The Augustan History is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284. Modeled on the similar work of Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, it presents itself as a compilation of works by six different authors, written during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine I and addressed to those emperors or other important personages in Rome; the collection, as extant, comprises thirty biographies, most of which contain the life of a single emperor, while some include a group of two or more, grouped together because these emperors were either similar or contemporaneous. The true authorship of the work, its actual date, its reliability, its purpose, have long been matters for controversy amongst historians and scholars since Hermann Dessau in 1889 rejected both the date and the authorship as stated within the manuscript. Major problems include the nature of the sources it used, how much of the content is pure fiction.
For instance, the collection contains in all about 150 alleged documents, including 68 letters, 60 speeches and proposals to the people or the senate, 20 senatorial decrees and acclamations. All of these are now considered to be fraudulent. By the second decade of the 21st century, the overall consensus supported the position that there was only a single author, writing either at the end of the 4th century or the beginning of the 5th century, and, interested in blending contemporary issues into the lives of the 3rd century emperors. There is further consensus that the author used the fictitious elements in the work to highlight references to other published works, such as to Cicero and Ammianus Marcellinus in a complex allegorical game. Despite these conundrums, it is the only continuous account in Latin for much of its period and is thus continually being re-evaluated, since modern historians are unwilling to abandon it as a unique source of possible information, despite its obvious untrustworthiness on many levels.
The name Historia Augusta originated with Isaac Casaubon, who produced a critical edition in 1603, working from a complex manuscript tradition with a number of variant versions. The title as recorded on the Codex Palatinus manuscript is Vitae Diversorum Principum et Tyrannorum a Divo Hadriano usque ad Numerianum Diversis compositae, it is assumed that the work may have been called de Vita Caesarum or Vitae Caesarum. How the work was circulated in late antiquity is unknown, but its earliest use was in a Roman History composed by Quintus Aurelius Memmius Symmachus in 485. Lengthy citations from it are found in authors of the 6th and 9th centuries, including Sedulius Scottus who quoted parts of the Marcus Aurelius, the Maximini and the Aurelian within his Liber de Rectoribus Christianis, the chief manuscripts date from the 9th or 10th centuries; the six Scriptores – "Aelius Spartianus", "Julius Capitolinus", "Vulcacius Gallicanus", "Aelius Lampridius", "Trebellius Pollio", "Flavius Vopiscus" – dedicate their biographies to Diocletian and various private persons, so ostensibly were all writing around the late 3rd and early 4th century.
The first four scriptores are attached to the lives from Hadrian to Gordian III, while the final two are attached to the lives from Valerian to Numerian. The biographies cover the emperors from Hadrian to Numerian. A section covering the reigns of Philip the Arab, Trebonianus Gallus and all but the end of the reign of Valerian is missing in all the manuscripts, it has been argued that biographies of Nerva and Trajan have been lost at the beginning of the work, which may suggest the compilation might have been a direct continuation of Suetonius' The Twelve Caesars, it has been theorized that the mid-3rd-century lacuna might be a deliberate literary device of the author or authors, saving the labour of covering Emperors for whom little source material may have been available. Despite devoting whole books to ephemeral or in some cases non-existent usurpers, there are no independent biographies of the Emperors Quintillus and Florian, whose reigns are briefly noted towards the end of the biographies of their respective predecessors, Claudius Gothicus and Tacitus.
For nearly 300 years after Casaubon's edition, though much of the Augustan History was treated with some scepticism, it was used by historians as an authentic source – Edward Gibbon used it extensively in the first volume of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. However, "in modern times most scholars read the work as a piece of deliberate mystification written much than its purported date, however the fundamentalist view still has distinguished support; the Historia Augusta is unfortunately, the principal Latin source for a century of Roman history. The historian must make use of it, but only with extreme circumspection and caution." Existing manuscripts and witnesses of the Augustan History fall into three groups: A manuscript of the first quarter of the ninth century, Vatican Pal. lat. 899, known as P, its direct and indirect copies. P was written at Lorsch in Caroline minuscule; the text in this manuscript has several lacunae marked with dots indicating the missing letters, a confusion in the order of the biographies between Verus and Alexander, the transposition of several passages: two long ones which correspond to a quire of the original which became loose and was inserted in a wrong place, a simil
Mentorship is a relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. The mentor may be older or younger than the person being mentored, but he or she must have a certain area of expertise, it is a learning and development partnership between someone with vast experience and someone who wants to learn. Interaction with an expert may be necessary to gain proficiency with/in cultural tools. Mentorship experience and relationship structure affect the "amount of psychosocial support, career guidance, role modeling, communication that occurs in the mentoring relationships in which the protégés and mentors engaged."The person in receipt of mentorship may be referred to as a protégé, a protégée, an apprentice or, in the 2000s, a mentee. The mentor may be referred to a rabbi. "Mentoring" is a process that always involves communication and is relationship-based, but its precise definition is elusive, with more than 50 definitions in use.
One definition of the many that have been proposed, is Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital, the psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional development. Mentoring in Europe has existed since at least Ancient Greek times. Since the 1970s it has spread in the United States in training contexts, with important historical links to the movement advancing workplace equity for women and minorities, it has been described as "an innovation in American management"; the roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. The word itself was inspired by the character of Mentor in Homer's Odyssey. Though the actual Mentor in the story is a somewhat ineffective old man, the goddess Athena takes on his appearance in order to guide young Telemachus in his time of difficulty. Significant systems of mentorship include the guru–disciple tradition practiced in Hinduism and Buddhism, the discipleship system practiced by Rabbinical Judaism and the Christian church, apprenticing under the medieval guild system.
In the United States, advocates for workplace equity in the second half of the twentieth century popularized the term "mentor" and concept of career mentorship as part of a larger social capital lexicon which includes terms such as glass ceiling, bamboo ceiling, role model, gatekeeper—serving to identify and address the problems barring non-dominant groups from professional success. Mainstream business literature subsequently adopted the terms and concepts, promoting them as pathways to success for all career climbers. In 1970, these terms were not in the general American vocabulary; the European Mentoring and Coaching Council called the EMCC, is the leading global body in terms of creating and maintaining a range of industry standard frameworks and processes across the mentoring and related supervision and coaching fields e.g. a code of practice for those practising mentoring. The focus of mentoring is to develop the whole person and so the techniques are broad and require wisdom in order to be used appropriately.
A 1995 study of mentoring techniques most used in business found that the five most used techniques among mentors were: Accompanying: making a commitment in a caring way, which involves taking part in the learning process side-by-side with the learner. Sowing: mentors are confronted with the difficulty of preparing the learner before he or she is ready to change. Sowing is necessary when you know that what you say may not be understood or acceptable to learners at first but will make sense and have value to the mentee when the situation requires it. Catalyzing: when change reaches a critical level of pressure, learning can escalate. Here the mentor chooses to plunge the learner right into change, provoking a different way of thinking, a change in identity or a re-ordering of values. Showing: this is making something understandable, or using your own example to demonstrate a skill or activity. You show what you are talking about, you show by your own behavior. Harvesting: here the mentor focuses on "picking the ripe fruit": it is used to create awareness of what was learned by experience and to draw conclusions.
The key questions here are: "What have you learned?", "How useful is it?". Different techniques may be used by mentors according to the situation and the mindset of the mentee, the techniques used in modern organizations can be found in ancient education systems, from the Socratic technique of harvesting to the accompaniment method of learning used in the apprenticeship of itinerant cathedral builders during the Middle Ages. Leadership authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner advise mentors to look for "teachable moments" in order to "expand or realize the potentialities of the people in the organizations they lead" and underline that personal credibility is as essential to quality mentoring as skill. Multiple mentors: A new and upcoming trend is having multiple mentors; this can be helpful. Having more than one mentor will widen the knowledge of the person being mentored. There are different mentors. Profession or trade mentor: This is someone, in the trade/profession you are entering, they know the trends, important changes and new practices that you should know to stay at the top of your career.
A mentor like thi
Anthony Thomas Grafton is one of the foremost historians of early modern Europe and the current Henry Putnam University Professor at Princeton University. He is a corresponding fellow of the British Academy and a recipient of the Balzan Prize. From January 2011 to January 2012, he served as the President of the American Historical Association. Grafton was born in Connecticut, he was educated at Phillips Academy. He attended the University of Chicago, from which he graduated with a bachelor of arts degree in history in 1971 and a master of arts degree in 1972, he made Phi Beta Kappa in 1970, in the college. After studying at University College, under the celebrated ancient historian Arnaldo Momigliano, from 1973 to 1974, he earned his PhD in history from the University of Chicago in 1975, he still retains links with the University of London's Warburg Institute. After a brief period teaching at Cornell's history department, he was appointed to a position at Princeton University in 1975, where he has subsequently remained.
