A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams its image in real time to or through a computer to a computer network. When "captured" by the computer, the video stream may be saved, viewed or sent on to other networks travelling through systems such as the internet, e-mailed as an attachment; when sent to a remote location, the video stream may be viewed or on sent there. Unlike an IP camera, a webcam is connected by a USB cable, or similar cable, or built into computer hardware, such as laptops; the term "webcam" may be used in its original sense of a video camera connected to the Web continuously for an indefinite time, rather than for a particular session supplying a view for anyone who visits its web page over the Internet. Some of them, for example, those used as online traffic cameras, are expensive, rugged professional video cameras. Webcams are known for their low manufacturing cost and their high flexibility, making them the lowest-cost form of videotelephony. Despite the low cost, the resolution offered at present is rather impressive, with low-end webcams offering resolutions of 320×240, medium webcams offering 640×480 resolution, high-end webcams offering 1280×720 or 1920×1080 resolution.
They have become a source of security and privacy issues, as some built-in webcams can be remotely activated by spyware. The most popular use of webcams is the establishment of video links, permitting computers to act as videophones or videoconference stations. Other popular uses include security surveillance, computer vision, video broadcasting, for recording social videos; the video streams provided by webcams can be used for a number of purposes, each using appropriate software: Most modern webcams are capable of capturing arterial pulse rate by the use of a simple algorithmic trick. Researchers claim. Webcams may be installed at places such as childcare centres, offices and private areas to monitor security and general activity. Webcams have been used for augmented reality experiences online. One such function has the webcam act as a "magic mirror" to allow an online shopper to view a virtual item on themselves; the Webcam Social Shopper is one example of software. Webcam can be added to instant messaging, text chat services such as AOL Instant Messenger, VoIP services such as Skype, one-to-one live video communication over the Internet has now reached millions of mainstream PC users worldwide.
Improved video quality has helped webcams encroach on traditional video conferencing systems. New features such as automatic lighting controls, real-time enhancements, automatic face tracking and autofocus, assist users by providing substantial ease-of-use, further increasing the popularity of webcams. Webcam features and performance can vary by program, computer operating system, by the computer's processor capabilities. Video calling support has been added to several popular instant messaging programs. Webcams can be used as security cameras. Software is available to allow PC-connected cameras to watch for movement and sound, recording both when they are detected; these recordings can be saved to the computer, e-mailed, or uploaded to the Internet. In one well-publicised case, a computer e-mailed images of the burglar during the theft of the computer, enabling the owner to give police a clear picture of the burglar's face after the computer had been stolen. Unauthorized access of webcams can present significant privacy issues.
In December 2011, Russia announced that 290,000 Webcams would be installed in 90,000 polling stations to monitor the Russian presidential election, 2012. Webcams can be used to take video clips and still pictures. Various software tools in wide use can be employed for this, such as PicMaster, Photo Booth, or Cheese. For a more complete list see Comparison of webcam software. Special software can use the video stream from a webcam to assist or enhance a user's control of applications and games. Video features, including faces, shapes and colors can be observed and tracked to produce a corresponding form of control. For example, the position of a single light source can be tracked and used to emulate a mouse pointer, a head-mounted light would enable hands-free computing and would improve computer accessibility; this can be applied to games, providing additional control, improved interactivity and immersiveness. FreeTrack is a free webcam motion-tracking application for Microsoft Windows that can track a special head-mounted model in up to six degrees of freedom and output data to mouse, keyboard and FreeTrack-supported games.
By removing the IR filter of the webcam, IR LEDs can be used, which has the advantage of being invisible to the naked eye, removing a distraction from the user. TrackIR is a commercial version of this technology; the EyeToy for the PlayStation 2, PlayStation Eye for the PlayStation 3, the Xbox Live Vision camera and Kinect motion sensor for the Xbox 360 and are color digital cameras that have been used as control input devices by some games. Small webcam-based PC games are available as either standalone executables or inside web browser windows using Adobe Flash. With very-low-light capability, a few specific models of webcams are popular to photograph the night sky by astronomers and astro photographers; these are manual-focus cameras and contain an old CCD array instead of comparatively newer CMOS array. The lenses of the cameras are removed and these are attached to telescopes to record images
Frank Bunker Gilbreth Sr.
Frank Bunker Gilbreth was an American engineer and author known as an early advocate of scientific management and a pioneer of time and motion study, is best known as the father and central figure of Cheaper by the Dozen. Both he and his wife Lillian Moller Gilbreth were industrial engineers and efficiency experts who contributed to the study of industrial engineering in fields such as motion study and human factors. Gilbreth was born in Fairfield, Maine, on July 7, 1868, he was the third child and only son of Martha Bunker Gilbreth. His mother had been a schoolteacher, his father was a stockbreeder. When Gilbreth was three and a half years old his father died from pneumonia. After his father's death his mother moved the family to Andover, Massachusetts, to find better schools for her children; the substantial estate left by her husband was managed by her husband's family. By the fall of 1878 the money had been lost or stolen and Martha Gilbreth had to find a way to make a living, she moved the family to Boston.
She opened. Gilbreth was not a good student, he attended Rice Grammar School, but his mother was concerned enough to teach him at home for a year. He attended Boston's English High School, his grades improved when he became interested in his science and math classes, he took the entrance examinations for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but wanted his mother to be able to give up the boarding house. He decided to go to work rather than to college. Renton Widden, Gilbreth's old Sunday School teacher, hired him for his building company, he was to start as a laborer, learn the various building trades, work his way up in the firm. In July 1885 at age 17 he started as a bricklayer's helper; as he learned bricklaying he noticed the many variations in the bricklayers' methods and efficiency. This began his interest in finding "the one best way" of executing any task, he learned every part of building work and contracting, advanced rapidly. He took night school classes to learn mechanical drawing.
After five years he was a superintendent. Using his observations of workmen laying brick, Gilbreth developed a multilevel scaffold that kept the bricks within easy reach of the bricklayer, he began patenting his innovations with this "Vertical Scaffold". He developed and patented the "Gilbreth Waterproof Cellar", he began to make innovations in concrete construction. He joined the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. After ten years and at age 27 he was the chief superintendent; when Widden was unwilling to make him a partner, he resigned to start his own company. Gilbreth became a building contractor an inventor with several patents, a management engineer, he became an occasional lecturer at Purdue University, which houses his papers. Gilbreth discovered his vocation as a young building contractor when he sought ways to make bricklaying faster and easier; this grew into a collaboration with his wife, Lillian Moller Gilbreth, who studied the work habits of manufacturing and clerical employees in all sorts of industries to find ways to increase output and make their jobs easier.
He and Lillian founded a management consulting firm, Inc. focusing on such endeavors. They were involved in the development of the design for the Simmons Hardware Company's Sioux City Warehouse; the architects had specified that hundreds of 20-foot hardened concrete piles were to be driven in to allow the soft ground to take the weight of two million bricks required to construct the building. The "Time and Motion" approach could be applied to the transportation; the building was required to support efficient input and output of deliveries via its own railroad switching facilities. Gilbreth, one of the founders of industrial engineering, used "cost-plus-a-fixed sum" contracts in his building contracting business, he described this method in an article in Industrial Magazine in 1907, comparing it to fixed price and guaranteed maximum price methods. Gilbreth married Lillian Evelyn Moller on October 19, 1904, in California, their names were Anne Moller Gilbreth Barney, Mary Elizabeth Gilbreth, Ernestine Moller Gilbreth Carey, Martha Bunker Gilbreth Tallman, Frank Bunker Gilbreth Jr. William Moller Gilbreth, Lillian Gilbreth Johnson, Frederick Moller Gilbreth, Daniel Bunker Gilbreth, John Moller Gilbreth, Robert Moller Gilbreth, Jane Moller Gilbreth Heppes.
Gilbreth died of a heart attack on June 14, 1924, at age 55. He was at the Lackawanna railway station in Montclair, New Jersey, talking with his wife by telephone. Lillian outlived him by 48 years. Gilbreth served in the U. S. Army during World War I, his assignment was to find quicker and more efficient means of assembling and disassembling small arms. According to Claude George, Gilbreth reduced all motions of the hand into some combination of 17 basic motions; these included grasp, transport loaded, hold. Gilbreth named the motions therbligs — "Gilbreth" spelled backwards with letters th transposed to their original order, he used a motion picture camera, calibrated in fractions of minutes to time the smallest of motions in workers. Their emphasis on the "one best way" and therbligs predates the development of continuous quality improvement, the late 20th century understanding that repeated motions c
Étienne-Jules Marey was a French scientist and chronophotographer. His work was significant in the development of cardiology, physical instrumentation, aviation and the science of laboratory photography, he is considered to be a pioneer of photography and an influential pioneer of the history of cinema. He was a pioneer in establishing a variety of graphical techniques for the display and interpretation of quantitative data from physiological measurement. Marey started by studying blood circulation in the human body, he shifted to analyzing heart beats, respiration and movement of the body. To aid his studies he developed many instruments for precise measurements. For example, in 1859, in collaboration with the physiologist Auguste Chauveau and the watch manufacturer Breguet, he developed a wearable Sphygmograph to measure the pulse; this sphygmograph was an improvement on an earlier and more cumbersome design by the German physiologist Karl von Vierordt. In 1869 Marey constructed a delicate artificial insect to show how an insect flies and to demonstrate the figure-8 shape it produced during movement of its wings.
He became fascinated by movements of air and started to study bigger flying animals, like birds. He adopted and further developed animated photography into a separate field of chronophotography in the 1880s, his revolutionary idea was to record several phases of movement on one photographic surface. In 1890 he published a substantial volume entitled Le Vol des Oiseaux, richly illustrated with photographs and diagrams, he created stunningly precise sculptures of various flying birds. Marey studied other animals too, he published La Machine animale in 1873. The English photographer Eadweard Muybridge carried out his "Photographic Investigation" in Palo Alto, California, to prove that Marey was right when he wrote that a galloping horse for a brief moment had all four hooves off the ground. Muybridge published his photos in 1879 and received some public attention. Marey hoped to merge anatomy and physiology. To better understand his chronophotographic images, he compared them with images of the anatomy, skeleton and muscles of the same species.
Marey produced a series of drawings showing a horse trotting and galloping, first in the flesh and as a skeleton. The presence and activity of Marey in Naples is well documented, in particular thanks to the documentation preserved in the historical archive of the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn. Marey began to travel to Naples because of his relation with madame Vilbort, wife of Joseph Vilbort, the director of the French journal Le Globe. Madame Vilbort moved to Naples to cure her illness, thanks to the warm climate, Marey followed her. Marey and madame Vilbort bought villa Maria in Posillipo in 1880. Marey accomplished in Naples part of his studies aimed at the realization of his pre-cinematographic tools and in the Dohrn zoological station studied the movement of fishes hosted in the aquarium's tanks. In a letter dated 1 November 1876 Marey requested the Stazione Zoologica to provide live ray fishes for his studies. Among the documentation that witnesses the collaboration of Marey with Anton Dohrn is the archive at the zoological station which preserves photos where the two appear together during an excursion and show Marey on board Dohrn's boat.
The usage of the chronophotographic gun, which Marey used to aim at birds, but without shooting, appeared unusual to local people who referred to Maray sometimes as the "silly from Posillipo". Marey's chronophotographic gun was made in 1882, this instrument was capable of taking 12 consecutive frames a second, with all the frames recorded on the same picture. Using these pictures he studied horses, dogs, donkeys, fish, microscopic creatures, insects, etc; some call it Marey's "animated zoo". Marey conducted the famous study about cats always landing on their feet, he conducted similar studies with a chicken and a dog and found that they could do the same. Marey studied human locomotion, he published another book Le Mouvement in 1894. Marey made movies, they were at a high speed and of excellent image quality. His research on how to capture and display moving images helped the emerging field of cinematography. Towards the end of his life he returned to studying the movement of quite abstract forms, like a falling ball.
His last great work was the observation and photography of smoke trails. This research was funded by Samuel Pierpont Langley under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, after the two met in Paris at the Exposition Universelle. In 1901 he was able to build a smoke machine with 58 smoke trails, it became one of the first aerodynamic wind tunnels. Eadweard Muybridge Chronophotography Works by or about Étienne-Jules Marey at Internet Archive Works by Étienne-Jules Marey at Open Library The science of movement and the image of time: online exhibition by the BIUM, with the Collège de France and Pr Marta Braun, author of Picturing Time: The Work of Etienne-Jules Marey Movements of Air, Etienne-Jules Marey, Photographer of Fluids Online exhibition of images, movies, animation Etienne-Jules Marey: digital library, BIUM Photo and biography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science Étienne-Jules Marey on IMDb La machine animale "Bodies Against Time," an essay by Zoe Beloff in online magazine Tr
Ansel Easton Adams was an American landscape photographer and environmentalist known for his black-and-white images of the American West. Adams helped found Group f/64, an association of photographers advocating "pure" photography that favored sharp focus and the use of the full tonal range of a photograph. With Fred Archer, he developed an exacting system of image-making called the Zone System, which described a method of achieving a desired final print through a technical understanding of how tonal range is recorded and developed in exposure, negative development, printing; the resulting clarity and depth of such images characterized his photography. Adams was a life-long advocate for environmental conservation, his photographic practice was entwined with this advocacy. At age 12, he was given his first camera during his first visit to Yosemite National Park, he developed his early photographic work as a member of the Sierra Club. He was contracted with the U. S. Department of the Interior to make photographs of U.
S. National Parks. For his work and his persistent advocacy, which helped expand the National Park system, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1980. With trustee David H. McAlpin and curator Beaumont Newhall, Adams was a key advisor in establishing the photography department at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, an important landmark in securing photography's institutional legitimacy, he helped to stage that department's first photography exhibition, helped found the photography magazine Aperture, co-founded the Center for Creative Photography at the University of Arizona. Adams was born in the Fillmore District of San Francisco, the only child of Charles Hitchcock Adams and Olive Bray Adams, he was named after Ansel Easton. His mother's family came from Baltimore, where his maternal grandfather had a successful freight-hauling business but lost his wealth investing in failed mining and real estate ventures in Nevada; the Adams family came from New England, having migrated from Northern Ireland during the early 18th century.
His paternal grandfather founded and built a prosperous lumber business which his father managed. In life, Adams condemned the industry his grandfather worked in for cutting down many of the great redwood forests. One of Adams's earliest memories was watching the smoke from the fires caused by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Four years old, Adams was uninjured in the initial shaking but was tossed face-first into a garden wall during an aftershock three hours breaking and scarring his nose. A doctor recommended that his nose be reset once he reached maturity, but it remained crooked and necessitated mouth breathing for his entire life. In 1907, his family moved 2 miles west to a new home near the Seacliff neighborhood, just south of the Presidio Army Base; the home had a "splendid view" of the Marin Headlands. Adams was a hyperactive child and prone to frequent hypochondria, he had few friends, but his family home and surroundings on the heights facing the Golden Gate provided ample childhood activities.
He had little patience for games or sports, but enjoyed the beauty of nature from an early age, collecting bugs and exploring Lobos Creek all the way to Baker Beach and the sea cliffs leading to Lands End, "San Francisco's wildest and rockiest coast, a place strewn with shipwrecks and rife with landslides." Adams's father had a three-inch telescope, they enthusiastically shared the hobby of amateur astronomy, visiting the Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton together. His father served as the paid secretary-treasurer of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific from 1925 to 1950. Charles Adams's business suffered significant financial losses after the death of his father in the aftermath of the Panic of 1907; some of the induced near-poverty was because his uncle Ansel Easton and Cedric Wright's father George had secretly sold their shares of the company to the Hawaiian Sugar Trust for a large amount of money, "knowingly providing the controlling interest." By 1912, the family's standard of living had dropped sharply.
Adams was dismissed from several private schools for being restless and inattentive, so when he was 12 his father decided to remove him from school. For the next two years he was educated by private tutors, his aunt Mary, his father. Mary was a devotee of Robert G. Ingersoll, a 19th-century agnostic and women's suffrage advocate, so Ingersoll's teachings were important to his upbringing. During the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in 1915, his father insisted that he spend part of each day studying the exhibits as part of his education, he resumed and completed his formal education by attending the Mrs. Kate M. Wilkins Private School, graduating from eighth grade on June 8, 1917. During his years, he displayed his diploma in the guest bathroom of his home, his father raised him to follow the ideas of Ralph Waldo Emerson: to live a modest, moral life guided by a social responsibility to man and nature. Adams had a loving relationship with his father, but he had a distant relationship with his mother, who did not approve of his interest in photography.
The day after her death in 1950, Ansel had a dispute with the undertaker when choosing the casket in which to bury her. He chose the cheapest in the room, a $260 coffin that seemed the least he could purchase without doing the job himself; the undertaker remarked, "Have you no respect for the dead?" Adams replied, "One more crack like that and I will take Mama elsewhere." Adams became interested in piano at age 12 after hearing his sixteen-year-old neighbor, Henry Cowell, play on the Adamses' piano, he taught himself to play and read music. Cowell a well-known avante-garde composer, gave
Rochester Institute of Technology
Rochester Institute of Technology is a private doctoral university within the town of Henrietta in the Rochester, New York metropolitan area. RIT is composed of nine academic colleges, including the National Technical Institute for the Deaf; the Institute is one of a few engineering institutes in the State of New York, including New York Institute of Technology, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. It is most known for its fine arts, computing and imaging science programs; the university began as a result of an 1891 merger between Rochester Athenæum, a literary society founded in 1829 by Colonel Nathaniel Rochester and associates, The Mechanics Institute, a Rochester institute of practical technical training for local residents founded in 1885 by a consortium of local businessmen including Captain Henry Lomb, co-founder of Bausch & Lomb. The name of the merged institution at the time was called Rochester Athenæum and Mechanics Institute, despite of the fact The Mechanics Institute was considered as the surviving school by taken over The Rochester Athenaeum's charter and celebrating its founding year of 1885.
In 1944, the school changed its name to Rochester Institute of Technology, re-established it's founding charter of 1829 and became a full-fledged research university. The Institute resided within the city of Rochester, New York, proper, on a block bounded by the Erie Canal, South Plymouth Avenue, Spring Street, South Washington Street, its art department was located in the Bevier Memorial Building. By the middle of the twentieth century, RIT began to outgrow its facilities, surrounding land was scarce and expensive. In 1961, an unanticipated donation of $3.27 million from local Grace Watson, for whom RIT's dining hall was named, allowed the Institute to purchase land for a new 1,300-acre campus several miles south along the east bank of the Genesee River in suburban Henrietta. Upon completion in 1968, the Institute moved to the new suburban campus. In 1966, RIT was selected by the Federal government to be the site of the newly founded National Technical Institute for the Deaf. NTID admitted its first students in 1968, concurrent with RIT's transition to the Henrietta campus.
In 1979, RIT took over a liberal arts college located in Seneca Falls, New York. Despite making a 5-year commitment to keep Eisenhower open, RIT announced in July 1982 that the college would close immediately. One final year of operation by Eisenhower's academic program took place in the 1982–83 school year on the Henrietta campus; the final Eisenhower graduation took place in May 1983 back in Seneca Falls. In 1990, RIT started its first Ph. D. program, in Imaging Science – the first Ph. D. program of its kind in the U. S. RIT subsequently established Ph. D programs in six other fields: Astrophysical Sciences and Technology and Information Sciences, Color Science, Microsystems Engineering and Engineering. In 1996, RIT became the first college in the U. S to offer a Software Engineering degree at the undergraduate level; the current campus is housed on a 1,300 acres property. This property is covered with woodland and fresh-water swamp making it a diverse wetland, home to a number of somewhat rare plant species.
The campus comprises 5.1 million square feet of building space. The nearly universal use of bricks in the campus's construction — estimated at 14,673,565 bricks in late 2006 — prompted students to give it the semi-affectionate nickname "Brick City," reflected in the name of events such as the annual "Brick City Homecoming." Though the buildings erected in the first few decades of the campus's existence reflected the architectural style known as brutalism, the warm color of the bricks softened the impact somewhat. More recent additions to the campus have diversified the architecture while still incorporating the traditional brick colors. In October 2013, Travel+Leisure named it as one of the ugliest college campuses in the United States, citing the monotone brick and the suburbanization, leaving no youth activities within walking distance of the campus. In 2009, the campus was named a "Campus Sustainability Leader" by the Sustainable Endowments Institute; the residence halls and the academic side of campus are connected with a walkway called the "Quarter Mile."
Along the Quarter Mile, between the academic and residence hall side are various administration and support buildings. On the academic side of the walkway is a courtyard, known as the Infinity Quad due to a striking polished stainless steel sculpture of a continuous ribbon-like Möbius strip in the middle of it; these symbols represent time to infinity. The Quarter Mile is 0.41 miles long when measured between the mobius sculpture and the sundial. The name comes from a student fundraiser, where quarters were lined up from the sundial to the Infinity Sculpture. Standing near the Administration Building and the Student Alumni Union is The Sentinel, a steel structure created by the acclaimed metal sculptor, Alb
Light art or luminism is an applied art form in which light is the main medium of expression. It is an art form in which either a sculpture produces light, or light is used to create a "sculpture" through the manipulation of light and shadows; these sculptures can be temporary or permanent, can exist in two distinctive spaces: indoor galleries, such as museum exhibits, or outdoors at events like festivals. Light art can be an interaction of light within an architectural space. Light artists are those that devote all their creative experimentation to light art, some artists experiment with light and neon signage and use light in their practice; the first examples of modern light art appeared after the discovery of electric lighting made longterm lighting safe and affordable at the end of the 19th century. Light art however didn't become a dedicated form of art until the late 20th century, due in large part due to pioneering work begun in 1969, as part of an experimental program at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, by Robert Irwin and James Turrell.
Light has been used for architectural effect throughout human history. However, the modern concept of light art emerged with the development of artificial electric incandescent light sources and experimentation by modern artists of the Constructivist and Bauhaus movements. "Prounenraum, by El Lissitzky, is considered by many art historians to be the first time an artist incorporated architectural lighting elements as a component integral to his work." The first object-based light sculpture was the Light-Space Modulator, by László Moholy-Nagy. Experimentation and innovations in theatrical light have influenced other areas of light use such as light art; the development of Modernism and the electric light go hand-in-hand. All visual art uses light in some form, but in modern photography and motion pictures, use of light is important. However, with the invention of electrical artificial light, possibilities expanded and many artists began using light as the main form of expression, rather than as a vehicle for other forms of art.
Constructivist Naum Gabo experimented with the transparent materiality light reflects on an object. Marcel Duchamp's Hat Rack, casts a shadow against the wall. Art critic Hilarie M. Sheets explains that "the interplay of dark and light has been a theme running from Greek and Roman sculpture to Renaissance painting to experimental film, but as technology advanced from the glow of the electric light bulb to the computer monitor, artists have been experimenting with actual light as material and subject." Associated art forms are projectors, 3-D map projection, multi-media, video art, photography where light technology projects images rather than using light as the medium. Large light festivals and events have helped to develop the use of light on large canvases such as architectural facades, building projections, the flood lighting of buildings with colour, interactive media facades; these forms of light art have their antecedents in new media-based, video art and photography which are sometimes classified as light art since light and movement are important to the work.
Included in the light art genre is the so-called light graffiti including projection onto buildings, arrangement of lighted windows in buildings, painting with hand-held lights onto film using time exposure. An example of a light art installation was that of artists Mel and Dorothy Tanner, who began adding light to their paintings and sculptures at their studio in Miami, Florida, in 1967; this was the same time period as that of Light and Space artists James Turrell and Robert Irwin in Los Angeles, on the opposite U. S. coast. The Tanners worked closely for over 40 years until Mel Tanner died in 1993, their main project was the creation of Lumonics that consists of their light sculptures, live projection, video and music as a total art installation. Author and art historian, Michael Betancourt described this conceptual art as a Gesamtkunstwerk in his book, The Lumonics Theater: The Art of Mel & Dorothy Tanner, published in 2004. Dorothy Tanner, born in 1923, continues her light art from her studio in Denver, co-directs the Lumonics School of Light Art with Marc Billard.
Many modern art museums include light sculptures and installations in their permanent and temporary collections. The Centre for International Light Art in Unna, Germany is the world's only museum dedicated to the collection and presentation of light art; the Light Art Museum in Eindhoven, another museum dedicated to the display of light art, closed on December 5, 2010 due to insufficient funding, but at the Strijp-S complex, one can see the Fakkel by Har Hollands, Daan Roosegaarde's Crystal as well as part of the light festival GLOW. Many well-known art museums, such as the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and the Museum of Modern Art in New York have temporary light art exhibits and installations in their galleries. Light festivals and the smart city LED revolution was driven by outdoor urban light sculpture with low energy LED luminaires. Light artists were able to create new exhibition spaces collectively in the form of light art festivals; these festivals have continued to help to highlight ecological change.
This LED low energy movement dates back to the 2009 by the Vivid Smart Light Festival in Sydney. In Singapore, the i Light Marina Bay festival—Asia's only sustainable light festival—was first hosted in 2010. There are many light art festivals in Europe, including the Signal Festival in Prag
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona