"Steal Away" is an American Negro spiritual. The song is well known by variations of the chorus: Songs such as "Steal Away to Jesus", "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot", "Wade in the Water" and the "Gospel Train" are songs with hidden codes, not only about having faith in God, but containing hidden messages for slaves to run away on their own, or with the Underground Railroad."Steal Away" the song was composed by Wallace Willis, a slave of a Choctaw freedman in the old Indian Territory, sometime before 1862. Alexander Reid, a minister at a Choctaw boarding school, heard Willis singing the songs and transcribed the words and melodies, he sent the music to the Jubilee Singers of Fisk University in Tennessee. The Jubilee Singers popularized the songs during a tour of the United States and Europe. "Steal Away" the song is a standard Gospel song, is found in the hymnals of many Protestant denominations. An arrangement of the song is included in the oratorio A Child of Our Time, first performed in 1944, by the classical composer Michael Tippett.
Many recordings of the song have been made including versions by Nat King Cole. Songs of the Underground Railroad Banks, Frances. "Narrative" from The WPA Oklahoma Slave Narratives edited by Julie P. Baker. University of Oklahoma Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8061-2792-9 Flickinger, Robert Elliott; the Choctaw Freedmen and the Story of Oak Hill Industrial Academy, Valliant, McCurtain County, Oklahoma. Pittsburgh: Presbyterian Board of Missions for Freedmen, 1914. University of Nebraska Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8032-4787-7 Pike, G. D; the Jubilee Singers and Their Campaign for Twenty Thousand Dollars, Lee And Shepard, Publishers, 1873. "Raymond Dobard, Ph. D. professor of art and art history on hidden meanings in spirituals"
Iona was a progressive Celtic rock band from the United Kingdom, formed in the late 1980s by lead vocalist Joanne Hogg and multi-instrumentalists David Fitzgerald and Dave Bainbridge. Troy Donockley joined playing the uilleann pipes, low whistles, other instruments. By the time Iona released their first self-titled album in 1990, drummer Terl Bryant, bassist Nick Beggs, Fiona Davidson on Celtic harp, Peter Whitfield on strings, Troy Donockley on Uilleann pipes and percussionist Frank van Essen had joined the band; the first album Iona concentrated on the history of the island of Iona, from which the band got its name. Iona returned in 1992 with The Book of Kells, a concept album with several tracks based on pages from the eponymous book. Terl Bryant took over on drums and percussion for this album after the departure of Frank van Essen. Fitzgerald left the band that year to pursue a degree in music. Beyond These Shores, the band's third album, was released in 1993 and included guest musician Robert Fripp.
The album was loosely based on the legendary voyage of St. Brendan to the Americas before Christopher Columbus, but the band did not intend for it to be viewed as a "concept album". Journey into the Morn followed in 1995, a more accessible and rock-oriented album loosely based on the hymn "Be Thou My Vision", performed in Gaelic at the beginning of the album and again near the end. Máire Brennan, lead singer of Celtic/new-age band Clannad, was brought in to help Hogg with the Gaelic pronunciation, she sang backup vocals. Two live albums followed in the late 1990s: the double-disc Heaven's Bright Sun and Woven Cord, performed with the All Souls Orchestra. Terl Bryant departed the band between these two albums, Frank van Essen returned to fill the vacant spot, playing drums as well as violin, which could be heard on the band's 2000 album, Open Sky. After being released from their U. S. contract with ForeFront Records and their UK contract with Alliance Records, Iona formed Open Sky Records to release material independently.
The first new release on this label was the 2002 box set The River Flows, which featured their then-out-of-print first three albums, as well as a fourth disc of unreleased tracks and rarities called Dunes. The first three albums have since been re-released individually, with new cover art; the group has been in semi-hiatus for the better part of the current decade. However, 2006 saw the April release of a 2-disc live DVD Iona: Live in London, featuring a 5.1 Dolby Digital Surround mix by LA's John Kellogg, a November release of a new studio CD entitled The Circling Hour. In June 2009 Troy Donockley announced. A message on his website stated: "I have had a wonderful time with my friends in Iona and am very proud of the albums we made together. But, as in all life, things change. After extended periods of no activity we have found ourselves with a different musical and philosophical direction. We have parted as great friends should, with a sad-happiness and I wish the band all the best wishes for the future".
Donockley is a member of punk/folk band The Bad Shepherds. He has played in Barbara Dickson's band for a number of years and is the band's Musical Director, he is on a world tour with Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish, with whom he has made many guest appearances both live and on their albums over recent years, before joining them as a full-time member in October 2013. He has been replaced in Iona by woodwind player Martin Nolan. In June 2010, Iona went to the United States for their first tour there in nine years. On 19 June 2010, they played a well received concert at NEARfest, a progressive rock festival in Bethlehem and during this show they introduced new songs for a forthcoming album, Another Realm, released in 2011, their final album to date. After several concerts throughout the U. S. and one in Canada, they ended the tour at Cornerstone Festival, a Christian music festival in Illinois, on 30 June. On Dec. 11, 2016, the band announced on its Facebook page that it was suspending recording and touring as a group, citing other commitments.
"We do not know what will happen in future years, whether we will get together again as Iona," the band said. "The door will remain open, but for the foreseeable future, the next and exciting chapters of our journey will involve other avenues." Joanne Hogg – lead vocals, acoustic guitar Dave Bainbridge – lead guitar Martin Nolan – pipes, flutes Phil Barker – bass Frank van Essen – drums, violin Iona The Book of Kells Beyond These Shores Journey into the Morn Open Sky The Circling Hour Another Realm Heaven's Bright Sun Woven Cord Live in London Edge of the World: Live in Europe The River Flows: Anthology Various Artists - Songs for Luca Various Artists - Songs for Luca 2 Iona, DVD early live concert Live in London, DVD Official website Band biography
Christian music is music, written to express either personal or a communal belief regarding Christian life and faith. Common themes of Christian music include praise, worship and lament, its forms vary across the world. Like other forms of music the creation, performance and the definition of Christian music varies according to culture and social context. Christian music is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or with a positive message as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Among the most prevalent uses of Christian music are in other gatherings. Most Christian music involves singing, whether by the whole congregation, or by a specialized subgroup—such as a soloist, trio, madrigal, choir, or worship band— or both, it is accompanied by instruments, but some denominations or congregations still prefer unaccompanied or a cappella singing. Some groups, such as the Bruderhof, sing songs both with religious and non-religious meanings and words.
For them, the act of singing is important. One of the earliest forms of worship music in the church was the Gregorian chant. Pope Gregory I, while not the inventor of chant, was acknowledged as the first person to order such music in the church, hinting the name "Gregorian" chant; the chant reform took place around 590–604 CE. The Gregorian chant was known for its monophonic sound. Believing that complexity had a tendency to create cacophony, which ruined the music, Gregory I kept things simple with the chant. In the West, the majority of Christian denominations use instruments such as an organ, electronic keyboard, guitar, or other accompaniment, by a band or orchestra, to accompany the singing, but some churches have not used instruments, citing their absence from the New Testament. During the last century or so several of these groups have revised this stance; the singing of the Eastern Orthodox is generally unaccompanied, though in the United States organs are sometimes used as a result of Western influence.
Some worship music may be unsung instrumental. During the Baroque period in Europe, the chorale prelude was used composed by using a popular hymn tune thematically, a wide corpus of other solo organ music began to develop across Europe; some of the most well-known exponents of such organ compositions include Johann Sebastian Bach, Dieterich Buxtehude, George Frideric Handel, François Couperin, César Franck and Charles-Marie Widor to name a few. Up to the present time, various composers have written instrumental music as acts of worship, including well known organ repertoire by composers like Olivier Messiaen, Louis Vierne, Maurice Duruflé, Jean Langlais; the church sonata and other sacred instrumental musical forms developed from the Baroque period onwards. From the latter half of the 20th century to the present day in Western Christendom—especially in the United States and in other countries with evangelical churches—various genres of music often related to pop rock, have been created under the label of Contemporary Christian Music for home-listening and concert use.
It can be divided into several genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are subtle, sometimes open to individual interpretation, controversial. These genres like other forms of music may be distinguished by the techniques, the styles, the context and the themes, or geographical origin. Specific subgenres of CCM may include: Christian country music, Christian pop, Christian rock, Christian metal, Christian hardcore, Christian punk, Christian alternative rock and Christian hip hop. Called Christian pop or gospel in a generalized form, this is a new musical movement and has now evolved into a large number of musical genres by region that comes in a Christian context; this movement appeared as a form of evangelization for the young but the genre is best known and seen in the Evangelical or Protestant proselytizing movements using rhythms similar to those in secular music. CCM is not a musical genre like the other genres; when a song is identified as "Christian" it takes into account the lyrics and the songwriters and performers, rather than musical style.
Therefore, one can say that CCM is diverse and there are Christian songs that are sung to the rhythm of salsa, rock, hip-hop or rap, pop, singer-songwriters and extreme music such as punk or heavy metal. In the 1980s and 1990s, contemporary Christian music played a significant role in Evangelical Christian worship. A great variety of musical styles has developed traditional praise. Similar developments took place in other language, for example the German Neues Geistliches Lied and Korean Contemporary Christian music. Christian music is supported by a segment of the general music industry which evolved as a parallel structure to the same. Beginning in the 1970s and developing out of the Jesus movement, the Christian music industry subsequently developed into a near-billion dollar enterprise. By the 1990s the genre had eclipsed classical and new-age music, artists began gaining acceptance in the general market. Today, Christian music is available through most available media. Christian music is broadcast over television, or the Internet.
Christian Albums and video recordings have b
Celtic music is a broad grouping of music genres that evolved out of the folk music traditions of the Celtic people of Western Europe. It refers to both orally-transmitted traditional music and recorded music and the styles vary to include everything from "trad" music to a wide range of hybrids. Celtic music means two things mainly. First, it is the music of the people. Secondly, it refers to. Many notable Celtic musicians such as Alan Stivell and Paddy Moloney claim that the different Celtic music genres have a lot in common; these following melodic practices may be used across the different variants of Celtic Music: It is common for the melodic line to move up and down the primary chords in many Celtic songs. There are a number of possible reasons for this: Melodic variation can be introduced. Melodic variation is used in Celtic music by the pipes and harp, it is easier to anticipate the direction that the melody will take, so that harmony either composed or improvised can be introduced: cliched cadences that are essential for impromptu harmony are more formed.
The wider tonal intervals in some songs make it possible for stress accents within the poetic line to be more in keeping with the local Celtic accent. Across just one Celtic group. By more than one Celtic language population belonging to different Celtic groups; these two latter usage patterns may be remnants of widespread melodic practices. The term Celtic music is applied to the music of Ireland and Scotland because both lands have produced well-known distinctive styles which have genuine commonality and clear mutual influences; the definition is further complicated by the fact that Irish independence has allowed Ireland to promote'Celtic' music as a Irish product. However, these are modern geographical references to a people who share a common Celtic ancestry and a common musical heritage; these styles are known because of the importance of Irish and Scottish people in the English speaking world in the United States, where they had a profound impact on American music bluegrass and country music.
The music of Wales, the Isle of Man, Galicia and Asturias and Portugal are considered Celtic music, the tradition being strong in Brittany, where Celtic festivals large and small take place throughout the year, in Wales, where the ancient eisteddfod tradition has been revived and flourishes. Additionally, the musics of ethnically Celtic peoples abroad are vibrant in Canada and the United States. In Canada the provinces of Atlantic Canada are known for being a home of Celtic music, most notably on the islands of Newfoundland, Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island; the traditional music of Atlantic Canada is influenced by the Irish and Acadian ethnic makeup of much of the region's communities. In some parts of Atlantic Canada, such as Newfoundland, Celtic music is as or more popular than in the old country. Further, some older forms of Celtic music that are rare in Scotland and Ireland today, such as the practice of accompanying a fiddle with a piano, or the Gaelic spinning songs of Cape Breton remain common in the Maritimes.
Much of the music of this region is Celtic in nature, but originates in the local area and celebrates the sea, seafaring and other primary industries. In Celtic Music: A Complete Guide, June Skinner Sawyers acknowledges six Celtic nationalities divided into two groups according to their linguistic heritage; the Q-Celtic nationalities are the Irish and Manx peoples, while the P-Celtic groups are the Cornish and Welsh peoples. Musician Alan Stivell uses a similar dichotomy, between the Gaelic and the Brythonic branches, which differentiate "mostly by the extended range of Irish and Scottish melodies and the closed range of Breton and Welsh melodies, by the frequent use of the pure pentatonic scale in Gaelic music."There is tremendous variation between Celtic regions. Ireland, Scotland and Wales have living traditions of language and music, there has been a recent major revival of interest in Celtic heritage in Cornwall and the Isle of Man. Galicia has a Celtic language revival movement to revive the Q-Celtic Gallaic language used into Roman times.
Most of the Iberian Peninsula had a similar Celtic language in pre-Roman times. A Brythonic language was used in parts of Galicia and Asturias into early Medieval times brought by Britons fleeing the Anglo-Saxon invasions via Brittany; the Romance language spoken in Galicia, Galician is related to the Portuguese language used in Brazil and Portugal. Galician music is claimed to be Celtic; the same is true of the music of Asturias and that of Northern Portugal. Breton artist Alan Stivell was one of the earliest musicians to use the word Celtic and Keltia in his marketing materials, starting in the early 1960s as part of the worldwide folk music revival of that era with the term catching on with other artists worldwide. Today, the genre is well established and diverse. There are musical genres and styles specific to each Celtic country, due in part to the influence of individual song traditions and the characteristics of specific languages: Celtic traditional music Irish Music Music of Scotland Strathspeys are specific to Highland Scotland, for example, it has been hypothesized that they mimic the rhythms of the Scot
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular