Porteus (operating system)
Porteus is a portable operating system based on Slackware. It does not require installation and can be run from fixed and removable media, such as a USB flash drive or compact disc. Porteus is available in 64-bit version; the Porteus project started out as "Slax Remix" at the beginning of 2010 and was started as a community project using the Zen kernel to improve and update the Slax OS. The community agreed on the new name of the project, named after "'Portability' and'Proteus'.'Proteus' is a "Greek god of the sea, capable of changing his form at will," according to the naming announcement on the Porteus forum. The project leader commented on the name, "I find this name as a kind of synonym of'flexibility.' We have portable and flexible features included in one name: Porteus."Porteus 4.0 is available in seven desktop variants: Cinnamon, KDE Plasma 5, LXDE, LXQt, MATE, Openbox and Xfce. Porteus is based on a modified and optimized version of the Linux Live Scripts, it can be installed on a hard drive.
Porteus can be installed within another system without the need to create a new partition. Porteus is preloaded with a variety of software; the system is downloaded only after selecting various options from a menu including one of four windows management systems, a browser and other features. Porteus uses a package manager utilizing slackware. Porteus Kiosk is a specialized edition of the Porteus operating system, a minimalist Linux distribution for web-only terminals with Firefox as the sole application. Porteus Kiosk provides users with a locked down computing environment, designed to be deployed in schools, public libraries, internet cafés or any other business establishment that provides Internet access to their clients. Porteus Kiosk can be installed to CD/DVD, USB flash drive, hard drive, or any other bootable storage media such as Compact Flash or SD/MMC memory cards. Prior to installation the system can be customized through the kiosk wizard utility which allows system and browser related tweaks.
The Porteus Kiosk system is open source and available free-of-charge, although a number of commercial services such as custom builds, automatic updates and software upgrades are available. Until version 3.7.0 Porteus Kiosk was able to run on both 64-bit machines. As Google Chrome doesn't support 32-bit machines anymore, the developers of the distribution decided to follow that path. Hence with release 4.0.0 Porteus Kiosk supports only the x86_64 architecture. The system is lightweight in terms of size and resources used; the default image is about 80 MB while the size of the custom kiosk ISO will depend on the choice of added extra components such as Adobe Flash, additional fonts and other factors. In reviewing Porteus 1.0 in June 2011, Joe "Zonker" Brockmeier wrote, "Users who've missed KDE 3.5.x are in for a treat with Porteus, a portable Linux distribution that offers a 32-bit release with the Trinity fork of KDE 3.5.x, a 64-bit release that offers KDE 4.6.4. While not a distribution that will appeal to everyone, it might be of interest to enthusiasts of live CD distributions and old-school KDE fans."
He concluded "... Porteus looks like a nice portable Linux distribution, aimed at expert or at least experienced Linux users. It's not something that will appeal to the majority of Linux users users who prefer a larger depth of available packages. But, for users who are nursing older hardware or prefer a portable distribution, Porteus is an interesting project."About the custom Live CD ISO creation, Linux magazine wrote in Issue 160/2014: "Build Your Own Portable Linux Distro with Porteus Building a customized Linux distribution can be a daunting proposition – unless you use Porteus Wizard. This clever and simple service lets you create a custom Live CD distro that fits a USB stick and loads in RAM." Lightweight Linux distribution List of Linux distributions that run from RAM List of live CDs Kiosk software Official website Porteus at DistroWatch Porteus Kiosk official websiteReviews:DistroWatch Weekly, Issue 519, 5 August 2013 DistroWatch Weekly, Issue 575, 8 September 2014 A Not For The Everyday Linux User Review Of Porteus 3.1, Everyday Linux User With Porteus in Your Pocket, You're Good to Go | Reviews | LinuxInsider Best Linux Distro: Linux for old laptops, privacy and USB sticks | Trusted Reviews Review: Porteus 1.0 | Tux Machines Slackware-Based Porteus Linux 4.0 Officially Released with Seven Desktop Flavors, Softpedia News Best lightweight Linux distro of 2018 | TechRadar Das U-Blog by Prashanth: Review: Porteus 1.0
Lubuntu is a lightweight Linux distribution based on Ubuntu, using the LXQt desktop environment in place of Ubuntu's GNOME desktop. Lubuntu was touted as being "lighter, less resource hungry and more energy-efficient", but now aims to be "a functional yet modular distribution focused on getting out of the way and letting users use their computer". Lubuntu used the LXDE desktop, but moved to the LXQt desktop with the release of Lubuntu 18.10 in October 2018. The name Lubuntu is a portmanteau of Ubuntu; the LXQt name derives from the merger of the LXDE and Razor-qt projects, while the word Ubuntu means "humanity towards others" in the Zulu and Xhosa languages. Lubuntu received official recognition as a formal member of the Ubuntu family on 11 May 2011, commencing with Lubuntu 11.10, released on 13 October 2011. The LXDE desktop was first made available for Ubuntu in October 2008, with the release of Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex. These early versions of Lubuntu, including 8.10, 9.04 and 9.10, were not available as separate ISO image downloads, could only be installed on Ubuntu as separate lubuntu-desktop packages from the Ubuntu repositories.
LXDE can be retroactively installed in earlier Ubuntu versions. In February 2009, Mark Shuttleworth invited the LXDE project to become a self-maintained project within the Ubuntu community, with the aim of leading to a dedicated new official Ubuntu derivative to be called Lubuntu. In March 2009, the Lubuntu project was started on Launchpad by Mario Behling, including an early project logo; the project established an official Ubuntu wiki project page, that includes listings of applications and components. In August 2009, the first test ISO was released with no installation option. Initial testing in September 2009 by Linux Magazine reviewer Christopher Smart showed that Lubuntu's RAM usage was about half of that of Xubuntu and Ubuntu on a normal installation and desktop use, two thirds less on live CD use. In 2014 the project announced that the GTK+-based LXDE and Qt-based Razor-qt would be merging into the new Qt-based LXQt desktop and that Lubuntu would be moving to LXQt; the transition will be complete with the release of Lubuntu 18.10 in October 2018, the first regular release to employ the LXQt desktop.
Lenny became Lubuntu's mascot in 2014. During the 2018 transition to becoming LXQt-based, the aim of Lubuntu was re-thought by the development team, it had been intended for users with older computers ten years old or newer, but with the introduction of Windows Vista PCs, older computers gained faster processors and much more RAM, by 2018, ten-year-old computers remained much more capable than had been the case five years earlier. As a result, the Lubuntu development team, under Simon Quigley, decided to change the focus to emphasize a well-documented distribution, based on LXQt "to give users a functional yet modular experience", lightweight by default and available in any language; the developers decided to stop recommending minimum system requirements after the 18.04 LTS release. Developer Simon Quigley announced in August 2018 that Lubuntu 20.10 will switch to the Wayland display server protocol by default. In January 2019 the developers formed the Lubuntu Council, a new body to formalize their previous organization, with its own written constitution.
On 30 December 2009 the first Alpha 1 "Preview" version ISO for Lubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lynx was made available for testing, with Alpha 2 following on 24 January 2010. The first Beta was released on 20 March 2010 and the stable version of Lubuntu 10.04 was released on 2 May 2010, four days behind the main Ubuntu release date of 28 April 2010. Lubuntu 10.04 was only released as a 32-bit ISO file, but users could install a 64-bit version through the 64-bit Mini ISO and install the required packages. Lubuntu 10.04 was not intended to be a long-term support release, unlike Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lynx, was only going to be supported for 18 months. However, since the infrastructure of Ubuntu 10.10 Maverick Meerkat dropped support for i586 processors, including VIA C3, AMD K6, AMD Geode/National Semiconductor CPUs, the release of Lubuntu 10.10 prompted the community to extend support until April 2013 for Lubuntu 10.04, as if it were a long term support version. In reviewing Lubuntu 10.04 Alpha 1 in January 2010, Joey Sneddon of OMG Ubuntu wrote, "Not having had many preconceptions regarding LXDE/Lubuntu i found myself presently surprised.
It was pleasant to look at, pleasant to use and although I doubt I would switch from GNOME to LXDE, it can give excellent performance to those who would benefit from doing so." In writing about the final 10.10 release, on 10 October 2010 Sneddon termed it "A nimble and easy-to-use desktop". Writing about Lubuntu 10.04 in May 2010 Damien Oh of Make Tech Easier said: "If you are looking for a lightweight alternative to install in your old PC or netbook, Lubuntu is a great choice. You won’t get any eye candy or special graphical effects, but what you get is fast speed at a low cost. It’s time to put your old PC back to work."Also reviewing Lubuntu 10.04 in May 2010 Robin Catling of Full Circle magazine said: "The first thing that impresses on running Lubuntu on my modest Compaq Evo laptop is the small memory footprint... It beats Karmic on Gnome, Xubuntu on Xfce, by a mile; the Evo used to take 60 seconds-plus to boot to the desktop, LXDE takes 30. Yet you're not restricted. Catling did note of the file manager, "The PCManFM file manager needs a little more mat
An embedded system is a controller programmed and controlled by a real-time operating system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Ninety-eight percent of all microprocessors manufactured are used in embedded systems. Examples of properties of typical embedded computers when compared with general-purpose counterparts are low power consumption, small size, rugged operating ranges, low per-unit cost; this comes at the price of limited processing resources, which make them more difficult to program and to interact with. However, by building intelligence mechanisms on top of the hardware, taking advantage of possible existing sensors and the existence of a network of embedded units, one can both optimally manage available resources at the unit and network levels as well as provide augmented functions, well beyond those available.
For example, intelligent techniques can be designed to manage power consumption of embedded systems. Modern embedded systems are based on microcontrollers, but ordinary microprocessors are common in more complex systems. In either case, the processor used may be types ranging from general purpose to those specialized in certain class of computations, or custom designed for the application at hand. A common standard class of dedicated processors is the digital signal processor. Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance; some embedded systems are mass-produced. Embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, complex systems like hybrid vehicles, MRI, avionics. Complexity varies from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to high with multiple units and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure.
One of the first recognizably modern embedded systems was the Apollo Guidance Computer, developed ca. 1965 by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. At the project's inception, the Apollo guidance computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project as it employed the newly developed monolithic integrated circuits to reduce the size and weight. An early mass-produced embedded system was the Autonetics D-17 guidance computer for the Minuteman missile, released in 1961; when the Minuteman II went into production in 1966, the D-17 was replaced with a new computer, the first high-volume use of integrated circuits. Since these early applications in the 1960s, embedded systems have come down in price and there has been a dramatic rise in processing power and functionality. An early microprocessor for example, the Intel 4004, was designed for calculators and other small systems but still required external memory and support chips. In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers Association released a "standard" for programmable microcontrollers, including any computer-based controllers, such as single board computers and event-based controllers.
As the cost of microprocessors and microcontrollers fell it became feasible to replace expensive knob-based analog components such as potentiometers and variable capacitors with up/down buttons or knobs read out by a microprocessor in consumer products. By the early 1980s, memory and output system components had been integrated into the same chip as the processor forming a microcontroller. Microcontrollers find applications. A comparatively low-cost microcontroller may be programmed to fulfill the same role as a large number of separate components. Although in this context an embedded system is more complex than a traditional solution, most of the complexity is contained within the microcontroller itself. Few additional components may be needed and most of the design effort is in the software. Software prototype and test can be quicker compared with the design and construction of a new circuit not using an embedded processor. Embedded systems are found in consumer, automotive, medical and military applications.
Telecommunications systems employ numerous embedded systems from telephone switches for the network to cell phones at the end user. Computer networking uses dedicated routers and network bridges to route data. Consumer electronics include MP3 players, mobile phones, video game consoles, digital cameras, GPS receivers, printers. Household appliances, such as microwave ovens, washing machines and dishwashers, include embedded systems to provide flexibility and features. Advanced HVAC systems use networked thermostats to more and efficiently control temperature that can change by time of day and season. Home automation uses wired- and wireless-networking that can be used to control lights, security, audio/visual, etc. all of which use embedded devices for sensing and controlling. Transportation systems from flight to automobiles use embedded systems. New airplanes contain advanced avionics such as inertial guidance systems and GPS receivers that have considerable safety requirements. Various electric motors — brushless DC motors, induction motors and DC motors — use electric/electronic motor controllers.
Automobiles, electric vehicles, hy
A package manager or package-management system is a collection of software tools that automates the process of installing, upgrading and removing computer programs for a computer's operating system in a consistent manner. A package manager deals with distributions of software and data in archive files. Packages contain metadata, such as the software's name, description of its purpose, version number, checksum, a list of dependencies necessary for the software to run properly. Upon installation, metadata is stored in a local package database. Package managers maintain a database of software dependencies and version information to prevent software mismatches and missing prerequisites, they work with software repositories, binary repository managers, app stores. Package managers are designed to eliminate the need for manual updates; this can be useful for large enterprises whose operating systems are based on Linux and other Unix-like systems consisting of hundreds or tens of thousands of distinct software packages.
A software package is an archive file containing a computer program as well as necessary metadata for its deployment. The computer program can be in source code that has to be built first. Package metadata include package description, package version, dependencies. Package managers are charged with the task of finding, maintaining or uninstalling software packages upon the user's command. Typical functions of a package management system include: Working with file archivers to extract package archives Ensuring the integrity and authenticity of the package by verifying their digital certificates and checksums Looking up, installing or updating existing software from a software repository or app store Grouping packages by function to reduce user confusion Managing dependencies to ensure a package is installed with all packages it requires, thus avoiding "dependency hell" Computer systems that rely on dynamic library linking, instead of static library linking, share executable libraries of machine instructions across packages and applications.
In these systems, complex relationships between different packages requiring different versions of libraries results in a challenge colloquially known as "dependency hell". On Microsoft Windows systems, this is called "DLL hell" when working with dynamically linked libraries. Good package management is vital on these systems; the Framework system from OPENSTEP was an attempt at solving this issue, by allowing multiple versions of libraries to be installed and for software packages to specify which version they were linked against. System administrators may install and maintain software using tools other than package management software. For example, a local administrator may download unpackaged source code, compile it, install it; this may cause the state of the local system to fall out of synchronization with the state of the package manager's database. The local administrator will be required to take additional measures, such as manually managing some dependencies or integrating the changes into the package manager.
There are tools available to ensure that locally compiled packages are integrated with the package management. For distributions based on.deb and.rpm files as well as Slackware Linux, there is CheckInstall, for recipe-based systems such as Gentoo Linux and hybrid systems such as Arch Linux, it is possible to write a recipe first, which ensures that the package fits into the local package database. Troublesome with software upgrades are upgrades of configuration files. Since package managers, at least on Unix systems, originated as extensions of file archiving utilities, they can only either overwrite or retain configuration files, rather than applying rules to them. There are exceptions to this that apply to kernel configuration. Problems can be caused; some package managers, such as Debian's dpkg, allow configuration during installation. In other situations, it is desirable to install packages with the default configuration and overwrite this configuration, for instance, in headless installations to a large number of computers.
This kind of pre-configured installation is supported by dpkg. To give users more control over the kinds of software that they are allowing to be installed on their system, software is downloaded from a number of software repositories; when a user interacts with the package management software to bring about an upgrade, it is customary to present the user with the list of actions to be executed, allow the user to either accept the upgrade in bulk, or select individual packages for upgrades. Many package managers can be configured to never upgrade certain packages, or to upgrade them only when critical vulnerabilities or instabilities are found in the previous version, as defined by the packager of the software; this process is sometimes called version pinning. For instance: yum supports this with the syntax exclude=openoffice* pacman with IgnorePkg = openoffice dpkg and dselect support this through the hold flag in package selections APT extends the hold flag through the complex "pinning" mechanismUsers can blacklist a package aptitude has "hold" and "forbid" flags portage s
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
AntiX is a Linux distribution built directly on Debian Stable. It is comparatively lightweight and suitable for older computers, while providing cutting edge kernel and applications, as well as updates and additions via the apt-get package system and Debian-compatible repositories. Preferred: 256 MB of RAM and 1 GB of hard drive space. Minimum: 128 MB of RAM and 1 GB of hard drive space. Installation: 2.7 GB of hard drive space. Besides the standard LIVE release, other versions of antiX are available, allowing installations with lower amounts of RAM, hard drive space, overall hardware limitations. AntiX is available for IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, comes in 3 versions: Full, which installs a full range of applications Base, which allows the user to choose their own application suite. Core-libre, which enables the user to have total control over the installThese three versions were joined by antiX MX in 2014, developed in cooperation with the MEPIS Community, it uses Xfce as the default desktop environment, is based directly on Debian Stable, is stable and gives solid performance from a medium-sized footprint.
As of November 2016, MX Linux is now listed as a separate distro on DistroWatch. AntiX is a Linux distribution based on MEPIS, which itself is based on the Debian stable distribution, it replaced the MEPIS KDE desktop environment with the Fluxbox and IceWM window managers, making it suitable for older, less powerful x86-based systems. Unlike Debian, antiX is "proudly systemd-free". Systemd does not support old hardware well due to its virtualization-based development. Lightweight Linux distribution Official website antiX on OpenSourceFeed gallery