In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers. In modern times, life peerages, always created at the rank of baron, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and entitle the holders to seats in the House of Lords, presuming they meet qualifications such as age and citizenship; the legitimate children of a life peer are entitled to style themselves with the prefix "The Honourable", although they cannot inherit the peerage itself. The Crown, as fount of honour, creates peerages of two types. In the early days of the peerage, the Sovereign had the right to summon individuals to one Parliament without being bound to summon them again. Over time, it was established that once summoned, a peer would have to be summoned for the remainder of his life, that the peer's heirs and successors would be summoned, thereby entrenching the hereditary principle. Life peerages lingered. From the reign of James I to that of George II, 18 life peerages were created for women.
Women, were excluded from sitting in the House of Lords, so it was unclear whether or not a life peerage would entitle a man to do the same. For over four centuries—if one excludes those who sat in Cromwell's House of Lords during the Interregnum—no man had claimed a seat in the Lords by virtue of a life peerage. In 1856, it was thought necessary to add a peer learned in law to the House of Lords, without allowing the peer's heirs to sit in the House and swell its numbers. Sir James Parke, a Baron of the Exchequer, was created Baron Wensleydale for life, but the House of Lords concluded that the peerage did not entitle him to sit in the House of Lords. Lord Wensleydale was therefore appointed a hereditary peer; the Government introduced a bill to authorise the creation of two life peerages carrying seats in the House of Lords for judges who had held office for at least five years. The House of Lords passed it. In 1869, a more comprehensive life peerages bill was brought forward by the Earl Russell.
At any one time, 28 life peerages could be in existence. Life peers were to be chosen from senior judges, civil servants, senior officers of the British Army or Royal Navy, members of the House of Commons who had served for at least ten years, writers, peers of Scotland, peers of Ireland; the bill was rejected by the House of Lords at its third reading. The Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1887 allowed senior judges to sit in the House of Lords as life peers, known as Lords of Appeal in Ordinary; those appointees who were not members of the House of Lords were created life peers by the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876. It was intended that peers created in this way would only sit in the House of Lords while serving their term as judges, but in 1887 the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1887 provided that former judges would retain their seats for life; this ended with the creation of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in 2009. The Life Peerages Act sanctions the regular granting of life peerages, but the power to appoint Lords of Appeal in Ordinary under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act was not derogated.
The Act placed no limits on the number of peerages that the Sovereign may award, as was done by the Appellate Jurisdiction Act. A peer created under the Life Peerages Act has the right to sit in the House of Lords, provided that he or she is at least 21 years of age, is not suffering punishment upon conviction for treason, is a citizen of Great Britain, or Northern Ireland, or of a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, is resident in the UK for tax purposes. Life baronies under the Life Peerages Act are created by the Sovereign but, in practice, are only granted when proposed by the Prime Minister. Life peers created under the Life Peerages Act do not, unless they hold ministerial positions, receive salaries, they are, entitled to an allowance of £300 for travel and accommodation for each day on which the peer "signs in" to the House, though the peer does not have to take part in the business of the House. From time to time, lists of "working peers" are published, they do not form a formal class, but represent the various political parties and are expected to attend the House of Lords.
Most new appointments of life peers fall into this category. The Prime Minister chooses only peers for his or her own party, but permits the leaders of opposition parties to recommend peers from those parties; the Prime Minister may determine the number of peers. Peers may be created on a non-partisan basis. Nominations on merit alone were made by the Prime Minister, but this function was transferred to a new, non-statutory House of Lords Appointments Commission in 2000. Individuals recommended for the peerage by the Commission go on to become what have been described by some in the British media as "people's peers"; the Commission scrutinises party recommendations for working peerages to ensure propriety. The Prime Minister may determine the number of peers the Commission may propose, may amend the recommendations. Again, by convention, no amendment i
Alnwick Castle was launched in 1801 as an East Indiaman. She made seven voyages for the British East India Company before her owners sold her in 1816 for breaking up. Captain Charles Elton Prescott sailed from Portsmouth on 25 February 1802, bound for Madras and China. Alnwick Castle reached Madras on 15 June, she reached Penang on 1 August and Malacca on 25 August before arriving at Whampoa Anchorage on 14 September. Homeward bound, she crossed the Second Bar on 21 November, reached St Helena on 25 February 1803, arrived at Long Reach on 25 April. Captain Albert Gledstanes acquired a letter of marque on 6 March 1804. On 9 June 1804, Alnwick Castle left St. Helens, Isle of Wight, as part of a convoy of nine East Indiamen of the British East India Company, all bound for China; the Indiamen were Perseverance, Taunton Castle, Royal Charlotte, True Briton, Cuffnells. HMS Athenienne provided the escort. Alnwick Castle arrived at Rio de Janeiro on 17 August; the fleet passed the Cape of Good Hope. From here, rather than passing through the Indian Ocean and the Straits of Malacca, the fleet sailed south of Western Australia and through Bass Strait.
The objectives were two-fold: to avoid French ships reported to be in the Indian Ocean, to improve the charting of Bass Strait. The fleet sailed to Norfolk Island, the next rendezvous point after Saint Paul Island, for members that had separated. Taunton Castle had separated in the South Atlantic and although she arrived at Norfolk Island three days after the fleet had sailed on, did not rejoin the rest of the fleet until she arrived at Haerlem Bay, in China; the arrival of Athenienne and the East Indiamen at Norfolk Island sowed panic among the colonists there who feared that a French flotilla had arrived. Alnwick Castle arrived at Whampoa 14 January 1805; the fleet returned to England via the Straits of Malacca. Homeward bound, Alnwick Castle crossed the Second Bar on 15 February, reached Malacca on 21 March and St Helena on 30 June, arrived at Long Reach on 14 September. Captain Prescott was again master of Alnwick Castle for the next, he acquired a letter of marque on 28 January 1806. He sailed from Portsmouth on 4 March, bound for China.
Alnwick Castle and the Indiamen she was sailing with were "well advanced" in the Mozambique Channel on 28 May. She reached Madras on 29 June, she was at Penang on 15 Malacca on 8 September. Homeward bound, she crossed the Second Bar on 7 December, was at Penang on 23 January 1807, reached St Helena on 18 April, arrived at Long Reach on 5 July. On this voyage and the previous, she carried a total of 500 soldiers to Madras. During the four month long voyage, the casualty rate among the soldiers was less than it would have been in garrison due to Prescott's attention to the regulations for the care of soldiers on Indiamen. On this voyage, while Alnwick Castle was at Canton, one of her seamen, Antonio Depardo, alias Depino, killed another crew man in a brawl on shore on 30 December 1806, he was found guilty of manslaughter. The trial reveals several interesting details. Depardo was a Spaniard, a prisoner of war on board HMS Blenheim having come to her from a Dutch ship he had joined at the Juan Fernández Islands.
Depardo referred to himself as a prisoner of war, but on Alnwick Castle he was treated a volunteer and paid a bounty on joining and a salary thereafter. The trial took place in England under English law. Lastly, Depardo was given an interpreter at his trial, the jury was made up half of Englishmen and half of foreigners. Captain Prescott sailed from Portsmouth on 5 March, again bound for China. Alnwick Castle reached Madras on 25 June, she was at Penang on 1 Malacca on 29 August. Homeward bound, she crossed the Second Bar on 3 February 1809, she was at Lintin on 28 Penang on 30 March. She reached St Helena on 7 July, arrived at Long Reach on 14 September. Captain Peter Rolland acquired a letter of marque on 8 February 1810, he sailed from Portsmouth on 28 April. As was normal, she sailed in convoy with other Indiamen. Alnwick Castle reached Penang on 5 Malacca on 25 September, she stopped at Manila on 11 November, arrived at Whampoa on 11 December. Homeward bound, she was at Macao on 21 March 1811, she reached St Helena on 11 July, arrived at Long Reach on 30 September.
Captain Rolland sailed from Portsmouth on 25 March 1812. Alnwick Castle was at Funchal on 24 April. On 5 June she and the other Indiamen in the convoy were "all well" at 22°S 27°W in the South Atlantic, still under convoy by HMS Theban. Alnwick Castle arrived at Whampoa on 20 September. Homeward bound, she crossed the Second Bar on 4 December, she reached St Helena on 28 March 1813, arrived at Long Reach on 8 June. Captain Rolland sailed from the Downs on 27 April 1815, bound for China, arrived at Whampoa on 25 September. Homeward bound, Alnwick Castle left Whampoa on 14 January 1816, reached St Helena on 23 March, arrived at Long Reach on 15 May. In 1816 her owners sold Alnwick Castle for breaking up. Citations References Biden, Christopher Naval Discipline: Subordination Contrasted with Insubordination: Or, A View of the Necessity for Passing a Law Establishing an Efficient Naval Discipline on Board Ships in the Merchant-service.... Hackman, Rowan. Ships of the East India Company. Gravesend, Kent: World Sh
Phobos 2 was the last space probe designed by the Soviet Union. It was designed to explore the moons of Mars and Deimos, it was launched on 12 July 1988, entered orbit on 29 January 1989. Phobos 2 operated nominally throughout its cruise and Mars orbital insertion phases on 29 January 1989, gathering data on the Sun, interplanetary medium and Phobos. Phobos 2 investigated Mars surface and atmosphere and returned 37 images of Phobos with a resolution of up to 40 meters. Shortly before the final phase of the mission, during which the spacecraft was to approach within 50 m of Phobos' surface and release two landers contact with Phobos 2 was lost; the mission ended when the spacecraft signal failed to be reacquired on 27 March 1989. The cause of the failure was determined to be a malfunction of the on-board computer; the Phobos 2 infrared spectrometer obtained 45000 spectra in the near infrared in the equatorial areas of Mars, with a spatial resolution ranging from 7 to 25 km, 400 spectra of Phobos at 700 m resolution.
These observations made it possible to retrieve the first mineralogical maps of the planet and its satellite, to study the atmosphere of Mars. ISM was developed at IAS and DESPA with support from CNES. List of instruments: "VSK" TV imaging system PROP-F "hopping" lander. ARS-FP automatic X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ferroprobe magnetometer Kappameter magnetic permeability / susceptibility sensor gravimeter temperature sensors BISIN conductometer / tiltmeter mechanical sensors "DAS" lander TV camera ALPHA-X Alpha-Proton-X-Ray Spectrometer LIBRATION sun sensor Seismometer RAZREZ anchor penetrometer Celestial mechanics experiment "ISM" thermal infrared spectrometer/radiometer - 1±2 km resolution near-infrared imaging spectrometer thermal imaging camera; the Phobos design was used again for the long delayed Mars 96 mission which ended in failure when the launch vehicle's fourth stage misfired. In addition, the Fobos-Grunt mission designed to explore Phobos, ended in failure in 2011, thus far, there has not been a successful probe to Phobos.
High quality processed images from the Phobos 2 mission Phobos mission images from the Space Research Institute Raw image data from the Phobos 2 ISM infrared instrument What we are searching for on Phobos - an article on the Phobos program at the Web site of the Russian Space Agency Another site with processed images from the Soviet Phobos 2 mission
Kosmos 2471 known as Glonass-K1 No.11L is a Russian navigation satellite, launched in 2011. The first Glonass-K satellite to be launched, it is one of two Glonass-K1 spacecraft which will serve as prototypes for the operational Glonass-K2 spacecraft. Kosmos 2471 is a 935 kg satellite, built by ISS Reshetnev based on the Ekspress-1000A satellite bus; the spacecraft has three-axis stabilisation to keep it in the correct orientation, will broadcast signals in the L1, L2 and L3 navigation bands for Russian military and commercial users. In addition to its navigation payloads, the satellite carries a Cospas-Sarsat search and rescue payload; the satellite is located in a medium Earth orbit with an apogee of 19,150 kilometres, a perigee of 19,121 kilometres, 64.8° of inclination. It is equipped with two solar panels to generate power, is expected to remain in service for ten years, it is expected to enter service by the end of 2011. Kosmos 2471 was launched from Site 43/4 at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northwest Russia.
A Soyuz-2.1b carrier rocket with a Fregat upper stage was used to perform the launch, which took place at 03:07:15 UTC on 26 February 2011. The launch placed the satellite into a Medium Earth orbit, it subsequently received its Kosmos designation, the International Designator 2011-009A. The United States Space Command assigned it the Satellite Catalog Number 37372
John F. Kennedy High School is a public school located in Mt. Angel, United States, as part of the Mt. Angel School District; the school was Mt. Angel Preparatory School run by the Benedictine monks of Mount Angel Abbey, was founded in 1887; the Benedicitnes ran the school until 1964, when they turned its administration over to St. Mary's Catholic Church, located in Mt. Angel; the parish ran the school for five years until closing it in 1969. It was reopened one year as John F. Kennedy High School, remains so today; as of the 2014–15 school year, there were 180 students enrolled at John F. Kennedy High School. Kennedy's ethnic makeup is 58% Hispanic, 38% Caucasian, 5% other. In 2014, 79% of the school's seniors received a high school diploma. Kennedy offers five Advanced Placement courses; the school began the AVID program at the beginning of the 2015–16 school year. Kennedy's clubs include: FBLA Habitat for Humanity HOSA National Honor Society Unidos Para Siempre The school mascot is the Trojan.
Kennedy competes in baseball, football, wrestling, cross-country, volleyball and field, band. Kennedy is classified as a 2A OSAA team, is a member of the Tri-River Conference; the Trojans have won state championships in baseball, girls' track, girls' basketball, girls softball and volleyball. In addition, Kennedy teams have won numerous league championships and placed highly at the state competition level. John F. Kennedy High School Facebook Twitter Instagram
Troll Blood is a children's fantasy novel, the third volume of the Troll Trilogy written by Katherine Langrish. It follows the events of Troll Mill. In contrast to the first two books in the trilogy, Troll Blood opens far from Viking Scandinavia, across the ocean in Vinland, where a young Native American boy and his father Senumkwe, see two Viking ships in the bay and witness the massacre of one crew by the other; as the victors sail away, leaving the other longship scuttled and burning and his father find the sole survivor, a little boy called Ottar, whom they adopt. Back in Norway, Peer’s friend Hilde is impatient with life and longing for adventure, so when a Viking ship arrives at their village looking for crew and Peer set sail, they soon find plenty to occupy them. The sailors believe; the captain’s handsome young son Harald Silkenhair is a dangerous psychopath who becomes Peer’s deadly enemy. And the voyage is taking them far away to Vinland, where the dark forests are full of mysterious creatures, where danger and treachery awaits.
Both the US and the UK editions of Troll Blood carry an explanatory note on the historical interaction of Vikings and Native American people in the 10th century. The US edition of Troll Blood includes a bibliography listing primary and secondary sources for the Native American culture references in the book, most of which were based on the Mi’kmaq of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia