Earl Klugh is an American jazz guitarist and composer. In 2006 Modern Guitar magazine wrote that Klugh "is considered by many to be one of the finest acoustic guitar players today." At the age of three, Klugh commenced training on the piano until he switched to the guitar at the age of ten. At the age of thirteen, Klugh was captivated by the guitar playing of Chet Atkins when Atkins made an appearance on the Perry Como Show. Klugh was a performing guest on several of Atkins' albums. Atkins, reciprocating as well, joined Earl on his Magic In Your Eyes album. Klugh appeared with Atkins on several television programs, including Hee Haw and a 1994 TV special entitled "Read my Licks". Klugh was influenced by Bob James, Ray Parker Jr, Wes Montgomery and Laurindo Almeida, his sound is a blend of these jazz and rhythm and blues influences, forming a potpourri of sweet contemporary music original to only him. Klugh's first recording, at age fifteen, was on Yusef Lateef's Suite 16, he played on George Benson's White Rabbit album and two years in 1973, joined his touring band.
For their album One on One and Bob James received a Grammy award for Best Pop Instrumental Performance of 1981. He has since received 12 Grammy nominations, millions of record and CD sales, continues touring worldwide to this day. Klugh has recorded over 30 albums including 23 Top Ten charting records—five of them No. 1—on Billboard's Jazz Album chart. With 2008's The Spice of Life, Klugh earned his 12th career Grammy nomination—his second nomination and release on the independent Koch label; each spring, Klugh hosts a special Weekend of Jazz featuring jazz legends and greats at the Five-Star Broadmoor Hotel & Resort in Colorado Springs. Jazz greats including Ramsey Lewis, Patti Austin, Chuck Mangione, Bob James, Joe Sample, Chris Botti, Roberta Flack, Arturo Sandoval have all performed at the annual event set at the foot of the Colorado Rockies. In November 2010, Klugh brought the'Weekend of Jazz' to Kiawah Island Golf Resort in South Carolina. Official website Earl Klugh discography at Discogs Earl Klugh on IMDb
Hymn of the Seventh Galaxy
Hymn of the Seventh Galaxy is the third studio album by American jazz fusion band Return to Forever. It was released in October 1973 by Polydor. Flora Purim, Joe Farrell, Airto Moreira were replaced by drummer Lenny White and guitarist Bill Connors. Drawing on rock and funk, the album emphasized electric instruments more than Return to Forever's previous albums. Clarke contributed one song for the album. Corea relied on electric piano and organ. Daniel Gioffre for Allmusic wrote, "it is the quality of the compositions that marks Hymn of the Seventh Galaxy as an indispensable disc of'70s fusion". Robert Christgau wrote of Return to Forever in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies: "The futuristic, Mahavishnu-style jazz-rock gets hot enough at times to make you believe in spirit energy, but Corea's themes lack the grandeur of McLaughlin's, what good is God without grandeur? Part of the problem is technical—when you articulate fast runs cleanly on an electric piano you sound precious automatically.
Too though, I suspect that's what Corea wants. Better he should try for the cosmic joke—like when "Captain Senor Mouse" breaks into "La Cucaracha." All tracks written by Chick Corea except. Chick Corea – electric piano, organ, gongs Bill Connors – electric guitar, acoustic guitar Stanley Clarke – bass guitar, bell tree Lenny White – drums, percussion
Jean-Luc Ponty is a French jazz violinist and composer. Ponty was born into a family of classical musicians on 29 September 1942 in France, his father taught violin, his mother taught piano. At sixteen, he was admitted to the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique de Paris, graduating two years with the institution's highest honor, Premier Prix, he was hired by the Concerts Lamoureux symphony. While still a member of the orchestra in Paris, Ponty picked up a side job playing clarinet for a college jazz band that performed at local parties, it proved life-changing. A growing interest in Miles Davis and John Coltrane compelled him to take up tenor saxophone. One night after an orchestra concert, still wearing his tuxedo, Ponty found himself at a local club with only his violin. Within four years, he was accepted as the leading figure in "jazz fiddle". At that time, Ponty was leading a dual musical life: rehearsing and performing with the orchestra while playing jazz until 3 a.m. at clubs throughout Paris.
The demands of this schedule brought him to a crossroads. Critic Joachim Berendt wrote that "Since Ponty, the jazz violin has been a different instrument". At first, the violin proved to be a handicap. With a powerful sound that eschewed vibrato, Ponty distinguished himself with bebop phrasing and a punchy style influenced more by horn players than by anything tried on the violin. In 1964 at age 22 he released Jazz Long Playing, he performed on stage in Basel, with string players Stuff Smith, Stéphane Grappelli, Svend Asmussen. The performance was released as the album Violin Summit. John Lewis of the Modern Jazz Quartet invited Ponty to perform at the Monterey Jazz Festival in 1967, which led to a recording contract with the World Pacific and the albums Electric Connection with the Gerald Wilson Big Band and Jean-Luc Ponty Experience with the George Duke Trio; that year brought Sunday Walk, the first collaboration between Ponty and Niels-Henning Orsted Pedersen. In 1969 Frank Zappa composed the music for Ponty's solo album King Kong.
In 1972 Elton John invited Ponty to contribute to his Honky Chateau album. At the urging of Zappa and The Mothers of Invention who wanted him to join their tour, Ponty emigrated with his wife and two young daughters to the United States and made his home in Los Angeles, he continued to work on a variety of projects – including two of John McLaughlin's Mahavishnu Orchestra albums Apocalypse and Visions of the Emerald Beyond and tours until 1975, when he signed with Atlantic. For the next decade Ponty toured the world and recorded 12 consecutive albums, all of which reached the Billboard jazz charts top five, selling millions of albums, his early Atlantic recordings, such as 1976's Aurora and Imaginary Voyage, established Ponty as one of the leading figures in jazz-rock. He went on to crack the Top 40 with the album Enigmatic Ocean in 1977 and Cosmic Messenger in 1978. In 1984 a video of time-lapse images was produced by Louis Schwarzberg for the song "Individual Choice". Besides recording and touring with his own group, Ponty performed with the Pittsburgh New Music Ensemble, the Radio City Orchestra in New York, symphony orchestras in Montreal, Oklahoma City, Tokyo.
In the late 80s he recorded the albums The Gift of Storytelling for Columbia. On Tchokola Ponty combined acoustic and electric violins for the first time with polyrhythmic sounds of West Africa, he performed for two months in the U. S. and Canada with African expatriates. In 1993 he returned to Atlantic with the album No Absolute Time. In 1995 he joined guitarist Al Di Meola and bassist Stanley Clarke to record an acoustic album, The Rite of Strings; this trio undertook a six-month tour of North America, South America, Europe. He reunited his American band in 1996 for live performances following the release of a double album for Atlantic entitled Le Voyage: The Jean-Luc Ponty Anthology. One of these concerts was recorded in Detroit and released in February 1997 by Atlantic under the title Live at Chene Park. In 1997 Ponty reunited his group of Western and African musicians to pursue the fusion music he had begun to explore in 1991, they toured for three years from the Hawaiian Islands in North America and Europe.
Ponty performed duet with bassist Miroslav Vitous in December 1999. In January 2000, he participated in Lalo Schifrin's recording Esperanto. In June 2001 he performed duets with Russian violinist Vadim Repin and at the Film Music Festival in Poland with American jazz violinist Regina Carter. In August 2001 Ponty released his album Life Enigma on his label, a return to his concept from the 1970s with modern production, he was joined by band members others. He gave a concert with his band in his native town of Avranches in the French province of Normandie on 21 September 2001, he was honored during a ceremony at City Hall. He embarked on a tour in the U. S. in October and November 2001. In May 2001 he recorded a concert with the same musicians at the opera house in Germany; this recording was released in July 2002 on Live at Semper Opera. In January 2003 he toured India for the first time, seven shows in six major cities for the Global Music Festival organized by Indian violinist L. Subramaniam, he and bassist Guy Nsangué Akwa performed with Subramaniam's band and drummer Billy Cobham, a guest on that tour.
In 2004 the DVD Jean-Luc Ponty in Concert wa
Frank Gambale is an Australian jazz fusion guitarist. He has released twenty albums over a period of three decades, is known for his use of the sweep picking and economy picking techniques. Gambale graduated from the Guitar Institute of Technology in Hollywood with Student of the Year honors and taught there from 1984 to 1986. After graduation, he played the jazz club circuit with his own band. In 1985, his first album, Brave New Guitar, appeared on Legato Records, owned by Mark Varney, brother of Mike Varney, the founder of Shrapnel Records. Gambale signed with Victor Entertainment in 1989 as part of a five-album agreement and released Thunder from Down Under, the following year. In 1998 he started his own record label, Wombat Records, after purchasing his Legato discography with the intention of reissuing it himself. A live double album, Resident Alien – Live Bootlegs, was released in 2001, along with Imagery Suite, he released Coming to Your Senses on Favored Nations, a record label owned by guitarist Steve Vai.
In 2004, he released Raison D'etre, through his first album to be self-released. With the Mark Varney Project, consisting of Allan Holdsworth, Brett Garsed, Shawn Lane, he recorded two albums, Truth in Shredding and Centrifugal Funk. Beginning in 1987, he spent six years as a member of the Chick Corea Elektric Band, playing with Eric Marienthal, John Patitucci, Dave Weckl. With Corea's band he shared two Grammy Award nominations, he spent twelve years as a member of Vital Information, led by Steve Smith. He reunited with the Elektric Band in 2002 and with Corea in 2011 when he joined Return to Forever IV with Stanley Clarke, Jean-Luc Ponty, Lenny White. Gambale has been head of the guitar department at the Los Angeles Music Academy, he joined the Isina mentorship program as head of the guitar department in 2014. During the next year, he started an online guitar school. In 1988 he published Monster Licks & Speed Picking, the first of many instructional videos and the first book to be written on sweep picking and economy picking, two popular guitar techniques.
Gambale has become identified with economy picking. His interest grew out of a desire to transcend the physical limits of the guitar and borrow from other instruments, such as the piano and saxophone. One advantage of the technique is, he can approximate the way chords are played on piano by using his invented tuning, the Gambale Tuning, in which "the whole guitar is tuned up a fourth, but the top two strings are down an octave". Ibanez produced the Frank Gambale Model signature series guitars, modeled after the Ibanez S. Through 1999, four models were produced: FGM100, FGM200, FGM300, FGM400. Yamaha manufactured a signature guitar, the AES-FG. Gambale plays semi hollow artist signature Kiesel guitars. Gambale has been featured on the covers of many guitar and jazz-orientated magazines worldwide, while having been cited as an influence by many notable guitarists including Synyster Gates, Dweezil Zappa, Greg Howe, Pat Metheny. In a 1991 interview with Rolling Stone magazine, guitarist Jerry Garcia stated that Gambale was one of his favorite players at the time, stating, "My personal favorite is this guy Frank Gambale, who's been playing with Chick Corea for the past couple of years."
1986 Brave New Guitar 1987 A Present for the Future 1989 Live! 1990 Thunder from Down Under 1991 Note Worker 1993 The Great Explorers 1994 Passages 1995 Thinking Out Loud 2000 Coming to Your Senses 2000 The Light Beyond with Stuart Hamm, Steve Smith 2004 Raison D'être 2004 Resident Alien - Live Bootlegs 2004 Resident Alien - Live Bootlegs Disc Two 2005 Natural High 2010 Natural Selection With Maurizio Colonna 2000 Imagery Suite 2005 Live 2007 Bon VoyageWith Chick Corea Elektric Band 1987 Light Years 1988 Eye of the Beholder 1990 Inside Out 1991 Beneath the Mask 1996 The Songs of West Side Story 2004 To the Stars 2004 Chick Corea Elektric Band – Live at Montreux With GHS 1998 Show Me What You Can Do 2000 The Light Beyond 2002 GHS 3With GRP Super Live 1988 GRP Super Live – in ConcertWith the Mark Varney Project 1990 Truth in Shredding 1991 Centrifugal Funk With Vital Information 1988 Fiafiaga 1991 Vital Live 1992 Easier Done Than Said 1996 Ray of Hope 1998 Where We Come From 2000 Live Around the World 2000 Live from Mars 2002 Show'em Where You Live 2004 Come on In 2012 Live!
One Great Night 1988: Monster Licks & Speed Picking 1991: Modes: No More Mystery 1993: Chopbuilder: The Ultimate Guitar Workout 2003: Concert with Class 2007: Acoustic Improvisation 1994: The Frank Gambale Technique Book I 1994: The Frank Gambale Technique Book II 1997: Improvisation Made Easier 1997: The Best of Frank Gambale Official website Frank Gambale's Magic Chords
Jazz fusion is a musical genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined jazz harmony and improvisation with rock music and rhythm and blues. Electric guitars and keyboards that were popular in rock and roll started to be used by jazz musicians those who had grown up listening to rock and roll. Jazz fusion arrangements vary in complexity; some employ groove-based vamps fixed to a single key or a single chord with a simple, repeated melody. Others use elaborate chord progressions, unconventional time signatures, or melodies with counter-melodies; these arrangements, whether simple or complex include improvised sections that can vary in length, much like in other form of jazz. As with jazz, jazz fusion employs brass and woodwind instruments such as trumpet and saxophone, but other instruments substitute for these. A jazz fusion band is less to use piano, double bass, drums, more to use electric guitar, bass guitar, drums; the term "jazz rock" is sometimes used as a synonym for "jazz fusion" and for music performed by late 1960s and 1970s-era rock bands that added jazz elements to their music.
After a decade of popularity during the 1970s, fusion expanded its improvisatory and experimental approaches through the 1980s in parallel with the development of a radio-friendly style called smooth jazz. Experimentation continued in the 2000s. Fusion albums those that are made by the same group or artist, may include a variety of musical styles. Rather than being a codified musical style, fusion can be viewed as approach. In 1967 John Coltrane died, because rock was the most popular genre of music in America, DownBeat magazine declared in a headline that "Jazz as We Know It Is Dead". Guitarist Larry Coryell, sometimes called the godfather of fusion, referred to a generation of musicians who had grown up on rock and roll when he said, "We loved Miles but we loved the Rolling Stones." In 1966 he started the band the Free Spirits with Bob Moses on drums and recorded the band's first album. Out of Sight and Sound was released in 1967, the same year DownBeat began to report on rock music. After the Free Spirits, Coryell was part of a quartet led by vibraphonist Gary Burton, releasing the album Duster with its rock guitar influence.
Burton produced the album Tomorrow Never Knows for Count's Rock Band, which included Coryell, Mike Nock, Steve Marcus, all of them former students at Berklee College in Boston. The pioneers of fusion emphasized exploration, electricity, intensity and volume. Charles Lloyd played a combination of rock and jazz at the Monterey Jazz Festival in 1966 with a quartet that included Keith Jarrett and Jack DeJohnette. Lloyd adopted the trappings of the California psychedelic rock scene by playing at the rock venue the Fillmore, wearing colorful clothes, giving his albums titles like Dream Weaver and Forest Flower, which were bestselling jazz albums in 1967. Flautist Jeremy Steig experimented with jazz in his band Jeremy & the Satyrs with vibraphonist Mike Mainieri; the jazz label Verve released the first album by rock guitarist Frank Zappa in 1966. Rahsaan Roland Kirk performed with Jimi Hendrix at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club in London. AllMusic states that "until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly separate".
As members of Miles Davis's band, Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock played electric piano on Filles de Kilimanjaro. Davis wrote in his autobiography that in 1968 he had been listening to Jimi Hendrix, James Brown, Sly and the Family Stone; when Davis recorded Bitches Brew in 1969, he abandoned the swing beat in favor of a rock and roll backbeat and bass guitar grooves. The album "mixed free jazz blowing by a large ensemble with electronic keyboards and guitar, plus a dense mix of percussion." Davis played his trumpet like an electric guitar -- pedals. By the end of the first year, Bitches Brew sold 400,000 copies, four times the average for a Miles Davis album. Over the next two years the aloof Davis recorded more worked with many sideman, appeared on television, performed at rock venues. Just as Davis tested the loyalty of rock fans by continuing to experiment, his producer, Teo Macero, inserted recorded material into the Jack Johnson soundtrack, Live-Evil, On the Corner. Although Bitches Brew gave him a gold record, the use of electric instruments and rock beats created consternation among some jazz critics, who accused Davis of betraying the essence of jazz.
Music critic Kevin Fellezs commented that some members of the jazz community regarded rock music as less sophisticated and more commercial than jazz. Davis's 1969 album In a Silent Way is considered his first fusion album. Composed of two side-long improvised suites edited by Teo Macero, the album was made by pioneers of jazz fusion: Corea, Wayne Shorter, Joe Zawinul, John McLaughlin. A Tribute to Jack Johnson has been cited as "the purest electric jazz record made" and "one of the most remarkable jazz rock discs of the era". According to music journalist Zaid Mudhaffer, the term "jazz fusion" was coined in a review of Song of Innocence by David Axelrod when it was released in 1968. Axelrod said. Miles Davis dropped out of music in 1975 because of problems with drugs and alcohol, but his sidemen took advantage of the creative and financial vistas, opened. Herbie Hancock brought elements of funk and electronic music into commercially successful albums such as Head Hunters and Feets, Don't Fail Me Now.
Several years after recording Miles in the Sky with Davis, guitarist George Benson becam
The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the saxophone family, a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s. The tenor and the alto are the two most used saxophones; the tenor is pitched in the key of B♭, written as a transposing instrument in the treble clef, sounding an octave and a major second lower than the written pitch. Modern tenor saxophones which have a high F♯ key have a range from A♭2 to E5 and are therefore pitched one octave below the soprano saxophone. People who play the tenor saxophone are known as "tenor saxophonists", "tenor sax players", or "saxophonists"; the tenor saxophone uses a larger mouthpiece and ligature than the alto and soprano saxophones. Visually, it is distinguished by the bend in its neck, or its crook, near the mouthpiece; the alto saxophone lacks its neck goes straight to the mouthpiece. The tenor saxophone is most recognized for its ability to blend well with the soprano and baritone saxophones, with its "husky" yet "bright" tone; the tenor saxophone is used in classical music, military bands, marching bands and jazz.
It is included in pieces written for symphony orchestra. In concert bands, the tenor plays a supporting role, sometimes sharing parts with the euphonium and trombone. In jazz ensembles, the tenor plays a more prominent role as a member of a section that includes the alto and baritone saxes. Many of the most innovative and influential jazz musicians have been tenor saxophonists; these include Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young, Ben Webster, Dexter Gordon, Wardell Gray, Stan Getz, Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane and Wayne Shorter. The work of younger players such as Michael Brecker and Chris Potter has been an important influence in more recent jazz; the tenor saxophone is one of a family of fourteen instruments designed and constructed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian-born instrument maker and clarinetist. Based on an amalgam of ideas drawn from the clarinet, flute and ophicleide, the saxophone was intended to form a tonal link between the woodwinds and brass instruments found in military bands, an area that Sax considered sorely lacking.
Sax's patent, granted on 28 June 1846, divided the family into two groups of seven instruments, each ranging from alto down to contrabass. One family, pitched alternatively in B♭ and E♭, was designed to integrate with the other instruments common in military bands; the tenor saxophone, pitched in B♭, is the fourth member of this family. The tenor saxophone, like all saxophones, consists of an conical tube of thin brass, a type of metal; the wider end of the tube is flared to form a bell, while the narrower end is connected to a single reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet. At intervals down the bore are placed between 23 tone holes. There are two small speaker holes which, when opened, disrupt the lower harmonics of the instrument and cause it to overblow into an upper register; the pads are controlled by pressing a number of keys with the fingers of the left and right hands. The original design of tenor saxophone had a separate octave key for each speaker hole, in the manner of the bassoon.
Although a handful of novelty tenors have been constructed'straight', like the smaller members of the saxophone family, the unwieldy length of the straight configuration means that all tenor saxophones feature a'U-bend' above the third-lowest tone hole, characteristic of the saxophone family. The tenor saxophone is curved at the top, above the highest tone-hole but below the highest speaker hole. While the alto is bent only through 80–90° to make the mouthpiece fit more in the mouth, the tenor is bent a little more in this section, incorporating a slight S-bend; the mouthpiece of the tenor saxophone is similar to that of the clarinet, an wedge-shaped tube, open along one face and covered in use by a thin strip of material prepared from the stem of the giant cane known as a reed. The reed is shaved to come to an thin point, is clamped over the mouthpiece by the use of a ligature; when air is blown through the mouthpiece, the reed vibrates and generates the acoustic resonances required to produce a sound from the instrument.
The mouthpiece is the area of the saxophone with the greatest flexibility in shape and style, so the timbre of the instrument is determined by the dimensions of its mouthpiece. The design of the mouthpiece and reed play a big role in. Classical mouthpieces help produce a warmer and rounder tone, while jazz mouthpieces help produce a brighter and edgier tone. Materials used in mouthpiece construction include plastic and various metals e.g. bronze and stainless steel. The mouthpiece of the tenor saxophone is proportionally larger than that of the alto, necessitating a larger reed; the increased stiffness of the reed and the greater airflow required to establish resonance in the larger body means the tenor sax requires greater lung power but a looser embouchure than the higher-pitched member
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, flutist or, less fluter or flutenist. Flutes are the earliest extant musical instruments, as paleolithic instruments with hand-bored holes have been found. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany; these flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. The word flute first entered the English language during the Middle English period, as floute, or else flowte, flote from Old French flaute and from Old Provençal flaüt, or else from Old French fleüte, flaüte, flahute via Middle High German floite or Dutch fluit.
The English verb flout has the same linguistic root, the modern Dutch verb fluiten still shares the two meanings. Attempts to trace the word back to the Latin flare have been pronounced "phonologically impossible" or "inadmissable"; the first known use of the word flute was in the 14th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this was in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Hous of Fame, c.1380. Today, a musician who plays any instrument in the flute family can be called a flutist, or flautist, or a flute player. Flutist dates back to at least 1603, the earliest quotation cited by the Oxford English Dictionary. Flautist was used in 1860 by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun, after being adopted during the 18th century from Italy, like many musical terms in England since the Italian Renaissance. Other English terms, now obsolete, are fluter and flutenist; the oldest flute discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a juvenile cave bear, with two to four holes, found at Divje Babe in Slovenia and dated to about 43,000 years ago.
However, this has been disputed. In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany; the five-holed flute is made from a vulture wing bone. The researchers involved in the discovery published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009; the discovery was the oldest confirmed find of any musical instrument in history, until a redating of flutes found in Geißenklösterle cave revealed them to be older with an age of 42,000 to 43,000 years. The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels and a short distance from the oldest known human carving. On announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the "finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe". Scientists have suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain "the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between" Neanderthals and early modern human.
A three-holed flute, 18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk was discovered in 2004, two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier are among the oldest known musical instruments. A playable 9,000-year-old Gudi was excavated from a tomb in Jiahu along with 29 defunct twins, made from the wing bones of red-crowned cranes with five to eight holes each, in the Central Chinese province of Henan; the earliest extant Chinese transverse flute is a chi flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. It dates from 433 BC, of the Zhou Dynasty, it is fashioned of lacquered bamboo with closed ends and has five stops that are at the flute's side instead of the top. Chi flutes are mentioned in Shi Jing and edited by Confucius, according to tradition; the earliest written reference to a flute is from a Sumerian-language cuneiform tablet dated to c. 2600–2700 BCE. Flutes are mentioned in a translated tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem whose development spanned the period of 2100–600 BCE.
Additionally, a set of cuneiform tablets knows as the "musical texts" provide precise tuning instructions for seven scale of a stringed instrument. One of those scales is named embūbum, an Akkadian word for "flute"; the Bible, in Genesis 4:21, cites Jubal as being the "father of all those who play the ugab and the kinnor". The former Hebrew term is believed by some to refer to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general; as such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute. Elsewhere in the Bible, the flute is referred to as "chalil", in particular in 1 Samuel 10:5, 1 Kings 1:40, Isaiah 5:12 and 30:29, Jeremiah 48:36. Archeological digs in the Holy Land have discovered flutes from both the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, the latter era "witness the creation of the Israelite kingdom and its separation into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judea."Some early flutes were made out of tibias.