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Liga Federal

The Federal League or League of Free Peoples was an alliance of provinces in what is now Uruguay and Brazil that aimed to establish a confederal organization for the state, emerging from the May Revolution in the war of independence against the Spanish Empire. Inspired and led by José Gervasio Artigas, it proclaimed independence from the Spanish Crown in 1815 and sent provincial delegates to the Congress of Tucumán with instructions regarding the nonnegotiable objective of declaring full independence for the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and establishing a confederation of provinces, all of them on equal footing and the government of each being directly accountable to its peoples by direct democratic means of government; the delegates from these provinces were rejected on formalities from the Congress that declared the independence of the United Provinces of South America in July 9, 1816. The Federal League confronted the centralist governments, as well as the interests of the economic and cultural elite of Buenos Aires and Montevideo, in what amounted to a civil war.

In 1820, the federalist governors of Santa Fe and Entre Ríos provinces, Estanislao López and Francisco Ramírez, defeated a diminished Directorial army, ending the centralized government of the United Provinces and establishing a federal agreement with Buenos Aires Province. The league was dissolved after its constituent provinces rejoined the United Provinces, now under a federal provisional organisation, after the invasion of the Banda Oriental by Brazilian-Portuguese empire and the defeat of Artigas. At its largest extent, the League extended over the territories of present-day Uruguay, the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul and the Argentine provinces of Entre Ríos, Santa Fe, Misiones and Córdoba, it was instrumental in the Guaraní participation on the revolutionary cause). Although the country was intended to extend throughout modern-day Argentina, its leadership was based on Purificación and the Eastern Bank of the Uruguay river. Therefore, it is sometimes considered a predecessor state of modern Uruguay.

On May 13, 1810, the arrival of a British frigate in Montevideo confirmed the rumors circulating in Buenos Aires: France, led by Emperor Napoleon, had invaded Spain and overthrowing Ferdinand VII Bourbon, the Spanish King. The situation was clear: with the authority of the vice-regency gone, there was a power vacuum. Leading figures in Buenos Aires arranged a meeting and after much discussion it was decided to replace the Spanish rule with a local Junta. After the May Revolution, most of the provinces of the former Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata joined to form the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata known as United Provinces of South America in 1810; the four provinces of Upper Peru were occupied by Spanish Royalist forces and the other ten provinces were under pressure from Royalist forces. In 1810, Spain moved the headquarters for the Viceroyalty of the River Plate to Montevideo after the May Revolution forced them to abandon Buenos Aires. On February 15, 1811 José Gervasio Artigas left his home of Montevideo and moved to Buenos Aires to offer his military services.

The people of Spanish America were fighting for their freedom and Artigas wished to defend these ideals in the Eastern Bank. At the beginning of April he returned to his country with 180 men provided by the Government of Buenos Aires, he began the siege of Montevideo and was acclaimed as The First Chief of the "Orientals". He soon turned against the government of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and in 1814 he organized the Unión de los Pueblos Libres, of which he was declared Protector. In the following year, as a federalist, he liberated Montevideo from the centralizing control of the "Unitarians" from Buenos Aires, in 1815 declared the Liga Federal. In this Congress Artigas ratified the use of the flag created by Manuel Belgrano, but added a diagonal festoon in red, red being the sign of federalism in Argentina at that time. Original member provinces were the present-day Argentinian provinces of: Córdoba Corrientes Entre Ríos Misiones Eastern Province Santa Fe; the constant growth of influence and prestige of the Federal League frightened Buenos Aires and Portugal, in August, 1816 the latter invaded the Eastern Province with the intention of destroying the protector Artigas and his revolution.

