Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology
Hardcore punk is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is faster and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock, its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger and subversive humor. Hardcore punk disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" and addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics."Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s in Washington, D. C. New York, New Jersey, Boston—as well as in Australia and the United Kingdom. Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements and youth crew.
Hardcore was involved in the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes. It has influenced various music genres that have experienced widespread commercial success, including alternative rock and thrash metal. While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream commercial success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. Black Flag's Damaged, Minutemen's Double Nickels on the Dime and Hüsker Dü's New Day Rising were included in Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003 and Dead Kennedys have seen one of their albums reach gold status over a period of 25 years. In 2011, Rolling Stone writer David Fricke placed Greg Ginn of Black Flag 99th place in his 100 Greatest Guitarists list. Although the music genre started in English-speaking western countries, notable hardcore scenes have existed in Italy, Japan and the Middle East. Steven Blush states that the Vancouver-based band D. O.
A.'s 1981 album, Hardcore'81 "...was where the genre got its name." This album helped to make people aware of the term "hardcore". Konstantin Butz states that while the origin of the expression "hardcore" "...cannot be ascribed to a specific place or time", the term is "...usually associated with the further evolution of California's L. A. Punk Rock scene". A September 1981 article by Tim Sommer shows the author applying the term to the "15 or so" punk bands gigging around the city at that time, which he considered a belated development relative to Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington D. C. Hardcore historian Steven Blush said that the term "hardcore" is a reference to the sense of being "fed up" with the existing punk and new wave music. Blush states that the term refers to "an extreme: the absolute most Punk."Kelefa Sanneh states that the term "hardcore" referred to an attitude of "turning inwards" towards the scene and "ignoring broader society", all with the goal of achieving a sense of "shared purpose" and being part of a community.
Sanneh cites Agnostic Front's band member selection approach as an example of hardcore's emphasis on "scene citizenship". An article in Drowned in Sound argues that 1980s-era "hardcore is the true spirit of punk", because "after all the poseurs and fashionistas fucked off to the next trend of skinny pink ties with New Romantic haircuts, singing wimpy lyrics", the punk scene consisted only of people "completely dedicated to the DIY ethics". One definition of the genre is "a form of exceptionally harsh punk rock." Like the Oi! subgenre of the UK, hardcore punk can be considered an internal music reaction. Hardcore has been called a "...faster, meaner genre" of punk, a "stern refutation" of punk rock. Steven Blush states that though punk rock had an "unruly edge", "Reagan-era kids demanded something more primal and immediate, with speed and aggression as the starting point."According to one writer, "distressed by the'art'ificiality of much post-punk and the emasculated sellouts of new wave, hardcore sought to strengthen its core punk principles."
Lacking the art-school grace of post-punk, hardcore punk "favor low key visual aesthetic over extravagance and breaking with original punk rock song patterns." Hardcore "...disavows...synthetic technological effects... the recording industry." Around 1980, as punk became "moribund" and radio-friendly, angry "shorn-headed suburban teenagers" discarded new wave's artistic statements and pop music influences and created a new genre, for which there were no places to play, which forced the performers to create independent and DIY venues. Music writer Barney Hoskyns compared punk rock with hardcore and stated that hardcore was "younger and angrier, full of the pent up rage of dysfunctional Orange County adolescents" who were sick of their life in a "bland Republican" area. While the hardcore scene was young white males, both onstage and in the audience, there are notable exceptions, such as the all-African-American band Bad Brains and notable women such as Crass singer Joy de Vivre and Black Flag's second bassist, Kira Roessler.
Steven Blush states that Minor Threat's Ian MacKaye "set in motion a die-hard mindset that begat everything we now call Hardcore" with his "virulent anti- industry, anti-star, pro-scene exhortations." One of the important philosophies in the hardcore scene is authenticity. The
Your Choice Records
Your Choice Records was a German independent record label, founded in 1988 by producer Tobby Holzinger. The label specialized in independent punk music, including live releases of German and other international acts. Holzinger provided a share of the record sale profit to various animal rights organisations; the label maintained a strict DIY ethic, producing all of its albums by itself and selling them at discount prices without the help of major distributors. Your Choice Records existed in the early days of hardcore, inspired by the spirit of labels like Dischord Records, Alternative Tentacles, SST Records and Touch and Go Records. Early releases by Your Choice were well-produced compared to other punk live recordings of the time. Bands such as So Much Hate, Life... But How To Live It?, Verbal Assault, Target of Demand, Raped Teenagers, Kina, Scream, NoNoYesNo, Neurosis, Steel Pole Bath Tub, Party Diktator, Helios Creed, The Notwist, Shudder to Think, Articles of Faith, Jawbox, Poison Idea, Hard-Ons, Lars Holzapfel, Samiam, Headroom, Girls Against Boys, Texas Is the Reason and The Noise Conspiracy have released records on Your Choice.
So Much Hate - Line up: PER ARNE-BASS, BØRRE-GUITAR, GUNNAR-VOCALS, FINN ERIK-DRUMS Ripcord - Line up: JIM-BASS, BAZ-GUITAR, STEVE-VOCALS, JOHN-DRUMS Life... But How To Live It? - Line up: ROGER-GUITAR, KATJA-VOCALS, TOM-BASS, DYRET-DRUMS Verbal Assault - Line up: DOUGH-DRUMS, CHRIS-VOCALS, PETE-GUITAR, DARREN-BASS Arm - Line up: DANIELLE-VOCALS, MARKUS-GUITARS, STEPHAN-DRUMS, UWE-BASS, TOM-SOUNDMASTER Target of Demand - Line up: JOHNNY-BASS, MOPS-GUITAR, RAINER-VOCALS, HUCKEY-DRUMS, PETERL-SUPPORT Raped Teenagers - Line up: PARTIK-GUITAR, PETER-DRUMS, OLA-BASS Pullermann - Line up: JÖRG-GUITAR, CYBELLE-VOCALS, TOBIAS-BASS, STEPHAN-DRUMS, S. A. M.-VOCALS Kina - Line up: SERGIO-DRUMS / VOCALS, ALBERTO-GUITARS / VOCALS, GIANPIERO-BASS / VOCALS Scream - Line up: FRANZ-GUITARS, SKEETER-BASS, PETER-VOCALS, DAVID-DRUMS, ANNOUNCER-JOSEF KLUMB NoNoYesNo - Line up: CLOAT-OINK, CONSTANTIN-BRAVOMAT, DALIBOR-SCHLÄGER, EMMO WEBER-MINISTER OF DRUNKENNESS, FRANK BLUME-MINISTER OF TRAFFIC, SASCHA-SCHOPPING, TOBBY-MELVIN, TOMASSO-KNÖDEL Melvins - Line up: LORAX-BASS, KINGBUZZO-VOCALS / GUITAR, DALEDOE-DRUMS / VOCALS Neurosis - Line up: JASON JAMES-DRUMS, DAVE EDWARDSON-VOICE/BASS, SCOTT KELLY-VOICE/GUITAR, STEVE VON TILL-GUITAR Steel Pole Bath Tub - Line up: DALE FLATTUM-BASS/VOC.
DARREN MIR-X - DRUMS, MIKE MALESTEEN-G./VOC. Party Diktator - Line up: MATTHIAS-BASS, OLE-GUITAR, POPEL-DRUMS, NIC-THROAT Samiam - Line up: SERGIE LOOBKOFF-GUITAR, JAMES BROGAN-GUITAR, JASON BEEBOUT-VOCALS, AARON RUBIN-BASS, MP-DRUMS Articles of Faith - Line up: VIRUS X - DRUMS, DAVE SHIELD - BASS / VOC. JOE SCUDARI - GUIT. DORIAN TASKBASKSH - GUIT. VIC BONDI - VOC. / GUIT. Leatherface - Line up: ANDREW LAING - DRUMS, ANDREW CRIGHTON - BASS, DICKIE HAMMOND - GUITAR, FRANKIE STUBBS - VOCALS / GUITAR Poison Idea - Line up: JERRY A. - VOCALS, THEE SLAYER HIPPY - DRUMS, MONDO - GUITAR, MYRTLE TICKNER - BASS Wasteland - Line up: BJØRN, KARL, KÖPPE Helios Creed - Line up: HELIOS CREED-GUIT./VOC. CHRIS Mc KAY-BASS, PAUL DELLA PELLE-DRUMS, Z SILVER-SYNTHS/SAMPS Girls Against Boys - Line up: ELI JANNEY-NO.2 VOC. BASS, KEYBOARD, JOHNNY TEMPLE-BASS, SCOTT McCLOUD-NO.1 VOC. GUITAR, ALEXIS FLEISIG-DRUMS The Notwist - Line up: MICHA ACHER - BASS, MARKUS ACHER - GUITAR / VOCALS, MECKY MESSERSCHMIDT - DRUMS Shudder to Think - Line up: STUART HILL-BASS, NATHAN LARSON-GUITAR, MIKE RUSSELL-DRUMS, CRAIG WEDREN-VOC./GUIT Jawbox - Line up: GUITAR / "VOICE" - J.
ROBBINS, GUITAR / OTHER VOICE - W. C.*DB BARBOT, BASS GUITAR - KIM COLETTA, DRUMS - LOVEY Hard-Ons - Line up: RAY -BASS, BLACKIE - GUITARS / VOCALS, KEISH - VOCALS / DRUMS Lars Holzapfel - Line up: LARS HOLZAPFEL Wool - Line up: PETE STAHL - VOCALS / GUITAR, FRANZ STAHL - GUITAR / VOCALS, AL BLOCH - BASS / VOCALS, CHRIS BRATTON- DRUMS Plexus - Line up: D. V/D ELSKEN - DRUMS, VOC. SLIDE GUITAR, B. WARNING - GUITAR, LEAD VOC. J. BIJLEVELD - BASSGUITAR Headroom - Line up: PATRICK-GUITARS/VOCALS, THEISEN-DRUMS, WILLIAM-B, PETE-VOCALS Overdose - Line up: ROBBY ALBRECHT-GUITARS, OLIVER SCHULZE-HERGEL-BASS, JÖRG MUDERS-DRUMS Texas is the Reason - Line up: GERRET KLAHN-VOCALS/GUITAR, CHRIS DALY-DRUMS, SCOT WINEGARD-BASS, NORM ARENAS-GUITAR The Noise Conspiracy Line up: DENNIS LYXZÉN-VOCALS, SARA ALMGREN-GUITAR, KEYBOARD, LUDWIG DAHLBERG-DRUMS, INGE JOHANSSON-BASS, LARS STRÖMBERG-GUITAR, VOCALS The Melvins' installment in the Your Choice Live series is decidedly on the sludgy side. Fans of the band's earlier output will rejoice at the track listing, which comprises tracks from Gluey Porch Treatments and Bullhead.
Furthermore, the recording quality is excellent. Shudder to Think's live show has always been built on excitement and musical friction, Your Choice Live Series captures the band at its tightest; this would prove to be original drummer Mike Russell's last recording with the band before leaving to become a teacher, but it doesn't stop the record from taking flight. Craig Wedren's voice is as operatic as it is on their studio records, their shows were clinics in band chemistry. They had one of the finest rhythm sections of their time in bassist Kim Coletta and drummer Zach Barocas, guitarists J. Robbins and Bill Barbot always created an unholy racket in the vein of Gang of Four, Big Black, Naked Rayg
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Blitz is an anarchist and socialist youth community in Oslo, founded in 1982. The group has been criticized for their use of violent methods of political protest; the Blitz House is an autonomous house in the centre of Norway. It started out as a squatted building in Skippergata 6 in downtown Oslo in 1981 and has since been a centre of socialist and anarchist activism. In 1982 the movement were kicked out of Skippergata and moved into Pilestredet 30c, where an agreement was made between the city and the squatters, they were allowed to rent the house for a symbolic rent, in return they would maintain the building. In 2002 the city council led by the Conservative Party, put the Blitz house on sale; the activists responded with a massive action and, among other things, battered the entrance part of the Oslo City Hall, the sale was stopped. Among the activities of the house are a bookshop with political literature, the Anti Fascist Action network, a group supporting Mumia Abu-Jamal, a feminist group, a children's power group, a non-profit printing office, a photo group and a feminist radio station, radiOrakel.
Blitz has a café specialising in vegan food. The practice rooms, sound studio and concert facilities are a centre for ska, hardcore punk and hip hop music. Concerts are held within the house from time to time. During the 1980s the people around Blitz were involved in many violent demonstrations, e.g. during the visits of the British prime minister Margaret Thatcher in 1986 and US Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger in 1987. The demonstrations turned into street battles between the police. From the 1990s Blitz has obstructed legal meetings of right-wing political parties such as the Progress Party, the minor Fatherland Party and the Democrats. Blitz supported and took part in the violent 2008–09 Oslo riots. Mayhem bassist Varg Vikernes planned to blow up the Blitz House and had stockpiled 150 kg of explosives and 3,000 rounds of ammunition at the time of his arrest for the murder of bandmate Euronymous. Autonomism Autonomous social centres Squatting Ungdomshuset List of vegetarian restaurants Official site