Martin Charles Scorsese is an American filmmaker and historian, whose career spans more than 50 years. Scorsese's body of work addresses such themes as Italian and Sicilian-American identity, Roman Catholic concepts of guilt and redemption, machismo, modern crime, gang conflict. Many of his films are known for their depiction of violence and liberal use of profanity. Part of the New Hollywood wave of filmmaking, he is regarded as one of the most significant and influential filmmakers in cinematic history. In 1990, he founded The Film Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to film preservation, in 2007 he founded the World Cinema Foundation, he is a recipient of the AFI Life Achievement Award for his contributions to the cinema, has won an Academy Award, a Palme d'Or, Cannes Film Festival Best Director Award, Silver Lion, Grammy Award, Golden Globes, BAFTAs, Directors Guild of America Awards. He has directed works such as the crime film Mean Streets, the vigilante-thriller Taxi Driver, the biographical sports drama Raging Bull, the black comedies The King of Comedy, After Hours, the religious epic drama The Last Temptation of Christ, the crime film Goodfellas, the psychological thriller Cape Fear and the crime film Casino, some of which he collaborated on with actor and close friend Robert De Niro.
Scorsese has been noted for his successful collaborations with actor Leonardo DiCaprio, having directed him in five films, beginning with Gangs of New York and most The Wolf of Wall Street. Their third film together, The Departed, won Scorsese the Academy Award for Best Director in addition to the film winning the award for Best Picture, their collaborations have resulted in numerous Academy Award nominations for both as well as them winning several other prestigious awards. Scorsese's other film work includes the biographical drama The Aviator, the psychological thriller Shutter Island, the historical adventure drama Hugo and the religious epic Silence, his work in television includes the pilot episodes of the HBO series Boardwalk Empire and Vinyl, the latter of which he co-created. With eight Best Director Oscar nominations, he is the most nominated living director and is tied with Billy Wilder for the second-most nominations overall; as a fan of rock music, he has directed several documentaries on the subject, including The Last Waltz, No Direction Home, Shine a Light, George Harrison: Living in the Material World.
Scorsese was born on November 1942, in New York City's Queens borough. His family moved to Little Italy, his father, Charles Scorsese, mother, Catherine Scorsese, both worked in New York's Garment District. His father was a clothes presser and an actor, his mother was a seamstress and an actress, his father's parents emigrated from Polizzi Generosa, in the province of Palermo and his maternal grandparents were from Palermo from Ciminna. Scorsese was raised in a devoutly Catholic environment; as a boy, he had asthma and could not play sports or do any activities with other children, so his parents and his older brother would take him to movie theaters. As a teenager in the Bronx, Scorsese rented Powell and Pressburger's The Tales of Hoffmann from a store that had one copy of the reel. Scorsese was one of only two people who rented that reel. Scorsese has cited Victor Mature as his favorite actors during his youth, he has spoken of the influence of the 1947 Powell and Pressburger film Black Narcissus, whose innovative techniques impacted his filmmaking.
Enamored of historical epics in his adolescence, at least two films of the genre, Land of the Pharaohs and El Cid, appear to have had a deep and lasting impact on his cinematic psyche. Scorsese developed an admiration for neorealist cinema at this time, he recounted its influence in a documentary on Italian neorealism, commented on how Bicycle Thieves alongside Paisà, Open City inspired him and how this influenced his view or portrayal of his Sicilian roots. In his documentary, Il Mio Viaggio in Italia, Scorsese noted that the Sicilian episode of Roberto Rossellini's Paisà, which he first saw on television alongside his relatives, who were themselves Sicilian immigrants, made a significant impact on his life, he acknowledges owing a great debt to the French New Wave and has stated that "the French New Wave has influenced all filmmakers who have worked since, whether they saw the films or not." He has cited filmmakers including Satyajit Ray, Ingmar Bergman, Michelangelo Antonioni, Federico Fellini as a major influence on his career.
His initial desire to become a priest attending preparatory seminary but failing after the first year while attending Cardinal Hayes High School in the Bronx gave way to cinema and Scorsese enrolled in NYU's Washington Square College, where he earned a B. A. in English in 1964. He went on to earn his M. F. A. from NYU's School of the Arts in 1966, a year after the school was founded. Scorsese attended New York University's Tisch School of the Arts making the short films What's a Nice Girl Like You Doing in a Place Like This? and It's Not Just You, Murray!. His most famous short of the period is the darkly comic The Big Shave; the film is
Auto Focus is a 2002 American biographical film directed by Paul Schrader, starring Greg Kinnear and Willem Dafoe. The screenplay by Michael Gerbosi is based on Robert Graysmith's book The Murder of Bob Crane. Auto Focus tells a dramatized story of actor Bob Crane, an affable radio show host and amateur drummer who found success on Hogan's Heroes, a popular television sitcom, his dramatic descent into the underbelly of Hollywood after the series was cancelled, after forming a friendship with John Henry Carpenter; as of today, Crane's murder remains unsolved. Although Carpenter was tried and acquitted of the crime, he remained the subject of suspicion after his death in 1998. Disc-jockey-turned-actor Bob Crane develops a secret personal life, focusing on his relationship with John Henry Carpenter, an electronics expert involved with the nascent home video market. Encouraged by Carpenter and enabled by his expertise, Crane—a church-going, clean-cut family man—becomes a sex addict obsessed with women and with recording his encounters using video and photographic equipment with Carpenter participating.
As years pass, the relationship between Crane and Carpenter unravels in a dangerous way. Crane is divorced by two wives, first Anne and Patty, a former co-star from his hit television series Hogan's Heroes. After the show goes off the air, Crane struggles to find work while dealing with money troubles. By the time Walt Disney Productions hires him for the leading role in a family movie, his reputation for being obsessed by sex and pornography starts to jeopardize his image. Confined to doing dinner theater in mid-sized cities, Crane's attempts to distance himself from Carpenter fail as their sexual escapades continue. Carpenter soon becomes "my only friend," but after a final falling-out between them in Scottsdale, someone bludgeons Crane to death inside a motel room. Carpenter is tried for the murder, but not until many years when he is acquitted. Crane's murder remains unsolved. Greg Kinnear as Bob Crane Willem Dafoe as John Henry Carpenter Rita Wilson as Anne Crane Maria Bello as Patricia Olson/Patricia Crane/Sigrid Valdis Ron Leibman as Lenny Michael E. Rodgers as Richard Dawson Kurt Fuller as Werner Klemperer Grand L. Bush as Ivan Dixon Christopher Neiman as Robert Clary Ed Begley Jr. as Mel Rosen Michael McKean as Video Executive Roderick L. McCarthy as Bartender John Kapelos as Bruno Gerussi Lyle Kanouse as John Banner The film premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival and was shown at the San Sebastián Film Festival, the Helsinki International Film Festival, the Chicago International Film Festival, the New Orleans Film Festival, the Bergen International Film Festival before going into limited release on eleven screens in the US, earning $123,761 on its opening weekend.
It grossed $2,063,196 in the US and $641,755 in foreign markets for a total worldwide box office of $2,704,951. The DVD release includes a 50-minute documentary, Murder in Scottsdale, which delves into the initial murder investigation and the reopening of the case some 15 years later; the DVD features several audio commentary tracks. Greg Kinnear and Willem Dafoe can be heard joking about how the stylist made up Kinnear’s hair to resemble Bob Crane's. A quick online search for photos of the real Bob Crane reveals that, while taking pains to match Crane's hair color and thickness as Kinnear noted, the stylist parted his hair on the wrong side; the film met with a positive reception from critics. A. O. Scott of The New York Times said the film "gets to you like a low-grade fever, a malaise with no known antidote; when it was over, I wasn't sure if I needed a drink, a shower or a lifelong vow of chastity... There is severe, powerful moralism lurking beneath the film's dispassionate matter-of-factness.
Mr. Schrader is indifferent to the sinner, but he cannot contain his loathing of the sin, not so much sex as the fascination with images... To argue that images can corrupt the flesh and hollow out the soul is, for a filmmaker, an contradictory exercise, but not a hypocritical one. There is plenty of nudity in Auto Focus, but you can always glimpse the abyss behind the undulating bodies, the director leads you from easy titillation to suffocating dread, pausing only and cautiously to consider the possibility of pleasure."Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four stars calling it "a hypnotic portrait... pitch-perfect in its decor, clothes, cars and values... Greg Kinnear gives a creepy, brilliant performance as a man lacking in all insight... Crane was not a complex man, but that should not blind us to the subtlety and complexity of Kinnear's performance."Edward Guthmann of the San Francisco Chronicle called it "a compelling, sympathetic portrait... Kinnear undercuts the seaminess of the Crane story, shows us a man with more dimension and complexity than his behavior might suggest."Peter Travers of Rolling Stone awarded it 3½ out of 4 stars and added, "Schrader, the writer of Taxi Driver and the director of American Gigolo, is a poet of male sexual pathology.
Shot through with profane laughs and stinging drama, Auto Focus ranks with his best films."Todd McCarthy of Variety called it "one of director Paul Schrader's best films, like Boogie Nights ranks as a shrewd exposé of recent Hollywood's slimy underside... Schrader directs with a smooth hand, providing a good-natured and amusing spin to grim material that aptly reflects the protagonist's unfailing good humor... Pic overall has an excellent L. A. period feel without getting elaborate about it, musical contributions by Angelo Badalamenti and a host of pop tunes are tops."On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 72% based on 162 rev
Hardcore (1979 film)
Hardcore is a 1979 American crime drama film written and directed by Paul Schrader and starring George C. Scott, Peter Boyle, Ilah Davis and Season Hubley; the story concerns a father searching for his daughter, who has vanished only to appear in a pornographic film. Writer-director Schrader had written the screenplay for Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver, both films share a theme of exploring an unseen subculture. Jake Van Dorn is a prosperous local businessman in Grand Rapids, Michigan who has strong Calvinist convictions. A single parent, Van Dorn is the father of a quiet, conservative teenage girl, who inexplicably disappears when she goes on a church-sponsored trip to Bellflower, California. Andy Mast, a strange private investigator from Los Angeles, is hired to find her turning up an 8mm stag film of Van Dorn's daughter with two young men. After Van Dorn views the film, he suspects that his daughter was kidnapped and persuaded to join California's porn underworld, his quest to rescue her takes him on an odyssey through this sleazy adult subculture.
With no results from the PI, the Los Angeles Police Department, or from Los Angeles' sex shopkeepers and "rap parlor" women, a desperate Van Dorn ends up posing as a pornography producer in the Los Angeles Free Press, hoping to find information about his daughter. A scraggly actor named "Jism Jim", in the film with Kristen, knows where she might be and sends him to a sometime porn actress/hooker named Niki. Van Dorn hires Niki to accompany him on the search for Kristen. Chasing a rumor that Kristen was now filming porn in Mexico, their uneasy alliance moves from Los Angeles to San Diego warming up to each other: Niki feels protected by Van Dorn because he is a man who doesn't see her as a sex object, he is able to speak to her about his deepest feelings, such as his wife leaving him; the unlikely pair ends in San Francisco where Van Dorn finds that Kristen may be in the hands of Ratan, a dangerous S & M porn player who deals in the world of "snuff movies". Niki, who had begun to think Van Dorn will help her to escape life on the streets, now finds herself fearful of being forgotten once he locates his daughter at all-alive or dead.
As a result, she refuses to divulge the address of a porn industry player, a link to Ratan. Van Dorn strikes her to get her to reveal the information. Van Dorn finds the player, "Tod", in a bondage house and forces Tod to tell him where Ratan hangs out. Van Dorn and Mast track Ratan to a nightclub; when Van Dorn confronts Ratan, Kristen Ratan slashes Van Dorn with a knife. Mast kills Ratan. Van Dorn tells Kristen. However, she responds with anger, stating that she entered porn of her own free will as a way to rebel against her conservative upbringing and now felt loved and appreciated in a way that the distant Van Dorn never offered. Despondent and tearful, Van Dorn asks her if she wants him to leave her alone but she acknowledges that she does not; as the two prepare to return home, Van Dorn spots Niki. He speaks to her, starting to make a token offer of gratitude but it's clear to both that it's just as she feared - her usefulness to him, thus their relationship, is now over, she walks away, resigned to continuing her life on the streets.
Warren Beatty wanted to play the lead, according to director Paul Schrader, "he wouldn't take me as a director. And in his version, it would have been his wife, not his daughter. No good. I held out. I turned down a large sum of money. I went after Scott and I got him. One of the greatest actors in the world." Despite arguing that the climax lapses into action film cliches, Roger Ebert nonetheless gave the movie a four-out-of-four star review for its "moments of pure revelation," in the scenes between Scott and Hubley. Gene Siskel gave the film three-and-a-half stars out of four and called it "both a rich film of ideas and of strikingly real characters." He thought. Variety called it "a good film" and predicted that no matter what each individual audience member's attitudes toward pornography and religion were, "nobody's going to be bored." Vincent Canby of The New York Times wrote in a mixed review that Schrader "demonstrates an extraordinary sensitivity to the realities of the American heritage that are even thought about on screen, much less dramatized.
His characters are complex. The melodrama matches their complexity, it is blunt, clumsy — melodrama that seems not to reflect life but the ways lives are led in the movies." Pauline Kael of The New Yorker was negative, explaining that Taxi Driver worked because "the protagonist, Travis Bickle, had a fear and hatred of sex so feverishly sensual that we experienced his tensions, his explosiveness. But in'Hardcore' Jake feels no lust, so there's no enticement—and no contest; the Dutch Reformation Church has won the battle for his soul before the film's first frame." She added that "there something a little batty about the way Jake strides through hell swinging his fists, like a Calvinist John Wayne." Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times called the film "strong but disappointing stuff," explaining, "Quite apart from the plot concoctions that leave reality so far behind, the exasperation of'Hardcore' is that the confrontation has never quite come off. The daughter, whose feelings are crucial to an understanding of the story, is never more than a cipher and a symbol."
Adam Resurrected is a 2008 American-German-Israeli film, directed by Paul Schrader and adapted from Yoram Kaniuk's novel of the same name published in Israel in 1968. Jeff Goldblum stars alongside Willem Dafoe, Derek Jacobi and Ayelet Zurer. Several major German stars, including Moritz Bleibtreu, Veronica Ferres, Juliane Köhler and Joachim Król, play supporting roles; the film, part of, told through a series of flashbacks, follows the story of Adam Stein, a charismatic patient of a fictitious psychiatric asylum for Holocaust survivors in Israel, in 1961. Adam was a comedian in Berlin prior to the Second World War, during which he was sent to a concentration camp. Adam manages to survive the war only because his pre-war act was recalled by an SS officer, who takes Adam as his "pet," insisting he act like a dog, his humiliation was his ticket to survival, as he was forced to play the fiddle as his wife and daughter were led to the gas chambers. While he is outwardly charming and witty, Adam is tormented by survivor's guilt and delusions that he is a dog.
Jeff Goldblum - Adam Stein Willem Dafoe - Commandant Klein Derek Jacobi - Dr. Nathan Gross Ayelet Zurer - Gina Grey Hana Laszlo - Rachel Shwester Joachim Król - Abe Wolfowitz Jenya Dodina - Gretchen Stein The film was screened at several film festivals, including Telluride, Mill Valley, AFI, Haifa Film Festival, the Palm Springs International Film Festival and the London Jewish Film Festival, it was released in Germany on January 22, 2009. Adam Resurrected received a mixed response from critics. Film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported an approval rating of 35%, based on 37 reviews, with a rating average of 5.2/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Such an unusual tale might have made for a compelling drama, but Adam Resurrected suffers from narrative confusion and an emotional detachment at its core." The website Metacritic gave the film a weighted average score of 58 out of 100, based on 8 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Adam Resurrected received several positive reviews.
Gary Goldstein of The Los Angeles Times wrote, "In a less competitive year, Jeff Goldblum would have had a shot at an Oscar nod for his performance in Adam Resurrected, in which he plays Adam Stein, a mental patient irrevocably haunted by his Holocaust survival. This original drama is less glum than it might sound, thanks to Goldblum's spirited, go-for-broke portrayal and director Paul Schrader's distinctive translation of Noah Stollman's script."Nathan Rabin of The A. V. Club graded the film a B praising Goldblum, whom he credits with a "stunning lead performance." He compared the film's concept with the "notorious unreleased Jerry Lewis monstrosity", The Day the Clown Cried, but that Goldblum's performance made Adam Resurrected work. Rabin writes, "Goldblum sells this wildly theatrical character through sheer magnetism; the otherworldly nature of his restless, nervous charisma has been put to better use. When it flies off the rails deep into its third act, Resurrected remains strangely hypnotic."F. X. Feeney of LA Weekly gave a rave review.
He compared the film's structure to Federico Fellini's classic 8½, writing, "Where Fellini made ecstasy contagious, Schrader is after much darker vistas — the mystery of how good men fail, condemn themselves. One cannot recommend this film enough."Stephen Holden of The New York Times gave the film a negative review, finding it unfunny and full of missed opportunities. "Savage gallows humor might have substituted for pathos. But Adam Resurrected feels so detached that there is not a laugh, nor a wicked smirk of nihilistic glee, to be gleaned." Adam Resurrected on IMDb
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Illegal drug trade
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws; the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime's World Drug Report 2005 estimates the size of the global illicit drug market at US$321.6 billion in 2003 alone. With a world GDP of US$36 trillion in the same year, the illegal drug trade may be estimated as nearly 1% of total global trade. Consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally and remains difficult for local authorities to thwart its popularity. Chinese authorities issued edicts against opium smoking in 1729, 1796 and 1800; the West prohibited addictive drugs throughout the late early 20th centuries. In the early 19th century, an illegal drug trade in China emerged; as a result, by 1838 the number of Chinese opium-addicts had grown to between four and twelve million.
The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium. The United Kingdom forced China to allow British merchants to sell Indian-grown opium. Trading in opium was lucrative, smoking opium had become common in the 19th century, so British merchants increased trade with the Chinese; the Second Opium War broke out in 1856. After the two Opium Wars, the British Crown, via the treaties of Nanking, Tianjin, obligated the Chinese government to pay large sums of money for opium they had seized and destroyed, which were referred to as "reparations". In 1868, as a result of the increased use of opium, the UK restricted the sale of opium in Britain by implementing the 1868 Pharmacy Act. In the United States, control of opium remained under the control of individual US states until the introduction of the Harrison Act in 1914, after 12 international powers signed the International Opium Convention in 1912. Between 1920 and 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution banned alcohol in the United States.
Prohibition proved impossible to enforce and resulted in the rise of organized crime, including the modern American Mafia, which identified enormous business opportunities in the manufacturing and sale of illicit liquor. The beginning of the 21st century saw drug use increase in North America and Europe, with a increased demand for marijuana and cocaine; as a result, international organized crime syndicates such as the Sinaloa Cartel and'Ndrangheta have increased cooperation among each other in order to facilitate trans-Atlantic drug-trafficking. Use of another illicit drug, has increased in Europe. Drug trafficking is regarded by lawmakers as a serious offense around the world. Penalties depend on the type of drug, the quantity trafficked, where the drugs are sold and how they are distributed. If the drugs are sold to underage people the penalties for trafficking may be harsher than in other circumstances. Drug smuggling carries severe penalties in many countries. Sentencing may include lengthy periods of incarceration and the death penalty.
In December 2005, Van Tuong Nguyen, a 25-year-old Australian drug smuggler, was hanged in Singapore after being convicted in March 2004. In 2010, two people were sentenced to death in Malaysia for trafficking 1 kilogram of cannabis into the country. Execution is used as a deterrent, many have called upon much more effective measures to be taken by countries to tackle drug trafficking; the countries of drug production and transit are some of the most affected by the drug trade, though countries receiving the illegally imported substances are adversely affected. For example, Ecuador has absorbed up to 300,000 refugees from Colombia who are running from guerrillas and drug lords. While some applied for asylum, others are still illegal immigrants; the drugs that pass from Colombia through Ecuador to other parts of South America create economic and social problems. Honduras, through which an estimated 79% of cocaine passes on its way to the United States, has the highest murder rate in the world. According to the International Crisis Group, the most violent regions in Central America along the Guatemala–Honduras border, are correlated with an abundance of drug trafficking activity.
In many countries worldwide, the illegal drug trade is thought to be directly linked to violent crimes such as murder. This is true in all developing countries, such as Honduras, but is an issue for many developed countries worldwide. In the late 1990s in the United States the Federal Bureau of Investigation estimated that 5% of murders were drug-related. In Colombia, Drug violence can be caused by factors such as, the economy, poor governments, no authority within the law enforcement. After a crackdown by US and Mexican authorities in the first decade of the 21st century as part of tightened border security in the wake of the September 11 attacks, border violence inside Mexico surged; the Mexican government estimates. A report by the UK government's Drug Strategy Unit, leaked to the press, stated that due to the expensive price of addictive drugs heroin and coc
Berlin International Film Festival
The Berlin International Film Festival called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany. Founded in West Berlin in 1951, the festival has been held every February since 1978 and is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Cannes Film Festival. With around 300,000 tickets sold and 500,000 admissions each year, it has the largest public attendance of any annual film festival. Up to 400 films are shown in several sections across cinematic genres. Around twenty films compete for the festival's top awards, called the Golden Bear and several Silver Bears. Since 2001 the director of the festival has been Dieter Kosslick; the European Film Market, a film trade fair held to the Berlinale, is a major industry meeting for the international film circuit. The trade fair serves distributors, film buyers, financiers and co-production agents; the Berlinale Talents, a week-long series of lectures and workshops, is a gathering of young filmmakers held in partnership with the festival.
The film festival, EFM, other satellite events are attended by around 20,000 professionals from over 130 countries. More than 4200 journalists produce media coverage in over 110 countries. At some high-profile feature film premieres held during the festival, movie stars and celebrities are present on the red carpet; the Berlin International Film Festival was founded in West Berlin in 1951, with film historian Dr. Alfred Bauer as its first director, a position he would hold until 1976. Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca opened the first festival. Bauer was succeeded by film journalist Wolf Donner in 1976. After his first Berlinale in June 1977, he negotiated the shift of the festival from the summer to February, a change which has remained since. After only three years in the role, Donner was followed by Moritz de Hadeln who held the position from 1980 until current director Dieter Kosslick took over in 2001; the festival is composed of seven different film sections. Films are chosen in each category by a section director with the advice of a committee of film experts.
Categories include: Competition: comprises feature-length films yet to be released outside their country of origin. Films in the Competition section compete for several prizes, including the top Golden Bear for the best film and a series of Silver Bears for acting and production. Panorama: comprises new independent and arthouse films that deal with "controversial subjects or unconventional aesthetic styles". Films in the category are intended to provoke discussion, have involved themes such as LGBT issues. Forum: comprises experimental and documentary films from around the world with a particular emphasis on screening works by younger filmmakers. There are no format or genre restrictions, films in the Forum do not compete for awards. Generation: comprises a mixture of feature-length films aimed at children and youths. Films in the Generation section compete in two sub-categories: Generation Kplus and Generation 14plus. Awards in the section are determined by three separate juries—the Children's Jury, the Youth Jury and an international jury of experts—whose decisions are made independent of one another.
Perspektive Deutsches Kino: comprises a wide variety of German films, with an emphasis on highlighting current trends in German cinema. There are few entry requirements, enabling emerging filmmakers to display their work to domestic and international audiences. Berlinale Shorts: comprises domestic and international short films those that demonstrate innovative approaches to filmmaking. Films in the category compete for the Golden Bear for the best short film, as well as a jury-nominated Silver Bear. Retrospective: comprises classic films shown at the Berlinale, with films collated from the Competition, Forum and Generation categories; each year, the Retrospective section is dedicated to important filmmakers. The special Homage series examines past cinema, with a focus on honouring the life work of directors and actors. In addition to the seven sections, the Berlinale contains several linked "curated special series", including the Berlinale Special, Gala Special, Forum 5, Culinary Cinema and the Homage.
Since 2002 a 50-second trailer opens the performances in all sections of the festival with the exception of the Retrospective. The Golden Bear is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival. Golden Bear Best Motion Picture Best Short Film Lifetime Achievement Silver Bear The Silver Bear was introduced in 1956 as an award for individual achievements in direction and acting, for best short film. In 1965 a special film award for the runner-up to the Golden Bear was introduced. Although its official name was the Special Jury Prize from 1965 to 1999, has been the Jury Grand Prix since 2000, it is known as the Silver Bear as it is regarded as a second place award after the Golden Bear. In 2002 a Silver Bear for best film music, in 2008 an award for best screenplay. Jury Grand Prix Alfred Bauer Prize: in memory of the Festival Founder—for a feature film that opens new perspectives on cinematic art Best Director Best Actor Best Actress Best Short Film Outstanding Artistic Contribution - Not awarded every year, in some years more than one award is made.
Outstanding Single Achievement - Not a