Conservatives in a bid to take control of the authority in the final weeks before the May 2019 elections; this move was defeated as TIG councillors voted with Labour. In 2013 the council was obliged to finalise single status across its workforce, resulting in a strike of its refuse collectors and street cleaners, their council reformed their allowances to equalise them with other staff at the organisation conducting similar work.
The Leader of the Council and Labour minority administration since April 2018 is Councillor Daniel Yates. The mayor of Brighton and Hove for 2018–2019 is Councillor Dee Simson Geoff Raw is the current chief executive. In 2012 it was revealed that the Brighton and Hove unitary authority has been permanently banned from accessing information from the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency; this information is made available to local authorities for purposes such as enforcing parking fines, but access can be withdrawn if they are found to be misusing the service. The Big Brother Watch organisation, which obtained the information about the ban under a Freedom of Information request, claimed that "the public are right to be worried that their privacy is at risk across a range of government services." The first census of Brighton was in 1801. The resident population of Brighton and Hove at the 2011 census was 273,369 persons, 50% male and 50% female; the 2011 census found the ethnic composition of Brighton and Hove to be 89.1% white, 4.1% Asian, 3.8% mixed race, 1.5% black and 0.8% Arab.
The 2011 census found the religious composition to be 42.90% Christian, 42.42% nonreligious, 2.23% Muslim, 1.00% Buddhist, 0.98% Jewish. 1.66 % were adherents of some other religion. In the 2001 census and Hove had the highest percentage of citizens indicating their religion as Jedi among all principal areas of England and Wales; the Letters Patent of 2001 that confers City status is worded thus: ELIZABETH the SECOND BY THE GRACE OF GOD OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND & OF OUR REALMS & TERRITORIES QUEEN HEAD OF THE COMMONWEALTH DEFENDER OF THE FAITH. To all whom these Presents shall come Greeting. Whereas We for divers good causes and considerations Us thereunto moving are graciously pleased to confer on the Towns of Brighton and Hove the status of a city. Now Therefore Know Ye that We of Our especial grace and favour and mere motion do by these Presents ordain declare and direct that the TOWNS OF BRIGHTON AND HOVE shall henceforth have the status of a CITY and shall have all such rank liberties privileges and immunities as are incident to a City.
In witness whereof We have caused Our Letters to be made Patent Witness Ourself at Westminster the thirty first day of January in the forty ninth year of our reign. By Warrant under The Queens Sign Manual; the economy of the city is service-based with a strong emphasis on creative and electronic technologies. Tourism and entertainment are important sectors for the City, which has many hotels and amusements, as well as Brighton Pier and Shoreham/Portslade Harbour; the United Kingdom Census 2011 showed a substantial fall in the proportion of the population claiming Jobseeker's Allowance or Income Support, from 10.1% of the resident population in 2001, to 4.5% of the resident population in 2011. Healthcare in Sussex "Brighton & Hove City Council". Retrieved 20 August 2007. Brighton travel guide from Wikivoyage
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared and ultraviolet light. On Earth, sunlight is filtered through Earth's atmosphere, is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon; when the direct solar radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine, a combination of bright light and radiant heat. When it is blocked by clouds or reflects off other objects, it is experienced as diffused light; the World Meteorological Organization uses the term "sunshine duration" to mean the cumulative time during which an area receives direct irradiance from the Sun of at least 120 watts per square meter. Other sources indicate an "Average over the entire earth" of "164 Watts per square meter over a 24 hour day"; the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight has both positive and negative health effects, as it is both a requisite for vitamin D3 synthesis and a mutagen. Sunlight takes about 8.3 minutes to reach Earth from the surface of the Sun.
A photon starting at the center of the Sun and changing direction every time it encounters a charged particle would take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to get to the surface. Sunlight is a key factor in photosynthesis, the process used by plants and other autotrophic organisms to convert light energy from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be used to synthesize carbohydrates and to fuel the organisms' activities. Researchers can measure the intensity of sunlight using a sunshine recorder, pyranometer, or pyrheliometer. To calculate the amount of sunlight reaching the ground, both the eccentricity of Earth's elliptic orbit and the attenuation by Earth's atmosphere have to be taken into account; the extraterrestrial solar illuminance, corrected for the elliptic orbit by using the day number of the year, is given to a good approximation by E e x t = E s c ⋅, where dn=1 on January 1st. In this formula dn–3 is used, because in modern times Earth's perihelion, the closest approach to the Sun and, the maximum Eext occurs around January 3 each year.
The value of 0.033412 is determined knowing that the ratio between the perihelion squared and the aphelion squared should be 0.935338. The solar illuminance constant, is equal to 128×103 lux; the direct normal illuminance, corrected for the attenuating effects of the atmosphere is given by: E d n = E e x t e − c m, where c is the atmospheric extinction and m is the relative optical airmass. The atmospheric extinction brings the number of lux down to around 100 000 lux; the total amount of energy received at ground level from the Sun at the zenith depends on the distance to the Sun and thus on the time of year. It is 3.3 % lower in July. If the extraterrestrial solar radiation is 1367 watts per square meter the direct sunlight at Earth's surface when the Sun is at the zenith is about 1050 W/m2, but the total amount hitting the ground is around 1120 W/m2. In terms of energy, sunlight at Earth's surface is around 52 to 55 percent infrared, 42 to 43 percent visible, 3 to 5 percent ultraviolet. At the top of the atmosphere, sunlight is about 30% more intense, having about 8% ultraviolet, with most of the extra UV consisting of biologically damaging short-wave ultraviolet.
Direct sunlight has a luminous efficacy of about 93 lumens per watt of radiant flux. Multiplying the figure of 1050 watts per square metre by 93 lumens per watt indicates that bright sunlight provides an illuminance of 98 000 lux on a perpendicular surface at sea level; the illumination of a horizontal surface will be less than this if the Sun is not high in the sky. Averaged over a day, the highest amount of sunlight on a horizontal surface occurs in January at the South Pole. Dividing the irradiance of 1050 W/m2 by the size of the Sun's disk in steradians gives an average radiance of 15.4 MW per square metre per steradian. Multiplying this by π gives an upper limit to the irradiance which can be focused on a surface using mirrors: 48.5 MW/m2. The spectrum of the Sun's solar radiation is close to that of a black body with a temperature of about 5,800 K; the Sun emits EM radiation across most of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although the Sun produces gamma rays as a result of the nuclear-fusion process, internal absorption and thermalization convert these super-high-energy photons to lower-energy photons before they reach the Sun's surface and are emitted out into space.
As a result, the Sun does not emit gamma rays from this process, but it does emit gamma rays from solar flares. The Sun emits X-rays, vis
A deck is a permanent covering over a compartment or a hull of a ship. On a boat or ship, the primary or upper deck is the horizontal structure that forms the "roof" of the hull, strengthening it and serving as the primary working surface. Vessels have more than one level both within the hull and in the superstructure above the primary deck, similar to the floors of a multi-storey building, that are referred to as decks, as are certain compartments and decks built over specific areas of the superstructure. Decks for some purposes have specific names; the main purpose of the upper or primary deck is structural, only secondarily to provide weather-tightness and support people and equipment. The deck serves as the lid to the complex box girder, it resists tension and racking forces. The deck's scantling is the same as the topsides, or might be heavier if the deck is expected to carry heavier loads; the deck will be reinforced around deck fittings such as cleats, or bollards. On ships with more than one level, deck refers to the level itself.
The actual floor surface is called the sole, the term deck refers to a structural member tying the ships frames or ribs together over the keel. In modern ships, the interior decks are numbered from the primary deck, #1, downward and upward. So the first deck below the primary deck will be #2, the first above the primary deck will be #A2 or #S2; some merchant ships may alternatively designate decks below the primary deck machinery spaces, by numbers, those above it, in the accommodation block, by letters. Ships may call decks by common names, or may invent fanciful and romantic names for a specific deck or area of that specific ship, such as the Lido deck of the Princess Cruises' Love Boat. Equipment mounted on deck, such as the ship's wheel, fife rails, so forth, may be collectively referred to as deck furniture. Weather decks in western designs evolved from having structures fore and aft of the ship clear. Eastern designs developed earlier, with efficient middle decks and minimalist fore and aft cabin structures across a range of designs.
In vessels having more than one deck there are various naming conventions, alphabetically, etc. However, there are various common historical names and types of decks: 01 level is the term used in naval services to refer to the deck above the main deck; the next higher decks are referred to as the 02 level, the 03 level, so on. Although these are formally called decks, they are referred to as levels, because they are incomplete decks that do not extend all the way from the stem to the stern or across the ship. Afterdeck an open deck area toward the stern-aft. Berth deck: A deck next below the gun deck, where the hammocks of the crew are slung. Boat deck: Especially on ships with sponsons, the deck area where lifeboats or the ship's gig are stored. Boiler deck: The passenger deck above the vessel's boilers. Bridge deck: The deck area including the helm and navigation station, where the Officer of the Deck/Watch will be found known as the conn An athwartships structure at the forward end of the cockpit with a deck somewhat lower than the primary deck, to prevent a pooping wave from entering through the companionway.
May refer to the deck of a bridge. Flight deck: A deck from which aircraft take off or land. Flush deck: Any continuous unbroken deck from stem to stern. Forecastle deck: A partial deck above the main deck under which the sailors have their berths, extending from the foremast to the bow. Freeboard deck: assigned by a classification society to determine the ship's freeboard. Gun deck: on a multi-decked vessel, a deck below the upper deck where the ships' cannon were carried; the term referred to deck for which the primary function was the mounting of cannon to be fired in broadsides. However, on many smaller and unrated vessels the upper deck and quarterdeck bore all of the cannons but were not referred to as the gun deck. Hangar deck: A deck aboard an aircraft carrier used to store and maintain aircraft. Half-deck: That portion of the deck next below the forecastle or quarterdeck, between the mainmast and the cabin. Helicopter deck: Usually located near the stern and always kept clear of obstacles hazardous to a helicopter landing.
Hurricane deck:, the upper deck a light deck, erected above the frame of the hull. Lido deck: Open area at or near the stern of a passenger ship, housing the main outdoor swimming pool and sunbathing area. Lower deck: the deck over the hold, orig. only of a ship with two decks. Synonym for berth deck. Alternative name for a secondary gun deck Main deck: The principal deck of a vessel. Middle or Waist deck the working area of the deck. Orlop deck: The deck or part of a deck where the cables are stowed below the waterline, it is the lowest deck in a ship. Poop deck: The deck forming the roof of a poop or poop cabin, built on the upper deck and extending from the mizzenmast aft. Promenade deck: A "wrap-around porch" found on passenger ships a
Saltdean Lido at Saltdean Park Road, Saltdean, in the city of Brighton and Hove, is an Art Deco lido designed by architect R. W. H. Jones. Listed at Grade II by English Heritage for its architectural and historical importance, its status was upgraded further to "Grade II*" on 18 March 2011; the Art Deco design has been described by The Daily Telegraph as "particularly glorious, with its elegant, curved lines – rather like a stately ocean liner." The pool can accommodate 500 bathers. The lido was built in 1937-38 to designs by the architect Richard Jones, was hailed as the most innovative design of its type in Britain. With its tea terrace, sun deck, café, perched on the flat roof and distinctive curved wings at either end, it became the only lido to be featured in the Design Museum in London. In 1958, Butlins attempted to buy the derelict lido for development, the application was opposed by residents and rejected by the Ministry of Housing. In 1998, the lido was reopened by Sports Minister Tony Banks.
The restoration was achieved through a private sector partnership costing £ 2 million. Banks revealed he had a personal link to the Grade II listed building through his mother, who used to visit it during the Second World War, he said: "Open air sites are not able to attract National Lottery funding, so the money for this had to come through private investors having the vision to bring a piece of our heritage back into use." The reopening ceremony came two days. On 18 March 2011, John Penrose, the Minister for Tourism and Heritage in the Department for Culture and Sport, approved the upgrade of Saltdean Lido's listed status from Grade II to the second highest grade, Grade II*; such buildings are defined as being "particularly important... of more than special interest". On 30 May 2012, it was announced that the ownership of the Lido would be handed back by leaseholder Dennis Audley to Brighton and Hove City Council after legal discussions. After an extensive campaign by local residents, the Save Saltdean Lido Campaign lobbied the freeholders of the site to stop housing development and take back the lease on the site.
Following a 9-month procurement process the Saltdean Lido Community Interest Company will take ownership of a 60-year lease in 2014. The lido reopened in 2017. Grade II * listed buildings in Hove The De La Warr Pavilion Art Deco Tom Dyckhoff. "It's summer: Take me to your lido". The Times. Collis, Rose; the New Encyclopaedia of Brighton.. Brighton: Brighton & Hove Libraries. ISBN 978-0-9564664-0-2. Smith, Janet. Liquid assets: the lidos and open air swimming pools of Britain. English Heritage. ISBN 0-9547445-0-0. Pages 146-151 Douglas D'Enno; the Saltdean story. Phillimore. ISBN 0-85033-573-6. Saltdean Lido CIC