Port Lincoln is a city on the Lower Eyre Peninsula in the Australian state of South Australia. It is situated on the shore of Boston Bay, it is the largest city in the West Coast region, is located 280 km as the crow flies from the State's capital city of Adelaide. The city is reputed to have the most millionaires per capita in Australia; the town claims to be the "Seafood Capital of Australia". The Eyre Peninsula has been home to Aboriginal people for over 40 thousand years, with the Barngarla, Nauo and Mirning being the predominant original cultural groups present at the time of the arrival of Europeans.. The original Barngarla name for Port Lincoln was Galinyala. Matthew Flinders was the first European to discover Port Lincoln under his commission by the British Admiralty to chart Australia's unexplored coastline. On 25 February 1802, Flinders sailed his exploration vessel HMS Investigator into the harbour, which he named Port Lincoln after the city of Lincoln in his native county of Lincolnshire in England.
A couple of months on 19 April, Nicolas Baudin entered the same port and named it Port Champagny. Sealers had visited the area around 1828 and the French whailing ships were fishing the local bays and island regions by the 1820s and up to the 1840s. In 1836 Governor Sir John Hindmarsh, the first Governor of South Australia, gave instructions to Colonel William Light of finding a capital for the'New British Province of South Australia'. He'd been in the colony for four months and in all that time he'd been trying to find a right place for a harbour, a right place for a settlement. With boatfuls of immigrants set to arrive and impatient settlers camping at Holdfast Bay, Rapid Bay and Kangaroo Island, Light was under immense pressure to identify a location with a suitable harbour, sufficient agricultural land and fresh water. After assessing a number of other potential locations, Light was ordered by England to consider Port Lincoln as a possible site for the capital. While Thomas Lipson had arrived in Port Lincoln earlier and approved of its'beautiful harbour' and'fertile land', Light was unconvinced from the beginning as he faced fierce westerly gales, ill-placed islands and rocky reefs on arrival.
Light decided it might be dangerous for merchant ships trying to enter the unfamiliar territory after a long voyage and that there was not enough of what he thought was good agricultural land, not enough fresh water to sustain a city so he decided to choose Adelaide as the most suitable place for settlement. Port Lincoln however, proved popular with pioneers and developers, with the first settlers arriving on 19 March 1839 aboard the ships Abeona and Dorset. On 3 October 1839 Governor George Gawler proclaimed the whole area from Cape Catastrophe to the head of the Spencer Gulf as one district, which he named the District of Port Lincoln. Local Government formally began on the Eyre Peninsula on 1 July 1880 with the establishment of the District Council of Lincoln; the township of Port Lincoln was included in that area. On 18 August 1921 the Municipality of Port Lincoln was formally proclaimed. In 1840 one year after settlement, the population of Port Lincoln was 270. There were a hotel, blacksmith's shop and a store in the Happy Valley area.
Around this time, Edward John Eyre explored the peninsula, subsequently named in his honour. In early 1842, local Aboriginal resistance to the British invasion and settlement became so successful that it prompted the near abandonment of Port Lincoln; as a result, Governor George Grey ordered a detachment of the 96th Regiment of the British Army under the command of Lieutenant Hugonin to enforce control in the area. After an initial defeat at Pillaworta, the 96th in combination with the Mounted Police and armed settlers were able to restore full British authority by the end of 1843. A section of Native Police were deployed to the area to maintain this control. By 1936 the population had grown to 3200 and the town had a first class water supply; the port had become the commercial pivot for the area, providing for its many agricultural and commercial requirements. City status was granted to Port Lincoln on 21 January 1971 and the proclamation was read at the opening of the tenth annual Tunarama Festival on the Australia Day weekend.
The lack of a reliable surface water supply was a factor preventing Port Lincoln from being proclaimed the colony's capital city in the 1830s. As a small town, Port Lincoln outgrew its fresh water supplies, it is now dependent on water drawn from groundwater basins in the south of the peninsula. The southern and western parts of the Eyre Peninsula region share this resource via the Tod-Ceduna pipeline; the Iron Knob to Kimba pipeline completed in 2007 provides limited transfer capacity of River Murray water into the Tod-Ceduna system. Following the development of a long term water supply plan for Eyre Peninsula, the South Australian government is progressing detailed investigation of augmentation options; these including seawater desalination. A potable water resource fed by the Tod River, the Tod Reservoir was taken offline in 2001–2002 due to concerns about rising levels of agricultural chemical contamination and salinity. Port Lincoln has a number of places listed on the South Australian Heritage Register, including: Dorset Place: Old Mill Lookout Hawson Place: Hawson's Grave 152 Proper Bay Road: Arrandale Railway Terrace: Port Lincoln railway station 36 Washington Street: Port Lincoln Police Station and Courthouse 20 Windsor Avenue: Ravendale House At June 2015 Port Lincoln had an esti
The tonne referred to as the metric ton in the United States and Canada, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms or one megagram. It is equivalent to 2,204.6 pounds, 1.102 short tons or 0.984 long tons. Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures; the tonne is derived from the weight of 1 cubic metre of pure water. The SI symbol for the tonne is't', adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879, its use is official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology. It is a symbol, not an abbreviation, should not be followed by a period. Use of upper and lower case is significant, use of other letter combinations is not permitted and would lead to ambiguity. For example,'T','MT','Mt','mt' are the SI symbols for the tesla, megatesla and millitonne respectively. If describing TNT equivalent units of energy, this is equivalent to 4.184 petajoules.
In French and most varieties of English, tonne is the correct spelling. It is pronounced the same as ton, but when it is important to clarify that the metric term is meant, rather than short ton, the final "e" can be pronounced, i.e. "tonny". In Australia, it is pronounced. Before metrication in the UK the unit used for most purposes was the Imperial ton of 2,240 pounds avoirdupois or 20 hundredweight, equivalent to 1,016 kg, differing by just 1.6% from the tonne. The UK Weights and Measures Act 1985 explicitly excluded from use for trade certain imperial units, including the ton, unless the item being sold or the weighing equipment being used was weighed or certified prior to 1 December 1980, then only if the buyer was made aware that the weight of the item was measured in imperial units. In the United States metric ton is the name for this unit used and recommended by NIST. Both spellings are acceptable in Canadian usage. Ton and tonne are both derived from a Germanic word in general use in the North Sea area since the Middle Ages to designate a large cask, or tun.
A full tun, standing about a metre high, could weigh a tonne. An English tun of wine weighs a tonne, 954 kg if full of water, a little less for wine; the spelling tonne pre-dates the introduction of the SI in 1960. In the United States, the unit was referred to using the French words millier or tonneau, but these terms are now obsolete; the Imperial and US customary units comparable to the tonne are both spelled ton in English, though they differ in mass. One tonne is equivalent to: Metric/SI: 1 megagram. Equal to 1000000 grams or 1000 kilograms. Megagram, Mg, is the official SI unit. Mg is distinct from milligram. Pounds: Exactly 1000/0.453 592 37 lb, or 2204.622622 lb. US/Short tons: Exactly 1/0.907 184 74 short tons, or 1.102311311 ST. One short ton is 0.90718474 t. Imperial/Long tons: Exactly 1/1.016 046 9088 long tons, or 0.9842065276 LT. One long ton is 1.0160469088 t. For multiples of the tonne, it is more usual to speak of millions of tonnes. Kilotonne and gigatonne are more used for the energy of nuclear explosions and other events in equivalent mass of TNT loosely as approximate figures.
When used in this context, there is little need to distinguish between metric and other tons, the unit is spelt either as ton or tonne with the relevant prefix attached. *The equivalent units columns use the short scale large-number naming system used in most English-language countries, e.g. 1 billion = 1,000 million = 1,000,000,000.†Values in the equivalent short and long tons columns are rounded to five significant figures, see Conversions for exact values.ǂThough non-standard, the symbol "kt" is used for knot, a unit of speed for aircraft and sea-going vessels, should not be confused with kilotonne. A metric ton unit can mean 10 kilograms within metal trading within the US, it traditionally referred to a metric ton of ore containing 1% of metal. The following excerpt from a mining geology textbook describes its usage in the particular case of tungsten: "Tungsten concentrates are traded in metric tonne units (originally designating one tonne of ore containing 1% of WO3, today used to measure WO3 quantities in 10 kg units.
One metric tonne unit of tungsten contains 7.93 kilograms of tungsten." Note that tungsten is known as wolfram and has the atomic symbol W. In the case of uranium, the acronym MTU is sometimes considered to be metric ton of uranium, meaning 1,000 kg. A gigatonne of carbon dioxide equivalent is a unit used by the UN climate change panel, IPCC, to measure the effect of a technolo
An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. Oars have a flat blade at one end. Rowers grasp the oar at the other end; the difference between oars and paddles are that oars only have one blade, are used for rowing, whereas paddles can have either one or two blade and are not rowed. Oars for rowing are connected to the vessel by means of rowlocks or tholes which transmit the applied force to the boat. In this system the water is the fulcrum. By contrast, like those used by canoeists, are held in both hands by the paddler, are not attached to the vessel. Rowers face the stern of the vessel, reach towards the stern, insert the blade of their oar in the water; as they lean back, towards the vessel's bow, the blade of their oars sweeps the water towards the stern, providing forward thrust – see lever. For thousands of years vessels were powered either by sails, or the mechanical work of rowers, or paddlers; some ancient vessels were propelled by either oars or sail, depending on the speed and direction of the wind.
Rowing oars have been used since the early Neolithic period. Wooden oars, with canoe-shaped pottery, dating from 5000–4500 BC have been discovered in a Hemudu culture site at Yuyao, Zhejiang, in modern China. In 1999, an oar measuring 63.4 cm in length, dating from 4000 BC, was unearthed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. Oars have traditionally been made of wood; the form is a long shaft with a flat blade on the end. Where the oar connects to the boat there is a "collar" which stops the oar slipping past the rowlock. Oars have a handle about 150mm long, which may be a material sleeve or alternatively an ovoid shape carved to fit the hands; this is a normal wooden oar to which weight has been added at the inboard end so that the blade end is noticeably lighter and easier for a rower to operate without fatigue. The two methods of adding weight are to either have a much larger section in the oar next to the handle for a distance of about 450 millimetres or to drill an 18-millimetre hole inside the handle for a distance of about 150 millimetres and add about 12 oz of lead secured by epoxy resin glue.
For a 7-foot oar the balance point is about 12 inches outboard of the rowlock. Surplus wood is removed from the blade's width and thickness and at the neck between the blade and the shaft to further reduce outboard weight; this type of oar is much better for long-range rowing. The oars used for transport come in a variety of sizes; the oars used in small dinghies or rafts can be less than 2 metres long. In classical times warships were propelled by long oars that might have several oarsmen per oar; these oars could be more than a dozen metres long. The oars used in competitive rowing are long poles with one flat end about 50 cm long and 25 cm wide, called the blade; the part of the oar the oarsman holds. While rowing, the oars are supported by metal frames attached to the side of the boat called outriggers. Classic oars were made of wood, but modern oars are made from synthetic material, the most common being carbon fibre; the sport of competitive rowing has developed a tradition of using an oar as a memento of significant race wins.
A'trophy oar' is not presented at the end of the race as a more familiar precious metal cup might be, but rather given by the club, school or university that the winning crew or rower represented. A trophy oar is a competition oar, painted in the club colours and has had the details of the race signwritten on the face of the blade; the most common format would have the coat of arms or crest of the club or school positioned in the centre, with the crew names and the race details arranged around this. Many older universities and their colleges have long histories of using the trophy oar and many examples are on display in club houses around the world; the Norwegian municipalities of Fedje and Herøy both have oars in their coat-of-arms. Oars have been used to describe various animals with characteristics that resemble the said rowing implement; the members of the Family Regalecidae, elongated deep-sea fishes, are called oarfish because their body shape is similar to that of an oar. The hawksbill turtle's genus of Eretmochelys is derived from the Greek root eretmo, which translates to oar.
The turtle was so-named because of the oar-like shape of its front flippers. Oar Sculling Steering oar Paddle Oar positions, 1775 – 1783 British Navy
A Dutch barge or schuyt is a flat-bottomed boat used for cargo carrying in the Netherlands, many of which have now been converted for pleasure or residential use. Made of wood and powered by sail, most of the existing barges are made of iron or steel and powered by diesel engines. There are many traditional types, with characteristics determined by local conditions or custom. A typical Dutch barge at the turn of the 20th century was described as having a large rudder which could be raised by an arrangement of blocks and tackles and a pair of leeboards. Schuyts engaged in eel fishing were said to have begun visiting London in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and were granted the use of a berth there, which continued in use until the 20th century, they vary in size from 15m to 40m in length and are built lighter than an equivalent Humber barge since they were not designed to take the ground in the same way. Sailing matches are still held on the Wadden Sea. Aak Beurtschip Dekschuit Hagenaar Katwijker Klipper Luxe motor Skûtsje Steilsteven Tjalk Westlander D. Evershed, The Dutch Barge Book.
ISBN 0-9532231-1-6 The Barge Buyer's Handbook. Barge Association Martens & Loomeijer, Binnenvaartschepen. J&J Griffin, The Quick Reference Guide to Dutch Barges
A mooring refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured. Examples include quays, jetties, anchor buoys, mooring buoys. A ship is secured to a mooring to forestall free movement of the ship on the water. An anchor mooring fixes a vessel's position relative to a point on the bottom of a waterway without connecting the vessel to shore; as a verb, mooring refers to the act of attaching a vessel to a mooring. The term stems from the Dutch verb meren, used in English since the end of the 15th century; these moorings are used instead of temporary anchors because they have more holding power, cause less damage to the marine environment, are convenient. Where there is a row of moorings they are termed a tier, they are occasionally used to hold floating docks in place. There are several kinds of moorings: Swing moorings known as simple or single-point moorings, are the simplest and most common kind of mooring. A swing mooring consists of a single anchor at the bottom of a waterway with a rode running to a float on the surface.
The float allows a vessel to connect to the anchor. These anchors are known as swing moorings because a vessel attached to this kind of mooring swings in a circle when the direction of wind or tide changes. For a small boat, this might consist of a heavy weight on the seabed, a 12 mm or 14 mm rising chain attached to the "anchor", a bridle made from 20 mm nylon rope, steel cable, or a 16 mm combination steel wire material; the heavy weight should be a dense material. Old rail wagon wheels are used in some places for this purpose. In some harbours heavy chain may be placed in a grid pattern on the sea bed to ensure orderly positioning of moorings. Ropes should be "non floating" to reduce likelihood of a boat's prop being fouled by one. Pile moorings are poles driven into the bottom of the waterway with their tops above the water. Vessels tie mooring lines to two or four piles to fix their position between those piles. Pile moorings are rare elsewhere. While many mooring buoys are owned, some are available for public use.
For example, on the Great Barrier Reef off the Australian coast, a vast number of public moorings are set out in popular areas where boats can moor. This is to avoid the massive damage. There are four basic types of permanent anchors used in moorings: Dead weights are the simplest type of anchor, they are made as a large concrete block with a rode attached which resists movement with sheer weight. In New Zealand old railway wheels are sometimes used; the advantages are that they are cheap. A dead weight mooring that drags in a storm still holds well in its new position; such moorings are better suited to rocky bottoms. The disadvantages are that they are heavy and awkward. Mushroom anchors are the most common anchors and work best for softer seabeds such as mud, sand, or silt, they are shaped like an upside-down mushroom which can be buried in mud or silt. The advantage is that it has up to ten times the holding-power-to-weight ratio compared to a dead weight mooring. Pyramid anchors are pyramid-shaped anchors known as Dor-Mor anchors.
They work in the upside-down position with the apex pointing down at the bottom such that when they are deployed, the weight of wider base pushes the pyramid down digging into the floor. As the anchors are encountered with lateral pulls, the side edges or corners of the pyramids will dig deeper under the floor, making them more stable. Screw-in moorings are a modern method; the anchor in a screw-in mooring is a shaft with wide blades spiraling around it so that it can be screwed into the substrate. The advantages include small size; the disadvantage is that a diver is needed to install and maintain these moorings. Multiple anchor mooring systems use two or more light weight temporary-style anchors set in an equilateral arrangement and all chained to a common center from which a conventional rode extends to a mooring buoy; the advantages are minimized mass, ease of deployment, high holding-power-to-weight ratio, availability of temporary-style anchors. A vessel can be made fast to any variety of shore fixtures from trees and rocks to specially constructed areas such as piers and quays.
The word pier is used in the following explanation in a generic sense. Mooring is accomplished using thick ropes called mooring lines or hawsers; the lines are fixed to deck fittings on the vessel at one end and to fittings such as bollards and cleats on the other end. Mooring requires cooperation between people on a vessel. Heavy mooring lines are passed from larger vessels to people on a mooring by smaller, weighted heaving lines. Once a mooring line is attached to a bollard, it is pulled tight. Large ships tighten their mooring lines using heavy machinery called mooring winches or capstans; the heaviest cargo ships may require more than a dozen mooring lines. Small vessels can be moored by four to six mooring lines. Mooring lines are made from manila rope or a synthetic material such as nylon. Nylon is easy to work with and lasts for years, but it is elastic; this elasticity has advantag
London Docklands is the riverfront and former docks in London. In east and southeast London, it forms part of the boroughs of Southwark, Tower Hamlets, Lewisham and Greenwich; the docks were part of the Port of London, at one time the world's largest port. Following the closure of the docks, the area became poverty-ridden by the 1980s; the Docklands' regeneration began that decade. The name "London Docklands" was used for the first time in a government report on redevelopment plans in 1971 and has since become universally adopted; the redevelopment created wealth, but led to conflict between the new and old communities in the areas thus designated. In Roman and medieval times, ships arriving in the River Thames tended to dock at small quays in the present-day City of London or Southwark, an area known as the Pool of London. However, these gave no protection against the elements, were vulnerable to thieves and suffered from a lack of space at the quayside; the Howland Great Dock in Rotherhithe was designed to address these problems, providing a large and sheltered anchorage with room for 120 large vessels.
It was a major commercial success, provided for two phases of expansion during the Georgian and Victorian eras. The first of the Georgian docks was the West India, followed by the London, the East India, the Surrey, the Regent's Canal Dock, St Katharine and the West India South; the Victorian docks were further east, comprising the Royal Victoria and Royal Albert. The King George V Dock was a late addition in 1921. Three principal kinds of docks existed. Wet docks were where ships were laid up at loaded or unloaded. Dry docks, which were far smaller, took individual ships for repairing. Ships were built at dockyards along the riverside. In addition, the river was lined with innumerable warehouses, piers and dolphins; the various docks tended to specialise in different forms of produce. The Surrey Docks concentrated for instance; the docks required an army of workers, chiefly lightermen and quayside workers, who dealt with the goods once they were ashore. Some of the workers were skilled: the lightermen had their own livery company or guild, while the deal porters were famous for their acrobatic skills.
Most were worked as casual labourers. They assembled at certain points, such as pubs, each morning, where they were selected more or less at random by foremen. For these workers, it was a lottery as to whether they would get work—and pay, food—on any particular day; this arrangement continued until as late as 1965, although it was somewhat regularised after the creation of the National Dock Labour Scheme in 1947. The main dockland areas were low-lying marshes unsuitable for agriculture and populated. With the establishment of the docks, the dock workers formed a number of tight-knit local communities with their own distinctive cultures and slang. Poor communications meant that they were quite remote from other parts of London, so tended to develop in some isolation; the Isle of Dogs, for example, could only be accessed by road via two swing-bridges. Local sentiment there was so strong that Ted Johns, a local community campaigner, his supporters, in protest at the lack of social provision from the state, proclaimed a unilateral declaration of independence for the area, setting up a so-called'Island Council' with Johns himself as its elected leader, blocked off the two roads coming in from the mainland.
The docks were built and managed by a number of competing private companies. From 1909, they were managed by the Port of London Authority which amalgamated the companies in a bid to make the docks more efficient and improve labour relations; the PLA constructed the last of the docks, the King George V, in 1921, as well as expanding the Tilbury docks. German bombing during the Second World War caused massive damage to the docks, with 380,000 tons of timber destroyed in the Surrey Docks in a single night. Nonetheless, following post-war rebuilding they experienced a resurgence of prosperity in the 1950s; the end came between 1960 and 1970, when the shipping industry adopted the newly invented container system of cargo transportation. London's docks were unable to accommodate the much larger vessels needed by containerization, the shipping industry moved to deep-water ports such as Tilbury and Felixstowe. Between 1960 and 1980, all of London's docks were closed, leaving around eight square miles of derelict land in East London.
Unemployment was high, poverty and other social problems were rife. Efforts to redevelop the docks began as soon as they were closed, although it took a decade for most plans to move beyond the drawing board and another decade for redevelopment to take full effect; the situation was complicated by the large number of landowners involved: the PLA, the Greater London Council, the British Gas Corporation, five borough councils, British Rail and the Central Electricity Generating Board. To address this problem, in 1981 the Secretary of State for the Environment, Michael Heseltine, formed the London Docklands Development Corporation to redevelop the area; this was a statutory body appointed and funded by central government, with wide powers to acquire and dispose
Lightering is the process of transferring cargo between vessels of different sizes between a barge and a bulker or oil tanker. Lightering is undertaken to reduce a vessel's draft in order to enter port facilities which cannot accept large ocean-going vessels. Lightering can refer to the use of a lighter barge for any form of short-distance transport, such as to bring railroad cars across a river. In addition, lightering can refer to the process of removing oil or other hazardous chemicals from a compromised vessel to another vessel to prevent oil from spilling into the surrounding waters. Lightering was practiced for all types of cargo for centuries. Prior to the 19th century introduction of steamships too large to enter some of the ports they intended to serve, in which case lightering became necessary to reduce the vessels' draft sufficiently to enter the port, cargoes ranging from water to ships's stores, to gunpowder and shot, were carried from dockside to sailing ships moored in harbors and roadways.
Dredging, advances in dock construction, containerization have reduced the frequency of the practice in dry bulk shipping after the middle of the 20th century. However, the practice remains in common usage in the oil tanking industry. Lightering for tankers occurs in the EEZ between 20 nautical miles and 60 nautical miles from the shore, can be performed while the ships are at anchor, drifting, or underway; the product is transferred using specialized hoses which offload cargo from the larger vessel to the smaller. Fenders are used to separate the two ships moored to each other and prevent damage while the cargo is being transferred. In many developing nations, such as China and India, dry bulk vessels still lighter in order to meet draft restrictions at ports that either do not have natural deep water access or whose channels have yet to be dredged to sufficient depth to allow some of the larger-size bulk carriers to safely transit. In dry bulk, lightering can be undertaken one of two ways.
If the vessel to be lightered is geared it can discharge cargo to smaller, ungeared vessels. If the vessel to be lightered is gearless floating cranes are used to transfer cargo to another vessel or barge. A roll-on/roll-off discharge facility, a floating platform, can be used to connect the vessels. Although not common, vessels will sometimes lighter before berthings, shifting to shallower berths in order to discharge more and free up space for larger vessels. Lighter Lighter aboard ship Lighterage clause Lighterman'Adventures in Energy' animated description of lightering SPT Maritime Services information on lightering