Alain-René Lesage was a French novelist and playwright. Lesage is best known for his comic novel The Devil upon Two Sticks, his comedy Turcaret, his picaresque novel Gil Blas. Claude Lesage, the father of the novelist, held the united positions of advocate and registrar of the royal court in Rhuys, his mother's name was Jeanne Brenugat. Both Lesage's father and mother died when Lesage was young, he was left in the care of his uncle who wasted his education and fortune. Père Bochard, of the Order of the Jesuits, Principal of the College in Vannes, became interested in the boy on account of his natural talents. Bochard cultivated Lesage's taste for literature. At age 25, Lesage went to Paris in 1693 "to pursue his philosophical studies". In August 1694, he married the daughter of Marie Elizabeth Huyard, she was beautiful but had no fortune, Lesage had little practice. About this time he encountered an old schoolfellow, the dramatist Antoine Danchet, said to have advised him to take up literature, he began as a translator, published in 1695 a French version of the Epistles of Aristaenetus, not successful.
Shortly afterwards he found a valuable patron and adviser in the Abbé de Lyonne, who bestowed on him an annuity of 600 livres, recommended him to exchange the classics for Spanish literature, of which he was himself a student and collector. Spanish literature was once popular in France when the queens of the house of Austria sat upon the throne, but had become neglected by Lesage's time. Lesage began by translating plays chiefly from Lope de Vega. Le Traître puni and Le Point d'honneur from the former and Don Félix de Mendoce from the latter were acted or published in the first two or three years of the 18th century. In 1704, he translated the continuation of Don Quixote by Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda, soon afterwards adapted a play from Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Don César Ursin, successful at court and damned in the city. Lesage was, nearly forty before he obtained decided success. In 1707, his farce, Crispin rival de son maître, was well received, Le Diable boiteux was published and ran to several editions.
Lesage improved this play in 1725, giving it its present form. Notwithstanding the success of Crispin, the actors did not like Lesage, refused a small piece of his called Les Étrennes, he thereupon altered it into Turcaret, considered his theatrical masterpiece. Some years passed before he again attempted romance writing, the first two parts of Gil Blas de Santillane were published in 1715, without the popularity of Le Diable boiteux. Lesage worked at it for a long time, did not bring out the third part till 1724, nor the fourth till 1735. During these twenty years he was, continually busy. Notwithstanding the great merit and success of Turcaret and Crispin, the Théâtre Français did not welcome him, in 1715 he began to write for the Théâtre de la foire, the comic opera held in booths at festival time. According to one computation he produced, either alone or with others, about a hundred pieces, varying from strings of songs with no regular dialogues, to comediettas only distinguished from regular plays by the introduction of music.
He was industrious in prose fiction. Besides finishing Gil Blas he translated the Orlando innamorato, rearranged Guzman d'Alfarache, published two more or less original novels, Le Bachelier de Salamanque and Estevanille Gonzalez, in 1732 produced Les avantures de monsieur Robert Chevalier, dit de Beauchêne, capitaine de flibustiers dans la Nouvelle-France, which resembles certain works of Daniel Defoe. Besides all this, Lesage was the author of La Valise trouvée, a collection of imaginary letters, of some minor pieces including Une journée des Parques, he did not retire until 1740. Lesage's eldest son, Louis-André, had become an actor, Lesage had disowned him. Lesage's last work, Mélange amusant de saillies d'esprit et de traits historiques les plus frappants, appeared in 1743. With his wife he had three sons and a daughter whose filial piety made her devote her entire life to serving her genius father. Though he lived one event embittered Lesage for years, his eldest son insisted going on stage.
Lesage, who had painted the life of the actor in the most ridiculous and hateful aspect, was pained by his son's career choice when his son joined the Théâtre Français, against which Lesage had long waged a satirical war. Out of deference to his father, the son took the name Montménil, by the merit of his talents and private character, soon entered the upper society of Paris. Lesage was reconciled with his son many years and became so devoted to Montménil that he could leave his side. Montménil caught cold during a hunting party and died on 8 September 1743; this was such a severe blow to Lesage that he retired forever from the world. Lesage's youngest son had become an actor under the name Pittenec, so Lesage and his wife saw out their old age in the home of their second son who had become the Abbé Lesage; this son had been made a Canon of the Cathedral of Boulogne, through the patronage of the queen, been bestowed a fair pension. Lesage lived beyond 80 years of age, but had to use an ear trumpet.
However, his conversation was so delightful that when he ventured into the wo
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy, the arts and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism. The term has more been applied to the historical era following modernity and the tendencies of this era. While encompassing a wide variety of approaches, postmodernism is defined by an attitude of skepticism, irony, or rejection toward the meta-narratives and ideologies of modernism calling into question various assumptions of Enlightenment rationality. Common targets of postmodern critique include universalist notions of objective reality, truth, human nature, reason and social progress. Postmodern thinkers call attention to the contingent or socially-conditioned nature of knowledge claims and value systems, situating them as products of particular political, historical, or cultural discourses and hierarchies. Accordingly, postmodern thought is broadly characterized by tendencies to self-referentiality and moral relativism and irreverence.
Postmodern critical approaches gained purchase in the 1980s and 1990s, have been adopted in a variety of academic and theoretical disciplines, including cultural studies, philosophy of science, linguistics, feminist theory, literary criticism, as well as art movements in fields such as literature and music. Postmodernism is associated with schools of thought such as deconstruction and post-structuralism, as well as philosophers such as Jean-François Lyotard, Jacques Derrida, Fredric Jameson. Criticisms of postmodernism are intellectually diverse, include assertions that postmodernism promotes obscurantism, is meaningless, adding nothing to analytical or empirical knowledge. Postmodernism arose after World War II as a reaction to the perceived failings of modernism, whose radical artistic projects had come to be associated with totalitarianism or had been assimilated into mainstream culture; the basic features of what is now called postmodernism can be found as early as the 1940s, most notably in the work of artists such as Jorge Luis Borges.
However, most scholars today would agree that postmodernism began to compete with modernism in the late 1950s and gained ascendancy over it in the 1960s. Since postmodernism has been a dominant, though not undisputed, force in art, film, drama, architecture and continental philosophy. Salient features of postmodernism are thought to include the ironic play with styles and narrative levels, a metaphysical skepticism or nihilism towards a "grand narrative" of Western culture, a preference for the virtual at the expense of the Real and a "waning of affect" on the part of the subject, caught up in the free interplay of virtual, endlessly reproducible signs inducing a state of consciousness similar to schizophrenia. Since the late 1990s there has been a small but growing feeling both in popular culture and in academia that postmodernism "has gone out of fashion". Structuralism was a philosophical movement developed by French academics in the 1950s in response to French Existentialism, it has been seen variously as an expression of High modernism, or postmodernism.
"Post-structuralists" were thinkers who moved away from the strict interpretations and applications of structuralist ideas. Many American academics consider post-structuralism to be part of the broader, less well-defined postmodernist movement though many post-structuralists insisted it was not. Thinkers who have been called structuralists include the anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss, the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, the semiotician Algirdas Greimas; the early writings of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and the literary theorist Roland Barthes have been called structuralists. Those who began as structuralists but became post-structuralists include Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, Jean Baudrillard, Gilles Deleuze. Other post-structuralists include Jacques Derrida, Pierre Bourdieu, Jean-François Lyotard, Julia Kristeva, Hélène Cixous, Luce Irigaray; the American cultural theorists and intellectuals whom they influenced include Judith Butler, John Fiske, Rosalind Krauss, Avital Ronell, Hayden White.
Post-structuralism is not defined by a set of shared axioms or methodologies, but by an emphasis on how various aspects of a particular culture, from its most ordinary, everyday material details to its most abstract theories and beliefs, determine one another. Post-structuralist thinkers reject Reductionism and Epiphenomenalism and the idea that cause-and-effect relationships are top-down or bottom-up. Like structuralists, they start from the assumption that people's identities and economic conditions determine each other rather than having intrinsic properties that can be understood in isolation, thus the French structuralists considered themselves to be espousing Constructionism. But they tended to explore how the subjects of their study might be described, reductively, as a set of essential relationships, schematics, or mathematical symbols.. Post-structuralists thinkers went further, questioning the existence of any distinction between the nature of a thing and its relationship to other things.
