The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army
Philip IV of Spain
Philip IV of Spain was King of Spain and Portugal as Philip III. He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Spain until his death and in Portugal until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, his rule over Spain during the Thirty Years' War. On the eve of his death in 1665, the Spanish Empire had reached 12.2 million square kilometers in area but in other respects was in decline, a process to which Philip contributed with his inability to achieve successful domestic and military reform. Philip IV was born in Royal Palace of Valladolid, was the eldest son of Philip III and his wife, Margaret of Austria. In 1615, at the age of 10, Philip was married to 13-year-old Elisabeth of France, although the relationship does not appear to have been close. Philip had seven children by Elisabeth, with only one being a son, Balthasar Charles, who died at the age of sixteen in 1646; the death of his son shocked the king, who appears to have been a good father by the standards of the day.
Elisabeth was able to conspire with other Spanish nobles to remove Olivares from the court in 1643, for a brief period she held considerable influence over Philip. Philip remarried following the deaths of both Elisabeth and his only legitimate heir, his choice of his second wife, Maria Anna known as Mariana, Philip's niece and the daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand, was guided by politics and Philip's desire to strengthen the relationship with Habsburg Austria. Maria Anna bore him five children, but only two survived to adulthood, a daughter Margarita Teresa, born in 1651, the future Charles II of Spain in 1661 — but the latter was sickly and considered in frequent danger of dying, making the line of inheritance uncertain. Perceptions of Philip's personality have altered over time. Victorian authors were inclined to portray him as a weak individual, delegating excessively to his ministers, ruling over a debauched Baroque court. Victorian historians attributed the early death of Baltasar to debauchery, encouraged by the gentlemen entrusted by the king with his education.
The doctors who treated the Prince at that time in fact diagnosed smallpox, although modern scholars attribute his death to appendicitis. Historians' estimation of Philip improved in the 20th century, with comparisons between Philip and his father being positive — some noting that he possessed much more energy, both mental and physical, than his diffident father. Philip was idealised by his contemporaries as the model of Baroque kingship. Outwardly he maintained a bearing of rigid solemnity. Philip had a strong sense of his'royal dignity', but was extensively coached by Olivares in how to resemble the Baroque model of a sovereign, which would form a key political tool for Philip throughout his reign. Philip was a fine horseman, a keen hunter and a devotee of bull-fighting, all central parts of royal public life at court during the period. Philip appears to have had a lighter persona; when he was younger, he was said to have a keen sense of humour and a'great sense of fun'. He attended'academies' in Madrid throughout his reign — these were lighthearted literary salons, aiming to analyse contemporary literature and poetry with a humorous touch.
A keen theatre-goer, he was sometimes criticised by contemporaries for his love of these'frivolous' entertainments. Others have captured his private personality as'naturally kind and affable'; those close to him claimed he was academically competent, with a good grasp of Latin and geography, could speak French and Italian well. Like many of his contemporaries, including Olivares, he had a keen interest in astrology, his handwritten translation of Francesco Guicciardini's texts on political history still exists. Although interpretations of Philip's role in government have improved in recent years, Diego Velázquez's contemporary description of Philip's key weakness — that'he mistrusts himself, defers to others too much' — remains relevant. Although Philip's Catholic beliefs no longer attract criticism from English language writers, Philip is still felt to have been'unduly pious' in his personal life. Notably, from the 1640s onwards he sought the advice of a noted cloistered abbess, Sor María de Ágreda, exchanging many letters with her.
This did not stop Philip's becoming known for his numerous affairs with actresses. By the end of the reign, with the health of Carlos José in doubt, there was a real possibility of Juan José's making a claim on the throne, which added to the instability of the regency years. During the reign of Philip's father, Philip III, the royal court had been dominated by the Sandoval noble family, most strikingly by the Duke of Lerma, Philip III's principal favorite and chief minister for all of his reign. Philip IV came to power as the influence of the Sandovals was being undermined by a new noble coalition, led by Don Baltasar de Zúñiga. De
Horse Grenadier Guards
The Horse Grenadier Guards referred to Horse Grenadiers were a series of cavalry troops in the British Household Cavalry between 1687 and 1788, who used grenades and other explosives in battle. Attached to the Horse Guards, they became independent for a century before being disbanded. However, the men of the troops formed the basis of the new troops of Life Guards; the origins of the Horse Grenadiers lie in the grenadiers a cheval of the French l'armee. Louis XIV added a troop of 154 to the Maison Militaire du Roi in December 1676, making it the most impressive regiment in Europe. Charles II was eager to copy the exciting new innovation of grenade technology. Grenadiers, soldiers specially trained to carry and use hand grenades, first appeared in the British Army in 1677. Tall and strong soldiers were picked to become grenadiers, because of the weight of extra equipment that they carried, their use became general in the British Army in 1678, when a company from each infantry regiment was picked and trained as grenadiers.
It was at this time. Their intended role was to reinforce the troops of Horse Guards, which were composed of gentlemen volunteers; the horse grenadiers, were recruited as in the rest of the army. John Evelyn, in his Diary entry for 5 December 1683, described the appearance of the horse grenadiers: The King had now augmented his guards with a new sort of dragoons, who carried granados, were habited after the Polish manner, with long picked caps fierce and fantastical. In 1680 the Horse Grenadiers had been disbanded due to protest from anti-militarists in the backlash to the Popish Plots, but the King was insistent that they provided much needed protection, they were promptly reinstated in 1683. The Exclusion Parliaments attempted to dismiss the standing army and separate the militia from the king's command. In May 1679 they passed another Disbanding Act, calling for disbanding of all troops and the prohibition of domestic quarter billeting without householder consent; the controversy caused the downfall of Tory minister Earl of Danby.
From August the Horse Grenadiers were all quartered at the Royal Mews, Charing Cross, stabling for 222 horses. These grenadiers functioned as mounted infantry, riding with the Horse Guards but fighting with grenades and muskets on foot. To The King's Troop of Horse Guards were attached 80 privates, officered by one captain, two lieutenants, three sergeants, three corporals, accompanied by two drummers and two hautboys; the grenadiers attached to The Queen's Troop of Horse Guards and The Duke of York's Troop of Horse Guards had no drummers, two sergeants and two corporals, only sixty privates per troop. No grenadiers were raised for the 4th Troop extant. However, The Earl of Dover's Troop of Horse Guards, raised in May 1686, did receive a grenadier contingent. In November 1687, the horse grenadiers were separated from the Horse Guards as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Troop of Grenadiers, one for each of the four existing troops of Horse Guards; as with the Horse Guards, the captains commanding the troops were ranked as Colonel.
The 4th Troop was disbanded in 1689, together with the Horse Guards troop it accompanied, after the abdication of James II. The Horse Grenadier Guards fought at the Battle of the Boyne, under the command of Hon. George Cholmondeley a lieutenant-colonel in the 1st Horse Guards. One of the Horse Grenadiers was the first casualty of the battle, they saw foreign service during the Nine Years' War, fighting dismounted at the Battle of Steenkerque. In 1693, the three troops were amalgamated into one troop, known as the Horse Grenadier Guards, Cholmondeley was made Captain and Colonel. Another troop, the Scots Troop of Grenadiers, was raised in 1702 as part of the Scottish Army, it was associated with the 4th or Scots Troop of Horse Guards; these became part of the British establishment in 1709, the Scots grenadiers became the 2nd Troop of the Horse Grenadier Guards, while the English troop was 1st Troop. From June 1691, the Leuze, to the Peace of Ryswick, the Horse Guards and Horse Grenadiers had been in Britain and saw little action.
Most of the Life Guards were deployed as King William III's bodyguard, but others were as troops of Horse Grenadiers as a regiment of horse. During the reigns of Queen Anne and George I they were deployed to keep the peace; the rivalry between the two regiments was intense. While Life Guards escorted General Schomberg to a royal reception, the Horse Grenadiers were relegated to the baggage train, they considered. But thanks to the Life Guards class as private gentlemen, an insult to Lord Albemarle in 1719 only required an apology. By contrast Walpole's policy of isolationism from continental wars frustrated the Blues and Royals, who were used to police riots and on anti-smuggling patrols. In the person of Earl of Cholmondeley the Horse Grenadiers had a successful commander of 1st Troop until 1733. Less competent were the Earl of Dundonald and Lord Forester both of 4th Troop. One of the problems was the standardization of pay, a technique known as "Off-reckonings" varied enormously between regiments.