Since January 2007, he has been a co-editor of the Journal of the History of Ideas. Anthony Grafton is noted for his studies of the classical tradition from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century, in the history of historical scholarship, his many books include a profound study of the scholarship and chronology of the foremost classical scholar of the late Renaissance, Joseph Scaliger, a revisionist account of the significance of Renaissance education, more studies of Girolamo Cardano as an astrologer and Leon Battista Alberti. In 1996, he delivered the Triennial E. A. Lowe Lectures at Corpus Christi College, University of Oxford, speaking on Ancient History in Early Modern Europe, he is co-author of an article on the marginalia of Gabriel Harvey, one of the founding pieces of scholarship in the field of the history of reading. The best introduction to his preoccupation with the relations between scholarship and science in the early modern period is Defenders of the Text, one of his several essay collections, the most recent of, Worlds Made by Words.
In some ways his most original and accessible book is The Footnote: A curious history, a case study in what might be called the history of history, from below. He writes on a wide variety of topics for The New Republic, The American Scholar, The New York Review of Books, he owns a bookwheel. Los Angeles Times Book Prize, History, 1993 Balzan Prize for History of the Humanities, 2002 Honorary degree from Leiden University, 2006 The Sigmund H. Danziger, Jr. Memorial Lecture in the Humanities, University of Chicago, 2011 Grafton, Anthony. "The history of ideas: Precept and practice, 1950-2000 and beyond." Journal of the History of Ideas 67#1: 1-32. Online Joseph Scaliger: A Study in the History of Classical Scholarship, Oxford-Warburg Studies. With Lisa Jardine, From Humanism to the Humanities. Education and the Liberal Arts in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Europe. ISBN 0-7156-2100-9 Forgers and Critics. Creativity and Duplicity in Western Scholarship. Defenders of the Text: The Traditions of Scholarship in the Age of Science, 1450-1800.
Commerce with the Classics: Ancient Books and Renaissance Readers. The Footnote: A Curious History. Cardano's Cosmos: The Worlds and Works of a Renaissance Astrologer. Leon Battista Alberti: Master Builder of the Italian Renaissance. Bring Out Your Dead: The Past as Revelation. What Was History?: The Art of History in Early Modern Europe. With Megan Hale Williams and the Transformation of the Book: Origen and the Library of Caesarea. Codex in Crisis. Video: Anthony Grafton: Codex in Crisis on YouTube, Authors@Google, February 12, 2009. With Brian A. Curran, Pamela O. Long, Benjamin Weiss, Obelisk: A History. Worlds Made by Words. Review by Véronique Krings, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2009.09.32, "I Have Always Loved the Holy Tongue": Isaac Casaubon, The Jews, a Forgotten Chapter in Renaissance Scholarship. Anthony Grafton at The New York Review of Books Appearances on C-SPAN
An epigram is a brief, interesting and sometimes surprising or satirical statement. The word is derived from the Greek: ἐπίγραμμα epigramma "inscription" from ἐπιγράφειν epigraphein "to write on, to inscribe", the literary device has been employed for over two millennia; the presence of wit or sarcasm tends to distinguish non-poetic epigrams from aphorisms and adages, which may lack them. The Greek tradition of epigrams began as poems inscribed on votive offerings at sanctuaries – including statues of athletes – and on funerary monuments, for example "Go tell it to the Spartans, passersby...". These original epigrams did the same job, but in verse. Epigram became a literary genre in the Hellenistic period developing out of scholarly collections of inscriptional epigrams. Though modern epigrams are thought of as short, Greek literary epigram was not always as short as examples, the divide between "epigram" and "elegy" is sometimes indistinct. In the classical period, the clear distinction between them was that epigrams were inscribed and meant to be read, while elegies were recited and meant to be heard.
Some elegies could be quite short. All the same, the origin of epigram in inscription exerted a residual pressure to keep things concise when they were recited in Hellenistic times. Many of the characteristic types of literary epigram look back to inscriptional contexts funerary epigram, which in the Hellenistic era becomes a literary exercise. Many "sympotic" epigrams combine sympotic and funerary elements – they tell their readers to drink and live for today because life is short. Any theme found in classical elegies could be and were adapted for literary epigrams. Hellenistic epigrams are thought of as having a "point" – that is, the poem ends in a punchline or satirical twist. By no means do all Greek epigrams behave this way. Since their collections helped form knowledge of the genre in Rome and later throughout Europe, Epigram came to be associated with'point,' because the European epigram tradition takes the Latin poet Martial as its principal model. Greek epigram was much more diverse, as the Milan Papyrus now indicates.
A major source for Greek literary epigram is the Greek Anthology, a compilation from the 10th century AD based on older collections, including those of Meleager and Philippus. It contains epigrams ranging from the Hellenistic period through the Imperial period and Late Antiquity into the compiler's own Byzantine era – a thousand years of short elegiac texts on every topic under the sun; the Anthology includes one book of Christian epigrams as well as one book of erotic and amorous homosexual epigrams called the Μοῦσα Παιδικἠ. Roman epigrams owe much to their Greek contemporaries. Roman epigrams, were more satirical than Greek ones, at times used obscene language for effect. Latin epigrams could be composed as inscriptions or graffiti, such as this one from Pompeii, which exists in several versions and seems from its inexact meter to have been composed by a less educated person, its content makes it clear how popular such poems were: Admiror, O paries, te non cecidisse ruinis qui tot scriptorum taedia sustineas.
I'm astonished, that you haven't collapsed into ruins, since you're holding up the weary verse of so many poets. However, in the literary world, epigrams were most gifts to patrons or entertaining verse to be published, not inscriptions. Many Roman writers seem to have composed epigrams, including Domitius Marsus, whose collection Cicuta was named after the poisonous plant Cicuta for its biting wit, Lucan, more famous for his epic Pharsalia. Authors whose epigrams survive include Catullus, who wrote both invectives and love epigrams – his poem 85 is one of the latter. Odi et amo. Quare id faciam fortasse requires. Nescio, sed fieri sentio, et excrucior. I hate and I love. Maybe you'd like to know why I do? I don't know, but I feel it happening, I am tormented. Martial, however, is considered to be the master of the Latin epigram, his technique relies on the satirical poem with a joke in the last line, thus drawing him closer to the modern idea of epigram as a genre. Here he defines his genre against a critic: Disce quod ignoras: Marsi doctique Pedonis saepe duplex unum pagina tractat opus.
Non sunt longa quibus nihil est quod demere possis, sed tu, disticha longa facis. Learn what you don't know: one work of Marsus or learned Pedo stretches out over a doublesided page. A work isn't long if you can't take anything out of it, but you, write a couplet too long. Poets known for their epigrams whose work has been lost include Cornificia. In early English literature the short couplet poem was dominated by the poetic epigram and proverb in the translations of the Bible and the Greek and Roman poets. Since 1600, two successive lines of verse that rhyme with each other, known as a couplet featured as a part of the longer sonnet form, most notably in William Shakespeare's sonnets. Sonnet 76 is an excellent example; the two line poetic form as a closed cou
Smyrna was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. Since 1930, the modern city located there has been known as İzmir, in Turkey, the Turkish rendering of the same name. Due to its advantageous port conditions, its ease of defense and its good inland connections, Smyrna rose to prominence. Two sites of the ancient city are today within the boundaries of İzmir; the first site founded by indigenous peoples, rose to prominence during the Archaic Period as one of the principal ancient Greek settlements in western Anatolia. The second, whose foundation is associated with Alexander the Great, reached metropolitan proportions during the period of the Roman Empire. Most of the present-day remains of the ancient city date from the Roman era, the majority from after a 2nd-century AD earthquake. In practical terms, a distinction is made between these. Old Smyrna was the initial settlement founded around the 11th century BC, first as an Aeolian settlement, taken over and developed during the Archaic Period by the Ionians.
Smyrna proper was the new city which residents moved to as of the 4th century BC and whose foundation was inspired by Alexander the Great. Old Smyrna was located on a small peninsula connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus at the northeastern corner of the inner Gulf of İzmir, at the edge of a fertile plain and at the foot of Mount Yamanlar; this Anatolian settlement commanded the gulf. Today, the archeological site, named Bayraklı Höyüğü, is 700 metres inland, in the Tepekule neighbourhood of Bayraklı at 38°27′51″N 27°10′13″E. New Smyrna developed on the slopes of the Mount Pagos and alongside the coastal strait below where a small bay existed until the 18th century; the core of the late Hellenistic and early Roman Smyrna is preserved in the large area of İzmir Agora Open Air Museum at this site. Research is being pursued at the sites of both the new cities; this has been conducted since 1997 for Old Smyrna and since 2002 for the Classical Period city, in collaboration between the İzmir Archaeology Museum and the Metropolitan Municipality of İzmir.
For further information on etymology of the city's name, see İzmir#Names and etymology. Several explanations have been offered for its name. A Greek myth derived the name from an eponymous Amazon named "Σμύρνα", the name of a quarter of Ephesus; this is the basis of a city of Aeolis. In inscriptions and coins, the name was written as "Ζμύρνα", "Ζμυρναῖος", "of Smyrna"; the name Smyrna may have been taken from the ancient Greek word for myrrh, "smyrna", the chief export of the city in ancient times. The region was settled at least as of the beginning of the third millennium BC, or earlier, as the recent finds in Yeşilova Höyük suggests, it could have been a city of the autochthonous Leleges before the Greek colonists started to settle along the coast of Asia Minor as of the beginning of the first millennium BC. Throughout antiquity Smyrna was a leading city-state of Ionia, with influence over the Aegean shores and islands. Smyrna was among the cities that claimed Homer as a resident; the early Aeolian Greek settlers of Lesbos and Cyme, expanding eastwards, occupied the valley of Smyrna.
It was one of the confederacy of Aeolian city-states, marking the Aeolian frontier with the Ionian colonies. Strangers or refugees from the Ionian city of Colophon settled in the city. During an uprising in 688 BC, they took control of the city, making it the thirteenth of the Ionian city-states. Revised mythologies said. In 688 BC, the Ionian boxer Onomastus of Smyrna won the prize at Olympia, but the coup was then a recent event; the Colophonian conquest is mentioned by Mimnermus, who counts himself of Colophon and of Smyrna. The Aeolic form of the name was retained in the Attic dialect, the epithet "Aeolian Smyrna" remained current long after the conquest. Smyrna was located at the mouth of the small river Hermus and at the head of a deep arm of the sea that reached far inland; this enabled Greek trading ships to sail into the heart of Lydia, making the city part of an essential trade route between Anatolia and the Aegean. During the 7th century BC, Smyrna rose to splendor. One of the great trade routes which cross Anatolia descends the Hermus valley past Sardis, diverging from the valley, passes south of Mount Sipylus and crosses a low pass into the little valley where Smyrna lies between the mountains and the sea.
Miletus and Ephesus were situated at the sea end of the other great trade route across Anatolia. The Meles River, which flowed by Smyrna, was worshiped in the valley. A common and consistent tradition connects Homer with the valley of Smyrna and the banks of the Meles; the epithet Melesigenes was applied to him. The steady equable flow of the Meles, alike in summer and winter, its short course and ending near the city, are celebrated by Aristides and Himerius; the stream rises from abundant springs east of the city and flows into the southeast extremity of the gulf. The archaic city contained a temple of Athena from the 7th century BC; when the Mermnad kings raised the Lydian power and aggressiveness, Smyr
A pastiche is a work of visual art, theatre, or music that imitates the style or character of the work of one or more other artists. Unlike parody, pastiche celebrates, rather than mocks, the work; the word pastiche is a French cognate of the Italian noun pasticcio, a pâté or pie-filling mixed from diverse ingredients. Metaphorically and pasticcio describe works that are either composed by several authors, or that incorporate stylistic elements of other artists' work. Pastiche is an example of eclecticism in art. Allusion is not pastiche. A literary allusion may refer to another work. Moreover, allusion requires the audience to share in the author's cultural knowledge. Both allusion and pastiche are mechanisms of intertextuality. In literature usage, the term denotes a literary technique employing a light-hearted tongue-in-cheek imitation of another's style; the word implies a lack of originality or coherence, an imitative jumble, but with the advent of postmodernism pastiche has become positively constructed as deliberate, witty homage or playful imitation.
For example, many stories featuring Sherlock Holmes penned by Arthur Conan Doyle, have been written as pastiches since the author's time. Ellery Queen and Nero Wolfe are other popular subjects of mystery pastiches. A similar example of pastiche is the posthumous continuations of the Robert E. Howard stories, written by other writers without Howard's authorization; this includes the Conan the Barbarian stories of Lin Carter. David Lodge's novel The British Museum Is Falling Down is a pastiche of works by Joyce and Virginia Woolf. In 1991 Alexandra Ripley wrote the novel Scarlett, a pastiche of Gone with the Wind, in an unsuccessful attempt to have it recognized as a canonical sequel. In 2017, John Banville published Mrs. Osmond, a sequel to Henry James's The Portrait of a Lady, written in a style similar to that of James. In 2018, Ben Schott published Jeeves and the King of Clubs, an homage to P. G. Wodehouse's character Jeeves, with the blessing of the Wodehouse estate. Charles Rosen has characterized Mozart's various works in imitation of Baroque style as pastiche, Edvard Grieg's Holberg Suite was written as a conscious homage to the music of an earlier age.
Some of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's works, such as his Variations on a Rococo Theme and Serenade for Strings, employ a poised "classical" form reminiscent of 18th-century composers such as Mozart. One of the best examples of pastiche in modern music is that of George Rochberg, who used the technique in his String Quartet No. 3 of 1972 and Music for the Magic Theater. Rochberg turned to pastiche from serialism after the death of his son in 1963. "Bohemian Rhapsody" by Queen is unusual as it is a pastiche in both senses of the word, as there are many distinct styles imitated in the song, all "hodge-podged" together to create one piece of music. A similar earlier example is. One can find musical "pastiches" throughout the work of the American composer Frank Zappa. A pastiche Mass is a musical Mass. Most this convention has been chosen for concert performances by early-music ensembles. Masses are composed of movements: Kyrie, Credo, Agnus Dei. In a pastiche Mass, the performers may choose a Kyrie from one composer, a Gloria from another.
In musical theatre pastiche is an indispensable tool for evoking the sounds of a particular era for which a show is set. For the 1971 musical Follies, a show about a reunion of performers from a musical revue set between the World Wars, Stephen Sondheim wrote over a dozen songs in the style of Broadway songwriters of the 1920s and 1930s. Sondheim imitates not only the music of composers such as Cole Porter, Irving Berlin, Jerome Kern, George Gershwin but the lyrics of writers such as Ira Gershwin, Dorothy Fields, Otto Harbach, Oscar Hammerstein II. For example, Sondheim notes that the torch song "Losing My Mind" sung in the show contains "near-stenciled rhythms and harmonies" from the Gershwins' "The Man I Love" and lyrics written in the style of Dorothy Fields. Examples of musical pastiche appear in other Sondheim shows including Gypsy, Saturday Night and Anyone Can Whistle. Pastiche can be a cinematic device whereby filmmakers pay homage to another filmmaker's style and use of cinematography, including camera angles and mise en scène.
A film's writer may offer a pastiche based on the works of other writers. Italian director Sergio Leone`s Once Upon a Time in the West is a pastiche of earlier American Westerns. Another major filmmaker, Quentin Tarantino uses various plots and themes from many lesser-known films to create his films, among them from the films of Sergio Leone, in effect creating a pastiche of a pastiche. Tarantino has stated that "I steal from every single movie made." Director Todd Haynes' 2002 film Far From Heaven was a conscious attempt to replicate a typical Douglas Sirk melodrama - in particular All That Heaven Allows. The film works as a reverential and unironic tribute to Sirk's filmmaking, lovingly re-creating the stylized mise-en-scene, costumes and lighting of Sirkian melodrama. In cinema, the inf
Andrew Dalby, is an English linguist and historian who has written articles and several books on a wide range of topics including food history and Classical texts. Dalby studied Latin and Greek at the Bristol Grammar School and University of Cambridge. Here he studied Romance languages and linguistics, earning a bachelor's degree in 1970. Dalby worked for fifteen years at Cambridge University Library specialising in Southern Asia, he gained familiarity with some other languages because of his work there, where he had to work with foreign serials and afterwards with South Asia and Southeast Asian materials. He wrote articles on multilingual topics linked with the library and its collections. In 1982 and 1983, he collaborated with Sao Saimong in cataloguing the Scott Collection of manuscripts and documents from Burma and Indochina. Dalby published a short biography of the colonial civil servant and explorer J. G. Scott, who formed the collection. To help him with this task, he took classes in Cambridge again in Sanskrit and Pali and in London in Burmese and Thai.