The Portuguese forces, led by Carlos Frederico Lecor, thanks to his numerical and material superiority, conquered the Eastern Province and took Montevideo on January 20, 1817, but the struggle continued for three long years in the countryside. Infuriated by Buenos Aires's passivity, Artigas declared war on the Supreme Directorship at the same time that he faced the Portuguese with armies that were being decimated by successive defeats. Without resources and without suitable men for the struggle, Artigas retreated to Entre Ríos Province, across the Uruguay River. In 1820, governors Francisco Ramírez and Estanislao López, of Entre Ríos and Santa Fe provinces both members of the Federal League, managed to end victorious the struggle against the centralism of Buenos Aires, defeating a diminished Supreme Directorship army at the Battle of Cepeda and

Ravenshaw Collegiate School

Ravenshaw Collegiate School is the oldest High School of Odisha, established in 1851 by T E Ravenshaw in the District of Cuttack in Odisha, India. It was one of three institutions founded by T E Ravenshaw, the other two being the Ravenshaw Girls' School and the Ravenshaw College, the latter now having become Ravenshaw University. Ravenshaw Collegiate School was founded in 1851 though there are some confusions regarding the exact date of establishment, it was founded in the then-largest city of Cuttack. In the initial years of the school, the Ravenshaw Junior College used to function from the same campus until Ravenshaw College was established. A new building was constructed in 1905, the school is still operating from this heritage building; this is the first institution of Odisha at this much large scale The current building in which the school operates was established in the year 1905. Before 1905 the school operated from adjacent buildings of the Odisha Bar Council. In 2006 Government of Odisha sanctioned Rs. 4 Crores for the school development but on it was scrapped due to some unknown reasons.

The campus of the school is spread across 8 acres of land in the River Bank of Kathajodi. In the near vicinity of the school some high-profile offices like High Court of Odisha, District Collectorate of Cuttack, State Treasury of Odisha and Odisha Revenue Board are present; the school has a playground inside its campuses and own another mini stadium known as Sunshine Fields a few kilometers away from the school. The school has two hostels with a combined capacity of 200 inmates; the school has two auditoriums inside the campus. The school has one section in Class IV and V. In Class VI and VII it has two sections each. From Class VIII onwards each class comprises three sections; each section can have a maximum of 65 students. The school has an on-campus playground of about 2 acres, used for day-to-day activities of students; the school has a dedicated stadium, used for special sporting events. The school has a recognised state-level cricket team. Sports include football and indigenous games like khokho and kabbadi.

Clubs include computer club, cultural club and sports club. Each year 4 students from science club are chosen by State Government for 1-week sessions by eminent scientists of Odisha on different subjects; the Cultural Club organises the annual cultural event. N. C. C. or National Cadet Corps has been with the school since its founding days. Pupils from class VIII and IX are allowed to join NCC and NSS. RCS was one of the first schools to have a girls' wing of NCC. Upon successful completion, students are given NCC'A' Certificates. RCS has Scouts and Guides wing for pupils of all three higher classes. School has about 50 computers for the pupils. Two computer teachers are engaged to impart computer education to the students from grade IV to IX. School has a well-facilitated laboratory for teaching student science, it is well equipped with study related materials for scientific experiments in syllabus Subhas Chandra Bose 1897–1945, Indian nationalist leader and India's Freedom Fighter Radhanath Rath 1896–1996, member of the Odisha Legislative Assembly and cabinet minister Biju Pattanaik 1916–1997, former chief minister of Odisha, India's Freedom Fighter Madhusudan Das 1848–1934, main architect information of Odisha as a special state and India's Freedom Fighter Kartar Singh Sarabha 1896-1915, Great freedom fighter of Gadar Movement Dayanidhi Choudhury 1916-2000, former Chief Conservator of Forests, First Odia IFS Pradip Kumar Mohanty Former Chief Justice of The Jharkhand High Court

Key West Intermezzo (I Saw You First)

"Key West Intermezzo" is a 1996 song by American rock musician John Mellencamp. It was released as the first single from his 14th studio album, Mr. Happy Go Lucky, peaked at number 14 on the US Billboard Hot 100, making it his final top-forty hit in the US, it peaked at number four on the Billboard Adult Top 40 and number 10 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Tracks chart. In Australia and New Zealand, the song became Mellencamp's final hit in both countries, reaching number 21 in Australia and number 35 in New Zealand. In Canada, it gave Mellencamp his fourth number-one single on the RPM Top Singles chart, staying at number one for five weeks, his success would continue in Canada for a few more years; the song's music video features American actor Matthew McConaughey. Mellencamp told Sirius radio in 2008 that "Key West Intermezzo" was co-writer George Green’s take on The Great Gatsby. "The big, long yellow car gave it away," Mellencamp said. John Mellencamp - Key West Intermezzo on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics