A lieutenant is the second junior-most or in some cases the junior-most commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services and other organizations of many nations. The meaning of lieutenant differs in different militaries, but is subdivided into senior and junior ranks. In navies it is equivalent to the army rank of captain; the rank is used in fire services, emergency medical services, security services and police forces. Lieutenant may appear as part of a title used in various other organisations with a codified command structure, it designates someone, "second-in-command", as such, may precede the name of the rank directly above it. For example, a "lieutenant master" is to be second-in-command to the "master" in an organisation using both ranks. Political uses include lieutenant governor in various governments, Quebec lieutenant in Canadian politics. In the United Kingdom, a lord lieutenant is the sovereign's representative in a county or lieutenancy area, while a deputy lieutenant is one of the lord lieutenant's deputies.
The word lieutenant derives from French. In the 19th century, British writers who considered this word either an imposition on the English language, or difficult for common soldiers and sailors, argued for it to be replaced by the calque "steadholder". However, their efforts failed, the French word is still used, along with its many variations, in both the Old and the New World. Pronunciation of lieutenant is split between the forms lef-TEN-ənt and loo-TEN-ənt, with the former associated with the armies of British Commonwealth countries and the Republic of Ireland; the early history of the pronunciation is unclear. The rare Old French variant spelling luef for Modern French lieu supports the suggestion that a final of the Old French word was in certain environments perceived as an. Furthermore, in Latin, the lingua franca of the era, the letter v is used for both v. In Royal Naval tradition—and other English-speaking navies outside the United States—a reduced pronunciation is used; this is not recognised as current by recent editions of the OED.
Conventionally and other services or branches that use army-style rank titles have two grades of lieutenant, but a few use a third, more junior, rank. The "lieutenant" was the deputy to a "captain", as the rank structure of armies began to formalise, this came to mean that a captain commanded a company and had several lieutenants, each commanding a platoon. Where more junior officers were employed as deputies to the lieutenant, they went by many names, including second lieutenant, sub-lieutenant and cornet; some parts of the British Army, including the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers and fusilier regiments, used first lieutenant as well as second lieutenant until the end of the 19th century, some British Army regiments still preserve cornet as an official alternative to second lieutenant. The senior grade of lieutenant is known as first lieutenant in the United States, as lieutenant in the United Kingdom and the rest of the English-speaking world. In countries that do not speak English, the rank title translates as "lieutenant", but may translate as "first lieutenant" or "senior lieutenant".
The Israel Defense Forces rank segen translates as "deputy", equivalent to a lieutenant. In the Finnish military there is a senior lieutenant grade that ranks above lieutenant and second lieutenant but below captain. In Germany it is called Oberleutnant. There is great variation in the insignia used worldwide. In most English-speaking and Arabic-speaking countries, as well as a number of European and South American nations, full lieutenants wear two stars and second lieutenants one. An example of an exception is the United States, whose armed forces distinguish their lieutenant ranks with one silver bar for first lieutenant and one gold bar for second lieutenant. Second lieutenant is the most junior grade of commissioned officer. In most cases, newly commissioned officers do not remain at the rank for long before being promoted, both university graduates and officers commissioned from the ranks may skip the rank altogether. In non-English-speaking countries, the equivalent rank title may translate as "second lieutenant", "lieutenant", "sub-lieutenant" or "junior lieutenant".
Non-English terms include alferes, alférez, fänrik, Leutnant, poručík, segen mishne or løjtnant. A few non-English-speaking militaries maintain a lower rank translated as "third lieutenant" OF1c; the rank title may tran
Backstreet Girls are a Norwegian rock band. Formed in 1984, they have released 14 records. Backstreet Girls were influenced by the Ramones and Rose Tattoo; the band was formed in 1984 by Tom Kristensen on vocals. They were joined by guitarist Petter Baarli of the band Riff/Raff, his brother, drummer Bjørn Terje Baarli. In 1985 Tom Kristensen left the band; that year they started writing and recording their first album, contributed to the Norwegian film X. In 1986 they released their debut album Mental Shakedown on the small independent label Medicine Records; the album was released on a limited press at first, but was re-released three years on Polygram Records. That year Arne Aarnes left the band, was replaced by Bjørn Müller of the band Z-off; the line-up of Petter Baarli, Pål Kristensen, Bjørn Terje Baarli and Bjørn Müller remained for the subsequent three albums, Boogie Till' You Puke, Party On Elmstreet and Coming Down Hard. In May 1991 Bjørn Müller left the band, was replaced by the band's fourth vocalist, Ole Hillborg of Glorius Bankrobbers.
The album Let. In 1993 the band released a live album Live - Get Yer Yo-Yo's Out, Ole Hillborg left the band shortly thereafter. After this The Backstreet Girls went to England to hold auditions for another lead singer, they chose Irishman Pat Diamond, returned to Norway to perform some concerts and record an album. The album Don't Fake It Too Long was not released until 2008. However, Diamond was soon deported from Norway, by 1995 Bjørn Müller had rejoined the band as lead vocalist. In 1997 the 7" single "Monster In My Caddillac" was released on Hit! Me Records, but another album was not to appear until 1999, six years after the previous one, when the album Hellway To High was released on FaceFront Records. In October 1999 bassist Pål Kristensen left the band to be replaced by Morten Lunde, of The Mormones. In November 2000 Universal Records released a greatest hits compilation entitled Boogie Till' You Bleed. In March 2001 the band released their eight studio album, Tuff Tuff Tuff, on FaceFront Records, that summer went on a tour of Europe with Australian band Rose Tattoo, a long-time influence on the Backstreet Girls.
Live recordings of these concerts were released in September 2002 on the album Black Boogie Death Rock N' Roll featuring six live recordings from the tour and six new songs. At the end of 2002 Morten Lunde left the band to concentrate on his other band, The Mormones, Dan Thunderbird was recruited on bass. In 2003 the band recorded another album in between touring; the album was released in June on Facefront Records, entitled Sick My Duck. The band embarked on a Norwegian tour of over 20 dates called "Boogie My Life Away Tour". Frank Albin 2018–present Petter Baarli Bjørn Müller 1987–1991, 1996–present Gaute Vaag 2019–present Tom Kristensen 1984–1985 Pål Kristensen 1984–1999 Arne Aarnes 1985–1987 Olle Hillborg 1992–1993 Pat Diamond 1994 Morten Lunde 1999–2002 Stein Ramberg Jon Berg Anders Kronberg Bjørn Terje Baarli 1984–2007 Martin H-Son 2007–2018 Dan Thunderbird 2002–2019 Mental Shakedown Boogie Till You Puke Party on Elm Street Coming Down Hard Let's Have It Live - Get Yer Yo-Yo's Out Hellway to High Boogie Till' You Bleed - Compilation Tuff Tuff Tuff Black Boogie Death Rock n' Roll Sick My Duck Shake Your Stimulator Don't Fake It Too Long - Vinyl only.
Recorded in 1994. Just When You Thought Things Couldn't Get Any Worse... Here's the Backstreet Girls Death Before Compromise" Don't Mess with My Rock'n'Roll Official Site
This article is about the World War II air chief marshal. For his son, who reached the rank of air vice marshal, see Richard Peirse. For his father, a Royal Navy admiral, see Richard Peirse Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Edmund Charles Peirse, was a senior Royal Air Force commander; the son of Admiral Sir Richard Peirse and his wife Blanche Melville Wemyss-Whittaker, Richard Peirse was educated at Monkton Combe School, Somerset, HMS Conway and at King's College London. He became a midshipman in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve and was commissioned in 1912, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his contribution to the aerial attack on Dunkirk on 23 January 1915. and was promoted to flight commander in May 1915. He was further promoted in July 1916 to squadron commander; that year, on 18 August 1915, Peirse married Mary Joyce Ledgard, younger daughter of Mr and Mrs Armitage Ledgard, of the Manor House, Yorkshire. They had one daughter; the marriage was dissolved in 1945. Peirse served as a pilot with the Royal Naval Air Service until 1 April 1918 when it became part of the Royal Air Force.
With the formation of the RAF, Peirse became Officer Commanding No. 222 Squadron. Following promotion to wing commander in January 1922, in 1923 he became Station Commander at RAF Gosport and in 1929 he was made Station Commander at RAF Heliopolis, he was promoted to group captain in 1929. He went on to be Deputy Director of Operations and Intelligence at the Air Ministry in 1930 and, having been promoted to Air Commodore in 1933, was appointed Air Officer Commanding Palestine Transjordan Command during the Arab revolt in Palestine. Promoted again, this time to Air Vice-Marshal in 1936, he was appointed Deputy Chief of the Air Staff and Director of Operations and Intelligence in January 1937. In the Second World War, as a temporary air marshal, he became Vice-Chief of the Air Staff from April 1940 and having had his rank confirmed as permanent in July, he became Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Bomber Command from October 1940, he presided over a large expansion in the bomber force. In the face of increasing losses and no evidence of significant impact on Germany, he was relieved of his duties as commander of the bomber force in January 1942.
He was replaced by Arthur Harris. When reports from Witold Pilecki of the treatment of Jews in Auschwitz reached London via the Polish government in exile, Peirse head of Bomber Command, was intrigued by their suggestion that the camp be bombed to allow the inmates to escape though the 1,700-mile round trip from Stradishall air base in Suffolk to Auschwitz was longer than any mission the RAF had yet attempted. Charles Portal, chief of the air staff, rejected the idea as an “undesirable diversion and unlikely to achieve its purpose”. Https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/saturday-review/the-volunteer-by-jack-fairweather-review-the-man-who-infiltrated-auschwitz-7n5jrrvxx During early 1942, Peirse was appointed commander of Allied air forces in South East Asia and the South West Pacific, a post known as ABDAIR and part of the short-lived American-British-Dutch-Australian Command. As the Dutch East Indies fell to Japanese forces, during February and March, ABDA was dissolved. In March 1943 Peirse was appointed Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief RAF India and in November 1943 he was made Allied Air Commander in Chief, South-East Asia.
He oversaw the building of his command from a small demoralised and poorly organised force with a collection of obsolescent aircraft into a powerful force with a three to one numerical superiority over the enemy. Although seen as somewhat aloof, he fought fiercely to bring the structure and resources needed for his command and was seen to make an able contribution to the higher direction of the war in the South East Asian theatre. After a six-month extension, his term of office was not renewed, he retired in May 1945 with the rank of air chief marshal but never received advancement to the Grand Cross level in the orders of knighthood which would have been forthcoming to an officer of his rank at the time. The reason for the abrupt termination of his career lay in his affair with Lady Auchinleck, the wife of his friend, Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck Commander in Chief India; the affair became known to Mountbatten in early 1944, he passed the information to the Chief of the RAF, Sir Charles Portal, hoping that Peirse would be recalled.
The affair was common knowledge by September 1944, Peirse was considered to be neglecting his duties. Mountbatten sent Peirse and Lady Auchinleck back to England on 28 November 1944, where they lived together at a Brighton hotel. Peirse had his marriage dissolved in 1945, the Auchinlecks divorced in December 1945. Peirse and the former Lady Auchinleck married the following year. Bond, Brian. British and Japanese Military Leadership in the Far Eastern War, 1941–1945. London/New York: Frank Cass. ISBN 9780714656595. Woodburn Kirby, Major-General S.. Butler, Sir James; the War Against Japan, Volume IV: The Reconquest of Burma. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, England, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-845740-63-7. Media related to Richard Peirse at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to Richard Peirse at Wikiquote