Postmodernist ideas in philosophy and the analysis of culture and society expanded the importance of critical theory and ha
Things: A Story of the Sixties
Things is a 1965 novel by Georges Perec, his first. The novel met with popular and critical success and won the Prix Renaudot in 1965. An authoritative English translation was published in a shared volume with A Man Asleep. Recent French paperback editions, the English translation, bear the subtitle A Story of the Sixties, though the original French edition did not; the characters in the novel do not hold as much textual importance as the things meticulously described throughout, which are the subject of frequent digressions in passages focusing on the main characters. The grammatical tense used by the author progresses from the conditional to the present to the future over the course of the novel. Perec's use of the conditional tense plunges the reader into the dreams of the characters in the novel, most of which focus on their material desires, including residences and fashionable clothing; the first chapter consists of a description of a desirable apartment and its furnishings, opening with: "L'œil, d'abord, glisserait sur la moquette grise d'un long corridor, haut et étroit."
The main characters are a young couple, the mononymous Jerôme and Sylvie, whose names are first mentioned in the second chapter. The focus on an inseparable couple, rather than a single character, can be seen as a device by which Perec avoids creating any distinct personalities independent of their surroundings; the first part of the book, much longer than the second, does not describe any significant part of the couples' lives in a linear narrative, but reveals that both are in their 20s and work as freelancers in the then-novel fields of opinion polling and market research. This affords them a great deal of leisure time and flexibility, but as much income as they desire, so little that they run out of cigarettes and eagerly pursue friends' dinner invitations in order to get enough to eat. Most of their friends have similar jobs, come from similar middle-class backgrounds, have a few years of post-secondary education behind them; the main characters are equivocal in their work ethic and suspicious of becoming more devoted to a career, although they feel a strong sense of entitlement to the riches and opportunities of the world around them.
They are absorbed by a hedonic treadmill in which brief periods of increased prosperity invariably lead back to awareness of new material desires. Outside of this interlude, the text focuses on "the ordinary, the banal, the familiar" aspects of the couple's middle-class life, described by Perec as "the sociology of the quotidian."In the shorter second part of the novel, narrated in the future tense, Jerôme and Sylvie "will attempt to flee" France for a fresh start and find work abroad in Sfax, Tunisia. During their 8 months in Sfax, they feel disconnected from the surrounding society and grow numb to their intense material desires. After they return to France, the story ends abruptly with a pessimistic view of their future happiness, despite predictions of their increasing material comfort; the epilogue concludes with a quote from Karl Marx on the means and ends of searching for truth and meaning
Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov was a Russian writer, medical doctor and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century. He is best known for his novel The Master and Margarita, published posthumously, called one of the masterpieces of the 20th century. Mikhail Bulgakov was born on 15 May 1891 in Kiev, Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire, into a Russian family, he was one of the seven children of Afanasiy Ivanovich Bulgakov — a state councilor, an assistant professor at the Kiev Theological Academy, as well as a prominent Russian Orthodox essayist and translator of religious texts. His mother was a former teacher. Both of his grandfathers were clergymen in the Russian Orthodox Church. Afanasiy Bulgakov was born in Bryansk Oblast, where his father was a priest, he moved to Kiev to study in the academy. Varvara Bulgakova was born in Russia. According to Edythe C. Haber, in his "autobiographical remarks" Bulgakov stated that she was a descendant of Tartar hordes, which influenced some of his works.
However, there is no mention of it in Bulgakov's collection of works, so the source of the claims is unclear. From childhood Bulgakov was drawn to theater. At home, he wrote comedies, which his sisters acted out. In 1901 Bulgakov joined the First Kiev Gymnasium, where he developed an interest in Russian and European literature and opera; the teachers of the Gymnasium exerted a great influence on the formation of his literary taste. After the death of his father in 1907, Mikhail's mother, a well-educated and extraordinarily diligent person, assumed responsibility for his education. After graduation from the Gymnasium in 1909, Bulgakov entered the Medical Faculty of Kiev University, which he finished with special commendation, he took a position as a physician at the Kiev Military Hospital. In 1913, Bulgakov married Tatiana Lappa. At the outbreak of the First World War, he volunteered with the Red Cross as a medical doctor and was sent directly to the front, where he was badly injured at least twice.
Bulgakov's suffering from these wounds had deleterious long-term effects. To suppress chronic pain in the abdomen, he injected himself with morphine. Over the next year his addiction grew stronger. In 1918, he abandoned morphine and never used it again. Morphine, a book released in 1926, is his account of that trying period. In 1916, Bulgakov graduated from the Medical Department of Kiev University and after serving as a surgeon at Chernovitsy hospital, was appointed provincial physician to Smolensk province, his life in those days is reflected in his A Country Doctor's Notebook. In September 1917 Bulgakov was moved to the hospital near Smolensk. In February 1918, he returned to Kiev, where he opened a private practice at his home at Andreyevsky Descent, 13. Here he witnessed ten coups. Successive governments drafted the young doctor into their service while two of his brothers were serving in the White Army against the Bolsheviks. In February 1919 he was mobilised as an army physician by the Ukrainian People's Army and assigned to the Northern Caucasus.
There, he became ill with typhus and survived. In the Caucasus he started working as a journalist, but when he and others were invited to return as doctors by the French and German governments, Bulgakov was refused permission to leave Russia because of the typhus; that was. After his illness, Bulgakov abandoned his medical practice to pursue writing. In his autobiography, he recalled how he began: "Once in 1919 when I was traveling at night by train I wrote a short story. In the town where the train stopped, I took the story to the publisher of the newspaper who published the story", his first book was an almanac of feuilletons called Future Perspectives and published the same year. In December 1919 Bulgakov moved to Vladikavkaz, he wrote and saw his first two plays, Self Defence and The Turbin Brothers, being produced for the city theater stage with great success. After travelling through the Caucasus, Bulgakov headed for Moscow, intending "to remain here forever", it was difficult to find work in the capital, but he was appointed secretary to the literary section of Glavpolitprosvet.
In September 1921 Bulgakov and his wife settled near Patriarch's Ponds, on Bolshaya Sadovaya street, 10. To make a living, he started working as a correspondent and feuilletons writer for the newspapers Gudok, Krasnaia Panorama and Nakanune, based in Berlin. For the almanac Nedra, he wrote Diaboliad, The Fatal Eggs, Heart of a Dog, works that combined bitter satire and elements of science fiction and were concerned with the fate of a scientist and the misuse of his discovery; the most significant features of Bulgakov's satire, such as a skillful blending of fantastic and realistic elements, grotesque situations, a concern with important ethical issues, had taken shape. Between 1922 and 1926 Bulgakov wrote several plays, none of which were allowed production at the time; the Run, treating the horrors of a fratricidal war, was banned by Joseph Stalin after the Glavrepertkom decided that it "glorifie
A Void, translated from the original French La Disparition, is a 300-page French lipogrammatic novel, written in 1969 by Georges Perec without using the letter e, following Oulipo constraints. It was translated into English by Gilbert Adair, with the title A Void, for which he won the Scott Moncrieff Prize in 1995. Three other unpublished English translations are titled A Vanishing by Ian Monk, Vanish'd! by John Lee, Omissions by Julian West. The book has been translated into German, Spanish, Russian, Dutch, Japanese Croatian and Catalan. All translators have imposed upon themselves a similar lipogrammatic constraint to the original, avoiding the most used letter of the alphabet; this precludes the use of words considered essential such as je, et and le in French, as well as "me," "be," and "the" in English. The Spanish version contains no a, the second most used letter in the Spanish language, while the Russian version contains no о; the Japanese version does not use い at all. A Void's plot follows a group of individuals looking for Anton Vowl.
It is in part a parody of noir and horror fiction, with many stylistic tricks, plot twists, a grim conclusion. On many occasions it implicitly talks about its own lipogrammatic limitation, highlighting its unusual syntax. A Void's protagonists work out which symbol is missing, but find it a hazardous topic to discuss, as any who try to bypass this story's constraint risk dying. Philip Howard, writing a lipogrammatic appraisal of A Void in his column Lost Words, said "This is a story chock-full of plots and sub-plots, of loops within loops, of trails in pursuit of trails, all of which allow its author an opportunity to display his customary virtuosity as an avant-gardist magician and clown." Both of Georges Perec's parents perished in World War II, his father as a soldier and his mother in the Holocaust. He was brought up by his uncle after surviving the war. Warren Motte interprets the absence of the letter E in the book as a metaphor for Perec's own sense of loss and incompleteness: In French, the phrase "sans e" sounds much like "sans eux", another encrypted reference to loss.
Georges Perec. La disparition. Gallimard. ISBN 2-07-071523-X. Georges Perec, Gilbert Adair. A Void; the Harvill Press. ISBN 1-86046-098-4. Georges Perec, Gilbert Adair. A Void; the Harvill Press. ISBN 0-00-271119-2. Georges Perec, Eugen Helmlé. Anton Voyls Fortgang. ISBN 3-499-12857-8. Georges Perec, Cemal Yardımcı. Kayboluş. ISBN 978-975-539-472-5. Georges Perec, Guido van de Wiel.'t Manco. De Arbeiderspers. ISBN 978-90-295-6766-4. Georges Perec. El secuestro. Anagrama. ISBN 978-84-339-0836-0. Georges Perec, Valéry Kislov, Ivan Limbakh publisher, 2004, ISBN 5-89059-060-X Georges Perec, Gilbert Adair. A Void. David R. Godine, Publisher. ISBN 978-1-56792-296-7. Gadsby, another novel without the letter'e'. Le Train de Nulle Part, a novel without any verbs. Bibliography of secondary works on La Disparition. Brief excerpt from the Adair translation. Preface in French. Review by Danny Yee. News about the Turkish translation. Https://web.archive.org/web/20130124122327/http://magazines.russ.ru/nlo/2010/106/ about translation in Russian.
Collection of book covers for translations of La Disparition
17th arrondissement of Paris
The 17th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as dix-septième; the arrondissement, known as Batignolles-Monceau, is situated on the right bank of the River Seine. The land area of this arrondissement is 5.669 km2. Situated on the right bank of the River Seine, this arrondissement is divided in 4 administrative districts: Ternes and Monceau in the southwestern part, two upper-class districts which are more Haussmannian in style; the town hall of the 17th arrondissement is on Rue des Batignolles. It is the only town hall of Paris to be located in a modern building; the original building was torn down in 1971 to make room for the current edifice. The 17th arrondissement hosts the Palais des Congrès of Paris, a large exhibition center with an associated high-rise hotel, the Hyatt Regency Paris Étoile, the largest in the city; the peak population of Paris's 17th arrondissement was reached in 1954, when it had 231,987 inhabitants.
Today, the arrondissement remains dense in population and business activity, with 160,860 inhabitants and 92,267 jobs as of the most recent census. The southwestern part of the arrondissement is dense in offices for services. Several big companies have their headquarters there; the head office of Dailymotion is located in the Immeuble Horizons 17. When it existed, Gaz de France had its head office in the 17th arrondissement. Batignolles and Épinettes, two former industrial areas, are now residential; the area around the avenue de Clichy, shared with the 8th, 9th and 18th arrondissement of Paris, is occupied by a lot of shops. This is the third biggest avenue of Paris in terms of sales. Arc de Triomphe Marché des Batignolles Marché Poncelet Rue de Levis Musée national Jean-Jacques Henner Palais des Congrès and Hôtel Concorde Lafayette Square des Batignolles Cité des Fleurs Place de Clichy Parc Clichy-Batignolles Square des Épinettes The Swedish school Svenska Skolan Paris is in the arrondissement.
17th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage