Côte-Rôtie is a French wine Appellation d'origine contrôlée in the northern Rhône wine region of France. The vineyards are located just south of Vienne in the communes of Saint-Cyr-sur-le-Rhône, Tupin-et-Semons; the vineyards are unique because of the steep slopes facing their stone walls. Côte-Rôtie can be rendered in English as "the roasted slope" and refers to the long hours of sunlight that these steep slopes receive; the wines are red, made with Syrah grapes and up to 20% Viognier, a white grape used for its aroma. According to appellation rules and Viognier must be fermented at the same time, a process known as cofermentation; because of this combination, Côte-Rôtie wine exhibits an paradoxical pairing of meat aromas and floral aromas. However Côte-Rôtie from 100% Syrah can smell floral; the Côte-Rôtie has a continental climate, different from the more Mediterranean climate of the southern Rhône. Winters are marked by the cold mistral winds that can last into the spring. During the late spring and early autumn, fog can settle on the vineyards making ripening of the grapes a challenge.
The wine region covers 202 hectares along the western bank of the Rhône River near the village of Ampuis. In the Côte-Rôtie, the Rhône flows southwest for 9.7 kilometers. To maximize the amount of sunshine that the vines receive, vineyards will more be planted on the south or southeast facing slopes along this part of the river; the Côte-Rôtie is sub-divided into two main sections of varying soil compositions-The Côte Brune in the north on dark, iron-rich schist and the Côte Blonde with its pale granite and schist soil. Erosion is a common viticultural hazard with the steep vineyards because the granite and schist soils are vital in retaining heat throughout the day to protect the vines from the chilly temperatures during the mistral seasons. Stone walls are built around the lands and the hillsides are heavily terraced to try and counter the issues; some vineyards owners gather the eroded soils and rocks in buckets and carry them back up the slope to the vines. Syrah and Viognier are the two main grape varieties of the Côte-Rôtie.
While many of the region's wines are made of 100% Syrah, up to 20% of Viognier can be added to the wine. The wines are meant to be consumed 5–6 years after vinification but well-made examples can need 10–15 years to develop their flavors with some wines having the aging potential of over 20 years; the most distinctive characteristic of all Côte-Rôtie wine is the aroma. The fragrant notes of these wines include green olives, raspberry and meaty bacon. Other flavors associated with Côte-Rôtie wine include black pepper, white pepper, blackberry and leather; the vines of the region are old, with 40 years being an average and some vines being over 100. This produces low wine yields of flavor-concentrated fruit. Most of the vineyards used for producing Côte-Rôtie AOC are planted on the slopes of nearly 60° incline; the appellation extends to the flatter plateau above the slopes but the wine there is of lower quality and is sold with the more generic Côtes du Rhône AOC. Legend has that the two sub-regions of the Côte-Rôtie, Côte Blonde and Côte Brune, were named after the blonde and brown hair colored daughters of a local lord who had two different personalities.
The wines of both regions have different characteristics. Wines of the Côte Blonde are more balanced and meant to be consumed earlier. Wines of the iron-rich Côte Brune contain more tannins, are full-bodied and meant to age longer in the bottle prior to being consumed. Traditionally, most Côte-Rôtie wines are blends of grapes from the two sub-regions, incorporating both sets of distinctive qualities. In recent years, more single vineyard designated wines have been produced that emphasize the terroir of that vineyard. Marcel Guigal was an early pioneer in single vineyard bottling; some of the most prestigious vineyards in the Côte-Rôtie include, La Chatillone, La Chevalière, La Garde, La Landonne, La Mouline, La Turque. The Côte-Rôtie is one of the few wine appellations that allow white wine grapes to be used in a blend of red wine; the region was one of the first Rhône regions to make use of new oak barrels for aging, though the practice did fall out of favor in the late 19th century following the phylloxera epidemic.
Négociants revived the practice in the 1980s and today its use varies according to the producer. The earliest record of viticulture in the region dates to the 2nd century BC when the Romans first encountered the Allobroges tribe whose territory included the regions around Vienne. While winemaking continued to have a long history in the region, the Côte-Rôtie did not receive much recognition until the 18th century when Parisians began discovering the wines of Beaujolais and Rhône. Around the same time, the British discovered the wines with the purchase logs of John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol providing one of the earliest English records of "Côte-Rôty" wine. There were added considerations with the transportation of Côte-Rôtie wine, with the region using 20-U. S. Gallon amphora-like vases for transport instead of barrels or early wine bottles; until a few decades ago, Côte-Rôtie never was a serious competitor of Hermitage, the only northern Rhône vineyard, well-known far from the region. Although Rhône wines in general started to be more in demand from the early 1970s, stronger so from the late 1970s/early 1980s, in the case Côte-Rôtie it was the wines of Marcel Gui
Cru is "a vineyard or group of vineyards one of recognized quality". It is a French wine term, traditionally translated as "growth", as it was the past participle of the verb "croître"; as a wine term it is connected to terroir in the sense of an "extent of terrain having a certain physical homogeneity... considered from the point of view of the nature of the soil as communicating a particular character to its produce, notably to wine". It may thus be defined as: "Terroir as a place of production" or an "Ensemble of terrains considered from the point of view of what grows there, from a particular cultivation." More cru is used to indicate a named and defined vineyard or ensemble of vineyards and the vines "which grow on a reputed terroir. The term is used to refer to the wine produced from such vines; the term cru is used within classifications of French wine. By implication, a wine that displays the name of its cru on its wine label is supposed to exhibit the typical characteristics of this cru.
The terms Premier Cru, Grand Cru, etc. are translated into English as First Growth, Great Growth, etc.. Premier cru is a French language wine term corresponding to "First Growth", which can be used to refer to classified vineyards and wines, with different meanings in different wine regions: For Bordeaux wine, the term is applied to classified wineries: In the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, Premier cru or Premier cru classé is the highest level of five within the "Grand cru classé" designation for red wines from the Médoc and Graves, the second-highest of three in Sauternes where the highest is Premier Cru Supérieur; these wines are referred to as First Growths in English. In the Classification of Saint-Émilion wine, the highest level is Premier grand cru classé A and the second-highest Premier grand cru classé B; the term Saint-Émilion Grand cru refers to wineries or wines below the overall Grand cru classé level, is integrated within the appellation rules. For Burgundy wine, the term is applied to classified vineyards, with Premier cru being the second-highest classification level, below that of Grand cru and above the basic village AOCs.
For Burgundy wines, the terms Premier Cru or 1er Cru are kept rather than being translated into English. Grand cru is a regional wine classification that designates a vineyard known for its favorable reputation in producing wine. Although used to describe grapes, wine or cognac, the term is not technically a classification of wine quality per se, but is intended to indicate the potential of the vineyard or terroir, it is the highest level of classification of Appellation d'origine contrôlée wines from Burgundy or Alsace. The same term is applied to Châteaux in Saint-Émilion, although in that region it has a different meaning and does not represent the top tier of classification. In Burgundy the level below grand cru is known as premier cru, sometimes written as 1er cru. Early Burgundian wine history is distinctly marked by the work of the Cistercians with the Catholic Church being the principal vineyard owner for most of the Middle Ages. Receiving land and vineyards as tithes, endowments and as exchanges for indulgences the monks were able to studiously observe the quality of wines from individual plots and over time began to isolate those areas that would produce wine of similar aroma, body and vigor and designate them as crus.
Following the success of the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855, Jules Lavalle developed an informal classification of vineyards of the Côte d'Or in his book History and Statistics of the Côte d'Or. In 1861, Lavalle's classification was formalized by the Beaune Committee of Agriculture; the designations of grand cru and premier cru were developed and expanded on in the 1930s with the creation of the AOC system. Alsace Grand Cru AOC Cru Bourgeois Grand cru List of Burgundy Grand Crus List of Chablis crus Regional wine classification Route des Grands Crus Schoenenbourg
Burgundy wine is wine made in the Burgundy region in eastern France, in the valleys and slopes west of the Saône, a tributary of the Rhône. The most famous wines produced here—those referred to as "Burgundies"—are dry red wines made from Pinot noir grapes and white wines made from Chardonnay grapes. Red and white wines are made from other grape varieties, such as Gamay and Aligoté, respectively. Small amounts of rosé and sparkling wines are produced in the region. Chardonnay-dominated Chablis and Gamay-dominated Beaujolais are formally part of the Burgundy wine region, but wines from those subregions are referred to by their own names rather than as "Burgundy wines". Burgundy has a higher number of appellations d'origine contrôlée than any other French region, is seen as the most terroir-conscious of the French wine regions; the various Burgundy AOCs are classified from delineated Grand Cru vineyards down to more non-specific regional appellations. The practice of delineating vineyards by their terroir in Burgundy goes back to medieval times, when various monasteries played a key role in developing the Burgundy wine industry.
The Burgundy region runs from Auxerre in the north to Mâcon in the south, or to Lyon if the Beaujolais area is included as part of Burgundy. Chablis, a white wine made from Chardonnay grapes, is produced in the area around Auxerre. Other smaller appellations near Chablis include Irancy, which produces red wines and Saint-Bris, which produces white wines from Sauvignon blanc. There are 100 Appellations in Burgundy and these are classified into four quality categories; these are Bourgogne, Premier Cru and Grand Cru. Eighty-five miles southeast of Chablis is the Côte d'Or, where Burgundy's most famous and most expensive wines originate, where all Grand Cru vineyards of Burgundy are situated; the Côte d'Or itself is split into two parts: the Côte de Nuits which starts just south of Dijon and runs till Corgoloin, a few kilometers south of the town of Nuits-Saint-Georges, the Côte de Beaune which starts at Ladoix and ends at Dezize-les-Maranges. The wine-growing part of this area in the heart of Burgundy is just 40 kilometres long, in most places less than 2 kilometres wide.
The area is made up of tiny villages surrounded by a combination of flat and sloped vineyards on the eastern side of a hilly region, providing some rain and weather shelter from the prevailing westerly winds. The best wines - from Grand Cru vineyards - of this region are grown from the middle and higher part of the slopes, where the vineyards have the most exposure to sunshine and the best drainage, while the Premier Cru come from a little less favourably exposed slopes; the ordinary "Village" wines are produced from the flat territory nearer the villages. The Côte de Nuits contains 24 out of the 25 red Grand Cru appellations in Burgundy, while all but one of the region's white Grand Cru wines are in the Côte de Beaune; this is explained by the presence of different soils, which favour Pinot noir and Chardonnay, respectively. Further south is the Côte Chalonnaise, where again a mix of red and white wines are produced, although the appellations found here such as Mercurey and Givry are less well-known than their counterparts in the Côte d'Or.
Below the Côte Chalonnaise is the Mâconnais region, known for producing large quantities of easy-drinking and more affordable white wine. Further south again is the Beaujolais region, famous for fruity red wines made from Gamay grapes. Burgundy experiences a continental climate characterized by hot summers; the weather is unpredictable, with rains and frost all possible around harvest time. Because of this climate, vintages from Burgundy vary considerably. Archaeological evidence establishes viticulture in Burgundy as early as the second century AD, although the Celts may have been growing vines in the region previous to the Roman conquest of Gaul in 51 BC. Greek traders, for whom viticulture had been practiced since the late Neolithic period, had founded Massalía in about 600 BC, traded extensively up the Rhône valley, where the Romans first arrived in the second century BC; the earliest recorded praise of the wines of Burgundy was written in 591 by Gregory of Tours, who compared it to the Roman wine Falernian.
Monks and monasteries of the Roman Catholic Church have had an important influence on the history of Burgundy wine. The first known donation of a vineyard to the church was by king Guntram in 587, but the influence of the church became important in Charlemagne's era; the Benedictines, through their Abbey of Cluny founded in 910, became the first big Burgundy vineyard owner over the following centuries. Another order which exerted influence was the Cistercians, founded in 1098 and named after Cîteaux, their first monastery, situated in Burgundy; the Cistercians created Burgundy's largest wall-surrounded vineyard, the Clos de Vougeot, in 1336. More the Cistercians, extensive vineyard owners as they were, were the first to notice that different vineyard plots gave different wines, they therefore laid the earliest foundation for the naming of Burgundy crus and the region's terroir thinking. Since Burgundy is land-locked little of its wine left the region in Medieval times, when wine was transported in barrels, meaning that waterways provided the only practical means of long-range transportation.
The only part of Burgundy which could reach Paris in a practical way was the area around Auxerre by means of the Yonne. This area had much more extensive vineyards until the 19th century; these were the wines referred to as vin de Bourgogne in early t
The Rhône wine region in Southern France is situated in the Rhône valley and produces numerous wines under various Appellation d'origine contrôlée designations. The region's major appellation in production volume is Côtes du Rhône AOC; the Rhône is divided into two sub-regions with distinct vinicultural traditions, the Northern Rhône and the Southern Rhône. The northern sub-region produces red wines from the Syrah grape, sometimes blended with white wine grapes, white wines from Marsanne and Viognier grapes; the southern sub-region produces an array of red and rosé wines blends of several grapes such as in Châteauneuf-du-Pape. The first cultivated vines in the region were planted around 600 BC; the origins of the two most important grape varieties in the northern Rhone are subject to speculation. Some say. Others say the grape came 50 years when Greeks fled from the Persian king Cyrus I, yet others say the grape came from the Sicilian city of Syracuse, whence circa 280 AD the Romans brought it and the Viognier grape.
Meanwhile, extensive DNA typing and viticultural research has led scientists to conclude that Syrah originated in the Rhône region itself. Regardless of origin, when the Romans disappeared so too did interest in the wine of the region. Rhône reappeared in the 13th century when the Popes and their considerable purchasing power moved to Avignon, at which time the production of wine expanded greatly; the wines were traded to such a degree that the Duke of Burgundy banned import and export of non-Burgundian wines. In 1446 the city of Dijon forbade all wines from Lyon and Vienne, arguing that they were "très petit et pauvres vins" - small and miserable wines; the name Côtes du Rhône comes from public administration in the 16th century and was a name of a district in the Gard depardement. In 1650, to guard against forgeries a set of rules was passed in an attempt to guarantee the origin of the wine. In 1737 the King decreed that all casks destined for resale should be branded C. D. R; those were the wines from the area around Tavel, Roquemure and Chusclan.
Just over 100 years wines from other parts of the region were added to the C. D. R definition; the various AOC wines of the Rhône Valley region are produced by over 6,000 wine growing properties including 1,837 private wineries and 103 cooperatives. Those vineyard owners which do not vinify their wines themselves deliver their grapes in bulk either to a winemaking cooperative, of which there are 103 in the region, or sell them to one of the 51 négociants who blend and export on an industrial scale; the entire Rhône region produces around 4 million hl of wine each year, of which over half is classified under the Côte du Rhône and Côte du Rhône-Villages appellations. The prestigious Northern Rhône appellations account for less than 5% of the total Rhône wine production; the northern Rhône is characterised by a continental climate with harsh winters but warm summers. Its climate is influenced by the mistral wind. Northern Rhône is therefore cooler than southern Rhône, which means that the mix of planted grape varieties and wine styles are different.
Syrah is the only red grape variety permitted in red AOC wines from this sub-region. The grape, believed to have originated in or close to the Rhône region, is widely known as Shiraz, its name in Australia and much of the English-speaking world, has become popular with consumers around the world. For wines bearing the Cornas AOC designation, Syrah must be used whereas other reds from the northern Rhône sub-region may be blended with white wine grapes, either Viognier or Marsanne and Roussanne, depending on the appellation. However, while this is allowed by the AOC rules, blending with white grapes is practiced only for Côte-Rôtie. Viognier by itself is used for white wines from Château-Grillet. Marsanne and Roussanne are in turn used for the whites from Crozes-Hermitage, Saint Joseph, Saint Péray. From north to south the appellations in the northern Rhône are: Côte-Rôtie AOC - reds of Syrah and up to 20% Viognier. Condrieu AOC - whites of Viognier only. Château-Grillet AOC - whites of Viognier.
Saint-Joseph AOC - reds of Syrah and up to 10% Marsanne and Roussanne. Crozes-Hermitage AOC - reds of Syrah and up to 15% Marsanne and Roussanne. Hermitage AOC - reds of Syrah and up to 15% Marsanne and Roussanne. Cornas AOC - reds of Syrah only. Saint-Péray AOC - sparkling and still whites of only Marsanne and Roussanne. Northern Rhône reds are identified by their signature aromas of green olive and smoky bacon; the southern Rhône sub-region has a more Mediterranean climate with hot summers. Drought can be a problem in the area; the differing terroirs, together with the rugged landscape which protects the valleys from the Mistral, produce microclimates which give rise to a wide diversity of wines. A feature of the cultivation of the region is the use of large pebbles around the bases of the vines to absorb the heat of the sun during the day to keep the vines warm at night when, due to the cloudless skies, there is a significant drop in temperature; the southern Rhône's most famous red wine is Châteauneuf-du-Pape, a blend containing up to 19 varieties of wine grapes as permitted by the Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC rules.
Other nearby AOC regions
American wine has been produced for over 300 years. Today, wine production is undertaken in all fifty states, with California producing 89 percent of all US wine; the United States is the fourth-largest wine producing country in the world, after Italy and France. The North American continent is home to several native species of grape, including Vitis labrusca, Vitis riparia, Vitis rotundifolia, Vitis vulpina, but the wine-making industry is based on the cultivation of the European Vitis vinifera, introduced by European settlers. With more than 1,100,000 acres under vine, the United States is the sixth-most planted country in the world, after France, Spain and Turkey; the first Europeans to explore North America, a Viking expedition from Greenland, called it Vinland because of the profusion of grape vines they found. The earliest wine made in what is now the United States was produced between 1562 and 1564 by French Huguenot settlers from Scuppernong grapes at a settlement near Jacksonville, Florida.
In the early American colonies of Virginia and the Carolinas, wine-making was an official goal laid out in the founding charters. However, settlers discovered that the wine made from the various native grapes had flavors which were unfamiliar and which they did not like; this led to repeated efforts to grow the familiar European Vitis vinifera varieties, beginning with the Virginia Company exporting French vinifera vines with French vignerons to Virginia in 1619. These early plantings met with failure as native vine disease ravaged the vineyards. In 1683, William Penn planted a vineyard of French vinifera in Pennsylvania. One of the first commercial wineries in the United States was founded in 1787 by Pierre Legaux in Pennsylvania. A settler in Indiana in 1806 produced wine made from the Alexander grape. Today, French-American hybrid grapes are the staples of wine production on the East Coast of the United States. On November 21, 1799, the Kentucky General Assembly passed a bill to establish a commercial vineyard and winery.
The vinedresser for the vineyard was John James Dufour of Vevey, Switzerland. The vineyard was located overlooking the Kentucky River in Jessamine County in what is known as Blue Grass country of central Kentucky. Dufour named it First Vineyard on November 5, 1798; the vineyard's current address in 5800 Sugar Creek Pike, Kentucky. The first wine from First Vineyard was consumed by subscribers to the vineyard at John Postelthwaite's house on March 21, 1803. Two 5-gallon oak casks of wine were taken to President Thomas Jefferson in Washington, D. C. in February 1805. The vineyard continued until 1809, when a killing freeze in May destroyed many vines; the Dufour family abandoned Kentucky, migrated west to Vevay, Indiana, a center of a Swiss-immigrant community. In California, the first vineyard and winery was established in 1769 by the Franciscan missionary Junípero Serra near San Diego. Missionaries carried vines northward. California has two native grape varieties, but they make poor quality wine.
The California Wild Grape does not produce wine-quality fruit, although it sometimes is used as rootstock for wine grape varieties. The missionaries used the Mission grape. Although a Vitis vinifera variety, it is a grape of "very modest" quality. Jean-Louis Vignes was one of the early settlers to use a higher quality vinifera in his vineyard near Los Angeles; the first winery in the United States to become commercially successful was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio, in the mid-1830s by Nicholas Longworth. He made a sparkling wine from Catawba grapes. By 1855, Ohio had 1500 acres in vineyards, according to travel writer Frederick Law Olmsted, who said it was more than in Missouri and Illinois, which each had 1100 acres in wine. German immigrants from the late 1840s had been instrumental in building the wine industry in those states. In the 1860s, vineyards in the Ohio River Valley were attacked by Black rot; this prompted several wine-makers to move north to the Finger Lakes region of western New York.
During this time, the Missouri wine industry, centered on the German colony in Hermann, was expanding along both shores of the Missouri River west of St. Louis. By the end of the century, the state was second to California in wine production. In the late 19th century, the phylloxera epidemic in the West and Pierce's disease in the East ravaged the American wine industry. Prohibition in the United States began when the state of Maine became the first state to go dry in 1846. Nationally, Prohibition was implemented after ratification by the states of the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920, which forbade the manufacturing and transport of alcohol. Exceptions were made for sacramental wine used for religious purposes, some wineries were able to maintain minimal production under those auspices, but most vineyards ceased operations. Others resorted to bootlegging. Home wine-making became common, allowed through exemptions for sacramental wines and production for home use.
Following the repeal of Prohibition in 1933, operators tried to revive the American wine-making industry, nearly ended. Many talented wine-makers had died, vineyards had been neglected or replanted with table grapes, Prohibition had changed Americans' taste in wines. During the Great Depression, consumers demanded cheap sweet, fortified wine. Before Prohibition, dry table wines outsold sweet wines by three to one, but afterward, the ratio of demand changed
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A vineyard is characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine; the earliest evidence of wine production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved with the ancient Greeks but it wasn't until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a staunch supporter of wine, necessary for the celebration of the Mass. During the lengthy instability of the Middle Ages, the monasteries maintained and developed viticultural practices, having the resources, security and interest in improving the quality of their vines, they owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others.
European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the entire species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, resistant to the bug. Vitis vinifera varieties were saved by being grafted onto the rootstock of Native American varieties, although there is still no remedy for phylloxera, which remains a danger to any vineyard not planted with grafted rootstock; the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years. Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions, attention has focussed on managing the vine's more vigorous growth. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like "yield per unit area" in favor of "maximizing yield of desired quality". Many of these new techniques have since been adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called "Old World" vineyards.
Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, mechanical harvesting. Such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive and sustainable vineyards. Biodynamics has become popular in viticulture; the use of drip irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were unplantable. For well over half a century, Cornell University, the University of California and California State University, among others, have been conducting scientific experiments to improve viticulture and educate practitioners; the research includes investigating pest control. The International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a "natural" resistance to pests; the implementation of mechanical harvesting is stimulated by changes in labor laws, labor shortages, bureaucratic complications.
It can be expensive to hire labor for short periods of time, which does not square well with the need to reduce production costs and harvest often at night. However small vineyards, incompatible widths between rows of grape vines and steep terrain hinder the employment of machine harvesting more than the resistance of traditional views which reject such harvesting. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted. Between 1990 and 2003, the number of U. S. vineyards increased from 1,180 to 3,860 km2 or 292,000 to 954,000 acres, while Australian vineyard numbers more than doubled from 590 to 1,440 km2 and Chilean vineyards grew from 654 to 1,679 km2. The size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant. Europe's 1.6 million vineyards are an average of 0.2 km2 each, while the average Australian vineyard is 0.5 km2, providing considerable economies of scale. Exports to Europe from New World growers increased by 54% in the six years up to 2006.
There have been significant changes in the kinds of grapes that are grown. For example, in Chile, large areas of low-quality grapes have been replaced with such grapes as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. In Argentina, due to an economic down-turn, acreage of Malbec was reduced in the 1980s, but in the 1990s, during the quality revolution incited by Malbec Pioneer Nicolás Catena Zapata, growers started planting more Malbec, most notably in higher altitudes where cooler temperatures and more intense sunlight yields more concentrated yet smoother and more complex malbecs. Grape changes are in response to changing consumer demand but sometimes result from vine pull schemes designed to promote vineyard change. Alternatively, the development of "T" budding now permits the grafting of a different grape variety onto existing rootstock in the vineyard, making it possible to switch varieties within a two-year period. Local legislation dictates which varieties are selected, how they are grown, whether vineyards can be irrigated and when grapes can be harvested, all of which in serves to rein
Jancis Mary Robinson OBE, ComMA, MW is a British wine critic and wine writer. She writes a weekly column for the Financial Times, writes for her website JancisRobinson.com, updated daily. She provides advice for the wine cellar of Queen Elizabeth II. Robinson was born in Cumbria, studied mathematics and philosophy at St Anne's College, University of Oxford, worked for a travel company after leaving university. Robinson started her wine writing career on 1 December 1975 when she became assistant editor for the trade magazine Wine & Spirit. In 1984, she became the first person outside the wine trade to become a Master of Wine. From 1995 until she resigned in 2010 she served as British Airways' wine consultant, supervised the BA Concorde cellar luxury selection; as a wine writer, she has become one of the world's leading writers of educational and encyclopedic material on wine and was described by Decanter magazine as'the most respected wine critic and journalist in the world'. The Oxford Companion to Wine, edited by Robinson, is considered to be the most comprehensive wine encyclopedia in the world.
The first edition was published in 1994, took five years to write after she was signed on as editor in 1988. In addition, The World Atlas of Wine by Hugh Johnson and Robinson is one of the world's leading wine atlases. In 1995, Jancis Robinson appeared in a 10-episode wine course on BBC 2 television; this series was reissued on DVD. A book titled Jancis Robinson's Wine Course was written to accompany the series and has gone through several editions. In 2015 she launched Mastering Wine - Shortcuts to Success, on www.udemy.com. She has an honorary doctorate from the Open University, was made an OBE in 2003, among numerous other awards for her writing, her accolades include multiple Glenfiddich Awards and André Simon Memorial Awards, a selection as the Decanter "1999 Woman of the Year". In 2016, she was made an Officier de l'Ordre du Mérite Agricole, was given the German VDP association's highest honour and won for fourth James Beard Award in the US. Following a difference of opinion with Robert Parker over the 2003 vintage of Château Pavie, the following media coverage described a "war of words" between the two critics.
Less dramatic than the predominant press view and Parker have a cordial relationship. In 2012, Allen Lane in the UK and Ecco in the US published a 1,200-page book called Wine Grapes co-authored by Robinson with Julia Harding MW and Jose Vouillamoz which won every major wine book award; the book won six major wine book awards. Robinson is married to author of The Art of the Restaurateur. Officer of the Order of the British Empire, United Kingdom Officer of the Order of Agricultural Merit, France Commander of the Order of Entrepreneurial Merit, Portugal Robinson, Jancis; the 24-Hour Wine Expert. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-141-98181-9. Robinson, Jancis. American Wine. University of California Press. ISBN 978-1-84533-528-1. ISBN 978-0-520-27321-4. Robinson, Jancis. Wine Grapes. Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1-84614-446-2. Johnson, Hugh; the World Atlas of Wine. Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1-84533-301-0. Robinson, Jancis, ed.. The Oxford Companion to Wine. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-870538-3. Robinson, Jancis. Jancis Robinson's Wine Course.
Abbeville Press Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7892-0791-3. Robinson, Jancis. How to Taste Wine. Conran Octopus/Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-84091-520-4. Robinson, Jancis. Confessions of a Wine Lover. Penguin/Viking. ISBN 978-0-14-023529-6. Robinson, Jancis. Vines and Wines. Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1-85732-999-5. List of wine personalities Jancis Robinson's Purple Pages Jancis Robinson articles in Financial Times Podcast of Jancis Robinson discussing "Writing about wine" at the Shanghai International Literary Festival Live blogging interview with Jancis Robinson Interview with Jancis Robinson