Lord Shannon did a better job 1735-40. However, in 1742, the 3rd and 4th Troops of Horse Guards were sent abroad for service in the War of the Austrian Succession, the 2nd Troop of Horse Grenadier Guards went with them; the brigade was engaged at the Battle of Dettingen, where it guard
The Monmouth Rebellion known as The Pitchfork Rebellion, The Revolt of the West or The West Country rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow James II. Prince James, Duke of York, had become King of England and Ireland upon the death of his elder brother Charles II on 6 February 1685. James II was some Protestants under his rule opposed his kingship. James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II, claimed to be rightful heir to the throne and attempted to displace James II. Plans were discussed to overthrow the monarch, following the failure of the Rye House Plot to assassinate Charles II and James in 1683, while Monmouth was in self-imposed exile in the Dutch Republic; the Monmouth rebellion was coordinated with Argyll's Rising a rebellion in Scotland, where Archibald Campbell, the Earl of Argyll, landed with a small force. The Duke of Monmouth had been popular in the South West of England, so he planned to recruit troops locally and take control of the area before marching on London.
Monmouth landed at Lyme Regis on 11 June 1685. In the following few weeks, his growing army of nonconformists and farm workers fought a series of skirmishes with local militias and regular soldiers commanded by Louis de Duras, 2nd Earl of Feversham and John Churchill, who became the Duke of Marlborough. Monmouth's forces were unable to compete with the regular army and failed to capture the city of Bristol; the rebellion ended with the defeat of Monmouth's army at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685 by forces led by Feversham and Churchill. Monmouth was executed for treason on 15 July 1685. Many of his supporters were tried during the Bloody Assizes, led by Judge Jeffreys and were condemned to death or transportation. James II was able to consolidate his power and reigned until 1688, when he was overthrown in a coup d'état by William of Orange in the Glorious Revolution. Monmouth was an illegitimate son of Charles II. There had been rumours that Charles had married Monmouth's mother, Lucy Walter, but no evidence was forthcoming, Charles always said that he only had one wife, Catherine of Braganza.
Monmouth had been appointed Commander-in-Chief of the English Army by his father in 1672 and Captain general in 1678, enjoying some successes in the Netherlands in the Third Anglo-Dutch War, as commander of a British brigade in the French army. The English Civil War had left resentment among some of the population about the monarchy and the penalties, imposed on the supporters of the Commonwealth; the South West of England contained several towns. Fears of a potential Catholic monarch persisted, intensified by the failure of Charles II and his wife to produce any children. A defrocked Anglican clergyman, Titus Oates, spoke of a "Popish Plot" to kill Charles and to put the Duke of York on the throne; the Earl of Shaftesbury, a former government minister and a leading opponent of Catholicism, attempted to have James excluded from the line of succession. Some members of Parliament proposed that the crown go to Charles's illegitimate son, James Scott, who became the Duke of Monmouth. In 1679, with the Exclusion Bill - which would exclude the King's brother and heir presumptive, Duke of York, from the line of succession - in danger of passing, Charles II dissolved Parliament.
Two further Parliaments were dissolved for the same reason. After the Rye House Plot of 1683, an attempt to assassinate both Charles and James, Monmouth went into self-imposed exile in the Netherlands, gathered supporters in The Hague. Monmouth was a Protestant and had toured the South West of England in 1680, where he had been greeted amicably by crowds in towns such as Chard and Taunton. So long as Charles II remained on the throne, Monmouth was content to live a life of pleasure in Holland, while still hoping to accede peaceably to the throne; the accession of James II and coronation at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1685 put an end to these hopes. The Monmouth rebellion was planned in Holland and coordinated with another rebellion in Scotland led by Archibald Campbell, the Earl of Argyll. Several areas of England were considered as potential locations for rebellion, including Cheshire and Lancashire along with the South West, as these were seen as having the highest number of opponents of the monarchy.
Argyll and Monmouth both began their expeditions from Holland, where James's nephew and son-in-law, stadtholder William III of Orange, had not detained them or put a stop to their recruitment efforts. Argyll sailed to Scotland and, on arriving there, raised recruits from his own clan, the Campbells, as part of the Scottish revolt, he had been involved in the Rye House Plot of 1683. Another important member of the rebellion was Robert Ferguson, a fanatical Scottish Presbyterian minister, he was known as "the plotter". It was Ferguson who drew up Monmouth's proclamation, he, most in favour of Monmouth being crowned King. Thomas Hayward Dare was a goldsmith from Taunton and a Whig politician, a man of considerable wealth and influence, jailed during a political campaign calling for a new parliament, he was fined the huge sum of £5,000 for uttering "seditious" words. After his release from jail, he became the paymaster general to the Rebellion. To raise the funds for ships and weaponry, Monmouth pawned many of his belongings.
His wife Anne Scott, 1st Duchess of Buccleuch, her mother pawned their jewellery to hire the Dutch warship Helderenberg. On 30 May 1685 Monmouth set sail for South West England, a Protestant region, with three small ships, four light field guns, 1500 muskets, he landed on 11 June with 82 supporters, including Lord Grey of Warke, Nathaniel Wade, Andrew Fl
Full dress uniform
Full dress uniform, sometimes called dress uniform, is the most formal type of military uniform, reserved for parades, official receptions, other special occasions of the most formal level, including private ones such as marriages and funerals. Full dress uniforms goes with order insignias and full size medals. In Western dress codes, full dress uniform is a permitted supplementary alternative corresponding to the civilian white tie for evening wear or morning dress for day wear - sometimes collectively called full dress - although military uniforms are the same for day and evening wear. Design may depend on branch of service branch. Although full dress uniforms are brightly coloured and ornamented with gold braids, lampasses, etc. most originated as practical uniforms that, with the adoption of more practical uniforms, were relegated to ceremonial functions. Before World War I, most armies of the world retained uniforms of this type that were more colourful and elaborate than the ordinary duty, or the active service dress uniform.
"Full dress uniform" is applied in order to distinguish from semi-formal mess dress uniforms, as well as informal service dress uniforms. Yet, full dress uniform is sometimes called dress uniform. Although many services use the term dress generically for uniforms, allowing it to refer to more modern service dress uniforms with suitable modifiers; therefore the term dress uniform without prefix refers to full dress uniform as described in this article. The British and United States armies were dependent upon voluntary recruiting and found that a smart dress served to attract recruits and improve morale amongst those serving; the British regimental system fostered numerous distinctions amongst different units. However, this was not limited to volunteer armies, with conscript armies of continental Europe retaining many of the colourful features that had evolved during the nineteenth century, for reasons of national and unit pride. Thus, in 1913 most French soldiers wore red trousers and kepis as part of their full dress, the majority of British foot regiments retained the scarlet tunics for parade and off duty, the German Army was characterised by Prussian blue, the Russian by dark green, the Austro-Hungary Army by a wide range of differing facing colours dating back to the 18th century.
There were exceptions to each of these rules distinguishing unique units. This included the German cuirassiers; the U. S. Army with its "dress blues" was an exception, with cavalry and infantry being distinguished only by the different branch colors. After World War I most full dress uniforms disappeared. Many of the regimes that had taken a particular pride in the retention of colorful traditional uniforms had been overthrown and their republican, fascist, or communist successors had little incentive to retain old glories. Elsewhere cost and disillusion with the "peacock" aspects of old fashioned soldiering had a similar effect, except for ceremonial guard units and such limited exceptions as officers' evening or off-duty uniforms. Modern armies are characterised by simple and drably coloured dress for ceremonial occasion, with the exceptions noted above; however a general trend towards replacing conscript armies with long serving professionals has had, as a side effect, a reversion to dress uniforms that combine smartness with some traditional features.
Thus the U. S. Army announced in 2006 that uniforms of modern cut but in the traditional dark and light blue colours will become universal issue, replacing the previous grey/green service dress; the French Army has, with the abolition of conscription, reintroduced kepis, fringed epaulettes and sashes in traditional colours to wear with camouflage "trellis" or light beige parade dress. The British Army with its strong regimental traditions has retained a wide range of special features and dress items to distinguish individual units, in spite of recent amalgamations. Although there still exist official patterns for full dress uniforms for each regiment or corps within the British Army, this uniform is issued at public expense, except for units which are on public duties, such as the Guards Division, Regimental Bands and Corps of Drums, which are bought from the Regiment's allowance. In the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, the Argentine Federal Police, Argentine National Gendarmrie and Naval Prefecture, dress uniforms are worn during military and civil occasions for the military bands and colour guards.
They are a reminder of the military and law enforcement history of Argentina during the early years of nationhood and the wars of independence that the country was a part. The Argentine Army's full dress uniform is green with a visor cap, sword set and scabbard, long green pants, a black belt, black shoes or boots. However, several regiments within the Argentine Army are authorized full dress uniforms, which originate from the 19th century, including the Regiment of Patricians, the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers, the 1st Artillery Regiment in the Buenos Aires Garrison; the Argentine Navy dress uniform is a navy blue polo shirt with a visor cap for officers and senior ratings and sailor caps for junior ratings and sleeve rank marks, a sword set and scabbard for officers, blue long pants, a belt and black leather shoes or boots. Marines wear peaked c
Bruges is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, at Zeebrugge; the historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It is oval in about 430 hectares in size; the city's total population is 117,073. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 616 km2 and has a total of 255,844 inhabitants as of 1 January 2008. Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam, it is sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North. Bruges has a significant economic importance, thanks to its port, was once one of the world's chief commercial cities. Bruges is well known as the seat of the College of Europe, a university institute for European studies; the place is first mentioned in records as Bruggas, Brvccia in 840–875 as Bruciam, Brutgis uico, in portu Bruggensi, Bricge, Brycge, Bruges, Bruggas and Brugge.
The name derives from the Old Dutch for "bridge": brugga. Compare Middle Dutch brucge and modern Dutch bruggehoofd and brug; the form brugghe would be a southern Dutch variant. The Dutch word and the English "bridge" both derive from Proto-Germanic *brugjō-. Bruges was a location of coastal settlement during prehistory; this Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement is unrelated to medieval city development. In the Bruges area, the first fortifications were built after Julius Caesar's conquest of the Menapii in the first century BC, to protect the coastal area against pirates; the Franks took over the whole region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century and administered it as the Pagus Flandrensis. The Viking incursions of the ninth century prompted Count Baldwin I of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications. Early medieval habitation starts in the 9th and 10th century on the Burgh terrain with a fortified settlement and church Bruges became important due to the tidal inlet, important to local commerce, This inlet was known as the "Golden Inlet".
Bruges received its city charter on 27 July 1128, new walls and canals were built. In 1089 Bruges became the capital of the County of Flanders. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its direct access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a natural channel at the Zwin; the new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a city that became the commercial outpost for Bruges. Bruges had a strategic location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League trade and the southern trade routes. Bruges was included in the circuit of the Flemish and French cloth fairs at the beginning of the 13th century, but when the old system of fairs broke down the entrepreneurs of Bruges innovated, they developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and pool their knowledge of markets. They employed new forms of economic exchange, including letters of credit; the city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese traders selling pepper and other spices.
With the reawakening of town life in the twelfth century, a wool market, a woollens weaving industry, the market for cloth all profited from the shelter of city walls, where surpluses could be safely accumulated under the patronage of the counts of Flanders. The city's entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotland's wool-producing districts. English contacts brought Normandy grain and Gascon wines. Hanseatic ships filled the harbor, which had to be expanded beyond Damme to Sluys to accommodate the new cog-ships. In 1277, the first merchant fleet from Genoa appeared in the port of Bruges, first of the merchant colony that made Bruges the main link to the trade of the Mediterranean; this development opened not only the trade in spices from the Levant, but advanced commercial and financial techniques and a flood of capital that soon took over the banking of Bruges. The Bourse opened in 1309 and developed into the most sophisticated money market of the Low Countries in the 14th century.
By the time Venetian galleys first appeared. Numerous foreign merchants were welcomed in Bruges, such as the Castilian wool merchants who first arrived in the 13th century. After the Castilian wool monopoly ended, the Basques, many hailing from Bilbao, thrived as merchants and established their own commercial consulate in Bruges by the mid-15th century; the foreign merchants expanded the city's trading zones. They maintained separate communities governed by their own laws until the economic collapse after 1700; such wealth gave rise to social upheavals, which were for the most part harshly contained by the militia. In 1302, after the Bruges Matins, the population joined forces with the Count of Flanders against the French, culminating in
A cap badge known as head badge or hat badge, is a badge worn on uniform headgear and distinguishes the wearer's nationality and/or organisation. The wearing of cap badges is a convention found among military and police forces, as well as uniformed civilian groups such as the Boy Scouts, civil defence organisations, ambulance services, customs services, fire services etc. Cap badges are a modern form of heraldry and their design incorporates symbolic devices. In the British Army each regiment and corps has its own cap badge; the cap badge of the Queen's Royal Lancers is called a motto by those within the regiment, that of the Royal Horse Artillery is known as a cypher and that of the Coldstream Guards, Scots Guards and Irish Guards is known as a Capstar. That of the Grenadier Guards is known as The Grenade Fired Proper The concept of regimental badges appears to have originated with the British Army; the Encyclopædia Britannica's 1911 Edition notes that although branch badges for infantry, cavalry and so on were common to other armies of the time, only the British Army wore distinctive regimental devices.
Plastic cap badges were introduced during the Second World War, when metals became strategic materials. Nowadays many cap badges in the British Army are made of a material called "stay-brite", this is used because it is cheap and does not require as much maintenance as brass badges. Regimental cap badges are cast as one single piece but in a number of cases they may be cast in different pieces. For instance, the badge of the now amalgamated, The Highlanders was cast in two separate pieces: the Queen's Crown and the thistle forming one piece, the stag's head and scroll with regimental motto forming a second piece; the Royal Corps Of Signals have a two part badge. The top being a brass crown and the bottom consisting of a silver flying body of Mercury above a brass world and the motto Certa Cito. A regiment or battalion may maintain variations of the same cap badge for different ranks; these variations are in the badges' material and stylization. Variations in cap badges are made for: Officers: three-dimensional in design with more expensive materials such as silver and gilt.
Most officers' beret badges are embroidered rather than metal or "stay-brite". Senior Non-Commissioned Officers such as sergeants, Colour Sergeants and Warrant Officers: a more elaborate design compared with those worn by other ranks but not as elaborate as those worn by officers. There are exceptions such as the Welsh Guards. Officers wearing a more elaborate version to that of soldiers, made using gold thread and has a more three-dimensional design; the only exception to this is recruits in training who have to wear the brass leek referred to as the "NAAFI fork", only until they have passed out of training and reached their battalion will they receive their cloth leek. All ranks of the Special Air Service wear an embroidered capbadge and all ranks of The Rifles and Royal Regiment of Fusiliers wear the same metal badge; some regiments maintain a blackened or subdued version of their cap badges as shiny brass cap badges may attract the enemy's attention on the battlefield. However, since the practice of British soldiers operating in theatre with regimental headdress has all but died out, the wearing of these has become much less common in recent years.
The cap badge is positioned differently depending on the form of headdress: Service dress cap: above the centre point between the wearer's eyebrows Beret: above the left eye Side cap: Between the left eye and the left ear Scottish tam o'shanter: Between the left eye and the left ear Scottish glengarry: Between the left eye and the left ear Feather Bonnet: Slightly off the left ear towards the left eye Fusilier cap or Busby: Slightly off the left ear towards the left eye Jungle hat: Centre front or between left eye and left ear. Soldiers of the Gloucestershire Regiment and subsequently the Royal Gloucestershire and Wiltshire Regiment wore a cap badge on both the front and the rear of their headdress, a tradition maintained by soldiers in The Rifles when in service dress; the back badge is unique in the British Army and was awarded to the 28th Regiment of Foot for their actions at the Battle of Alexandria in 1801. Additional items that reflect a regiment's historical accomplishments, such as backing cloth and hackles, may be worn behind the cap badge.
In Scottish regiments, for instance, it is a tradition for soldiers to wear their cap badges on a small square piece of their regimental tartans. Officer Cadets may wear a small white backing behind their badges. Members of arms such as the Adjutant General's Corps and Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers serving on attachment to other units wear that regiment's beret or headdress but with their own Corps cap badge. For a period leading up to Remembrance Day artificial poppies are worn by many people in the United Kingdom and Canada to commemorate those killed in war; when worn in uniform the plastic stem of the poppy is discarded and the paper petals are fitted behind the beret badge where a metal cap badge is worn. On forage caps the paper petals are fitted under the left hand chin strap button. In the Royal Marines, the cap badges of commissioned officers are split into two, the crown and lion atop, but separated from, the globe and laurels. T