After his time at Cambridge, Dalby worked in London helping to start the library at Regent's College and on renovating another library at London House. He served as Honorary Librarian of the Institute of Linguists, for whose journal The Linguist he writes a regular column, he did a part-time PhD at Birkbeck College, London in ancient history, which improved his Latin and Greek. His Dictionary of Languages was published in 1998. Language in Danger, on the extinction of languages and the threatened monolingual future, followed in 2002. Meanwhile, he began to work on food history and contributed to Alan Davidson's journal Petits Propos Culinaires. Dalby's first food history book, Siren Feasts, won a Runciman Award. At the same time he was working with Sally Grainger on The Classical Cookbook, the first historical cookbook to look beyond Apicius to other ancient Greek and Roman sources in which recipes are found. Dangerous Tastes, on the history of spices, was the Guild of Food Writers Food Book of the Year for 2001.
Work on this led to Dalby's first article for Gastronomica magazine, in which he traced the disastrous exploration of Gonzalo Pizarro in search of La Canela in eastern Ecuador, showing how the myth of the "Valley of Cinnamon" first arose and identifying the real tree species, at the root of the legend. Dalby's light-hearted biography of Bacchus includes a retelling, rare in English, of the story of Prosymnus and the price he demanded for guiding Dionysus to Hades. In an unfavorable review of Bacchus in The Guardian, Ranjit Bolt argues that Dalby's "formidable learning" overwhelmed his ability to off the reader an appealing narrative, his epilogue to Petronius' Satyrica combines a gastronomic commentary on the "Feast of Trimalchio" with a fictional dénouement inspired by the fate of Petronius himself. Dalby's Rediscovering Homer developed out of two academic papers from the 1990s in which he argued that the Iliad and Odyssey must be seen as belonging to the same world as that of the early Greek lyric poets but to a less aristocratic genre.
Returning to these themes, he spotlit the unknown poet who, long after the time of the traditional Homer, at last saw the Iliad and Odyssey recorded in writing. As he teasingly suggested, based on what we can judge of this poet's interests and on the circumstances in which oral poetry has been recorded elsewhere, "it is possible, probable, that this poet was a woman." Dalby's book Language in Danger: The Loss of Linguistic Diversity and the Threat to Our Future, focuses on the decline and extinction of languages from ancient times to the modern era. Dalby attributes the loss to the emergence of large centralised political groupings, the spread of communications technologies, the hegemony of the English language. According to Mario Basini, Dalby argues that the loss of a language is a loss to all of humanity, because each language embodies a unique view of the world and contains unique information about the manner in, speakers interact with a unique place and perspectives that are lost when a language goes extinct.
Dalby profiles endangered languages and discusses the significance of their disappearance, which he estimates occurs at a rate of one every two weeks. He states that the world is diminished by each language lost because they encapsulate "local knowledge and ways of looking at the human condition that die with the last speaker." He discusses the way stronger languages "squeeze out" others, using the rise of Latin and the extinctions that occurred around the Mediterranean in classical times as an example, notes a similar pattern that Irish and various Native American languages and indigenous Australian languages have faced in the English-speaking world, where they "were banned in school to force minority groups to speak the language of the majority". Dalby writes that preferences have shifted toward encouraging minority languages and that many can be saved, his account was described as engrossing by The Wall Street Journal. The book disputes advocacy of a single common language as a means to a happier, more peaceful, improved world.
1993: South East Asia: a guide to reference material 1995: Siren Feasts: a history of food and gastronomy in Greece 1996: The Classical Cookbook 1998: Cato: On Farming 1998: Dictionary of Languages 1998: Guide to World Language Dictionaries 2000: Empire of Pleasures: Luxury and Indulgence in the Roman World 20