Lieutenant colonel (United States)

In the United States Army, U. S. Marine Corps, U. S. Air Force, lieutenant colonel is a field-grade military officer rank, just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel, it is equivalent to the naval rank of commander in the other uniformed services. The pay grade for the rank of lieutenant colonel is O-5. In the United States armed forces, the insignia for the rank are a silver oak leaf, with slight stylized differences between the version of the Army and the Air Force and that of the Navy and the Marine Corps. Promotion to lieutenant colonel is governed by Department of Defense policies derived from the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980, for officers in the Active Component, its companion Reserve Officer Personnel Management Act, for officers in the Reserve Component. DOPMA guidelines suggest that 70 percent of majors be promoted to lieutenant colonel after serving at least three years at their present rank and after 15–17 years of cumulative commissioned service.

While sometimes written as "Lt. Colonel" in orders and signature blocks, as a courtesy, lieutenant colonels are addressed as "colonel" verbally and in the salutation of correspondence; the U. S. Army uses the three letter abbreviation "LTC," while the United States Marine Corps and U. S. Air Force use the abbreviations of "LtCol" and "Lt Col", respectively; these abbreviation formats are outlined in The Naval Institute Guide to Naval Writing and in Air Force Handbook 33-337, The Tongue and Quill. The United States Government Publishing Office recommends the abbreviation "LTC" for U. S. Army usage, "LtCol" for Marine Corps usage, "Lt. Col." for the Air Force. The Associated Press Stylebook recommends the abbreviation "Lt. Col." for the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force. Slang terms for the rank used by the U. S. military include "light colonel", "short colonel", "light bird", "half colonel", "bottlecap colonel", "telephone colonel". The rank of lieutenant colonel has existed in the British Army since at least the 16th century and was used in both American colonial militia and colonial regular regiments.

The Continental Army continued the British and colonial use of the rank of lieutenant colonel, as the second-in-command to a colonel commanding a regiment. The lieutenant colonel was sometimes known as "lieutenant to the colonel."In British practice, regiments were commanded by their lieutenant colonels, as the colonel was a titular position. Since the British colonel was not a "combat" officer, beginning in May 1778 to simplify prisoner of war exchanges, American regiments began to eliminate colonels by attrition and replace them with a lieutenant colonel commandant; the conversion was never effected and some regiments remained commanded by colonels throughout the war. From 1784 until 1791, there was only one lieutenant colonel in the US Army, who acted as the army's commanding officer. In the Continental Army aides to the Commander in Chief, viz. Lieutenant General George Washington, were lieutenant colonels. Additionally, certain officers serving under the Adjutant General, Inspector General, Judge Advocate General, ranked as lieutenant colonels.

During the 19th century, lieutenant colonel was a terminal rank for many officers, since the rank of "full colonel" was considered prestigious reserved only for the most successful officers. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War, the rank of lieutenant colonel became much more common and was used as a "stepping stone" for officers who commanded small regiments or battalions and were expected, by default, to be promoted to full colonel once the manpower of a regiment grew in strength; such was the case of Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, who commanded a Maine regiment as both a lieutenant colonel and as a colonel. After the Civil War ended, those officers remaining in the United States Armed Forces found lieutenant colonel to again be a terminal rank, although many lieutenant colonels were raised to higher positions in a brevet status; such was the case with George A. Custer, a lieutenant colonel in the regular army, but held the brevet rank of major general; the 20th century saw lieutenant colonel in its present-day status although, during the 1930s, many officers again found the rank to be terminal as the rank of colonel was reserved for only a select few officers.

In the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel commands a battalion- or squadron-sized unit, with a major as executive officer and a command sergeant major or sergeant major as principal non-commissioned officer or senior enlisted adviser. A lieutenant colonel may serve as a brigade/brigade combat team, regiment/regimental combat team, Marine Aviation Group, Marine Expeditionary Unit, or battalion task force executive officer. Lieutenant colonels serve as principal staff officers, under a colonel as chief of staff, on a general staff of a division, Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Marine Aircraft Wing, or Marine Logistics Group; these staff positions include G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, G-5, G-6. "The G-n" may mean either the staff officer leading a section. Lieutenant colonels may be junior staff at a variety of higher echelons. In the United States Air Force, a lieu

James Dobbins (diplomat)

James Francis Dobbins, Jr. is an American diplomat who served as United States Ambassador to the European Union, as Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs, as Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan. He is a member of the American Academy of Diplomacy, he was envoy to Kosovo, Bosnia and Somalia. In 2001, he led negotiations leading to the Bonn Agreement, served as acting Ambassador of the United States to Afghanistan during the transitional period, he was head of international and security policy for the RAND Corporation. Dobbins graduated with a Bachelor of Science in International Affairs from the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. "Iraq: Winning the Unwinnable Wars", Foreign Affairs, January/February 2005 "Who Lost Iraq?", Foreign Affairs, September/October 2007 "Counterinsurgency in Iraq", Senate Armed Services Committee, 2-26-09 Dobbins, James. "To Talk With Iran, Stop Not Talking". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 5, 2010. Dobbins, James. "Skip the Graft".

The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010. Occupying Iraq: A History of the Coalition Provisional Authority The RAND Corporation. By James Dobbins, Seth G. Jones, Benjamin Runkle, Siddharth Mohandas, 2009; the UN's role in Nation-building: From the Congo to Iraq. Rand Corporation. 2005. ISBN 978-0-8330-3589-9; the Rand History of Nation-Building. RAND Corporation. 2005. ISBN 978-0-8330-3739-8; the beginner's guide to nation-building. RAND National Security Research Division. 2007. ISBN 978-0-8330-3988-0. Europe's role in nation-building: from the Balkans to the Congo. Rand Corporation. 2008. ISBN 978-0-8330-4138-8. After the war: nation-building from FDR to George W. Bush. Rand Corporation. 2008. ISBN 978-0-8330-4181-4. After the Taliban: Nation-Building in Afghanistan. Potomac Books. 2008. ISBN 978-1-59797-083-9. James Dobbins, Seth G. Jones, Benjamin Runkle. Occupying Iraq: A History of the Coalition Provisional Authority. Rand Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-4665-9. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter list of Dobbins authorships Video discussion with Dobbins and Mark Leon Goldberg on "An Interview with James Dobbins", Sept. 26, 2003 Appearances on C-SPAN

Arkansas Highway 281

Highway 281 is a state highway in Boone County, Arkansas. The route runs north to Bull Shoals Lake; the route is maintained by the Arkansas State Transportation Department. In Boone County, in the Ozark Mountains, Highway 281 begins at an intersection with Highway 7 north of Bergman; the route winds north through a sparsely populated area, passing through the unincorporated community of Boone. A brief concurrency with Highway 14 begins in northern Boone County. After the overlap, Highway 281 turns north and runs to Tucker Hollow Park on Bull Shoals Lake, where the route terminates; the route was created by the Arkansas State Highway Commission on April 24, 1963 between Highway 14 and Bull Shoals Lake. It was extended south to Bergman on November 23, 1966. Mile markers reset at concurrencies; the entire route is in Boone County. United States portal U. S. Roads portal "Minutes of the Meeting". Arkansas State Highway Commission. 1953–69. Retrieved July 5, 2017