The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is an open, vendor-neutral, industry standard application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over an Internet Protocol network. Directory services play an important role in developing intranet and Internet applications by allowing the sharing of information about users, networks and applications throughout the network; as examples, directory services may provide any organized set of records with a hierarchical structure, such as a corporate email directory. A telephone directory is a list of subscribers with an address and a phone number. LDAP is specified in a series of Internet Engineering Task Force Standard Track publications called Request for Comments, using the description language ASN.1. The latest specification is Version 3, published as RFC 4511. A common use of LDAP is to provide a central place to store passwords; this allows many different applications and services to connect to the LDAP server to validate users.
LDAP is based on a simpler subset of the standards contained within the X.500 standard. Because of this relationship, LDAP is sometimes called X.500-lite. Telecommunication companies' understanding of directory requirements were well developed after some 70 years of producing and managing telephone directories; these companies introduced the concept of directory services to information technology and computer networking, their input culminating in the comprehensive X.500 specification, a suite of protocols produced by the International Telecommunication Union in the 1980s. X.500 directory services were traditionally accessed via the X.500 Directory Access Protocol, which required the Open Systems Interconnection protocol stack. LDAP was intended to be a lightweight alternative protocol for accessing X.500 directory services through the simpler TCP/IP protocol stack. This model of directory access was borrowed from the DIXIE and Directory Assistance Service protocols; the protocol was created by Tim Howes of the University of Michigan, Steve Kille of Isode Limited, Colin Robbins of Nexor and Wengyik Yeong of Performance Systems International, circa 1993, as a successor to DIXIE and DAS.
Mark Wahl of Critical Angle Inc. Tim Howes, Steve Kille started work in 1996 on a new version of LDAP, LDAPv3, under the aegis of the Internet Engineering Task Force. LDAPv3, first published in 1997, superseded LDAPv2 and added support for extensibility, integrated the Simple Authentication and Security Layer, better aligned the protocol to the 1993 edition of X.500. Further development of the LDAPv3 specifications themselves and of numerous extensions adding features to LDAPv3 has come through the IETF. In the early engineering stages of LDAP, it was known as Lightweight Directory Browsing Protocol, or LDBP, it was renamed with the expansion of the scope of the protocol beyond directory browsing and searching, to include directory update functions. It was given its Lightweight name because it was not as network intensive as its DAP predecessor and thus was more implemented over the Internet due to its modest bandwidth usage. LDAP has influenced subsequent Internet protocols, including versions of X.500, XML Enabled Directory, Directory Service Markup Language, Service Provisioning Markup Language, the Service Location Protocol.
It is used as the basis for Microsoft's Active Directory. A client starts an LDAP session by connecting to an LDAP server, called a Directory System Agent, by default on TCP and UDP port 389, or on port 636 for LDAPS; the client sends an operation request to the server, a server sends responses in return. With some exceptions, the client does not need to wait for a response before sending the next request, the server may send the responses in any order. All information is transmitted using Basic Encoding Rules; the client may request the following operations: StartTLS – use the LDAPv3 Transport Layer Security extension for a secure connection Bind – authenticate and specify LDAP protocol version Search – search for and/or retrieve directory entries Compare – test if a named entry contains a given attribute value Add a new entry Delete an entry Modify an entry Modify Distinguished Name – move or rename an entry Abandon – abort a previous request Extended Operation – generic operation used to define other operations Unbind – close the connection In addition the server may send "Unsolicited Notifications" that are not responses to any request, e.g. before the connection is timed out.
A common alternative method of securing LDAP communication is using an SSL tunnel. The default port for LDAP over SSL is 636; the use of LDAP over SSL was common in LDAP Version 2 but it was never standardized in any formal specification. This usage has been deprecated along with LDAPv2, retired in 2003. Global Catalog is available by default on ports 3268, 3269 for LDAPS; the protocol provides an interface with directories that follow the 1993 edition of the X.500 model: An entry consists of a set of attributes. An attribute has one or more values; the attributes are defined in a schema. Each entry has a unique identifier: its Distinguished Name; this consists of its Relative Distinguished Name, constructed from some attribute in the entry, followed by the parent entry's DN. Think of the DN as the full file path and the RDN as its relative filename in its parent folder (e.g. if /foo/bar/myfile.txt were the DN
The Old Academy called Wilhelminum, is a building in the center of Munich, Germany. Dating from the 16th century, it has four inner courtyards. William V, Duke of Bavaria ordered the construction of a building for the college and the school of the Jesuits next to his St. Michael's Church; the college was established 1583-1590. It is unclear who designed the building, but it was as Friedrich Sustris. After the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1773 the building became a cantonment for cadets of the army. From 1783 to 1826, it housed the Court Library and Archives, a school of painting and sculpture. From 1826 to 1840, the Ludwig Maximilian University had its temporary domicile in the building. After severe destruction during the Second World War it was rebuilt by Josef Wiedemann to house the Bavarian Statistical Office
The 1908 Grand Prix season was the third Grand Prix racing season. An international economic recession affected motor-racing with smaller fields. However, in consequence, it saw an increase in the number of smaller cars and voiturette racing; this gave close racing between the teams from Sizaire-Naudin and Delage. Both the major races in Europe, the Targa Florio and French Grand Prix, had precursor voiturette races, along with the Coupe des Voiturettes, the honours were shared between those three manufacturers; this year’s Targa Florio had a small, but quality, field. Vincenzo Trucco won for Isotta-Fraschini with better mechanical reliability, after a close duel with the FIATs of Felice Nazzaro and Vincenzo Lancia; the French Grand Prix had a big field and this time Christian Lautenschlager in a Mercedes again denied the French a victory in their own race. Felice Nazzaro won the Coppa Florio for FIAT Sources: At the end of 1907, at a meeting in Ostend, the AIACR had set down new regulations for motor-racing.
In 10 years, top speeds had increased fourfold. More power had come from bigger and bigger engines – now approaching 20 litres, on chassis getting dangerously light and flimsy. So, the AIACR derived an international racing formula based on a maximum cylinder bore-length: 155mm for 4-cylinder engines and 127mm for 6-cylinders. A minimum weight of 1100kg was applied to enforce structural integrity, they opened the voiturette class up to 4-cylinder engines to further encourage development of smaller cars. For the voiturettes, the corresponding bore-length limitations were 65mm, 80mm and 100mm respectively; the Targa Florio opened the season with a small field of 9 entrants. In a close race across the rough Sicilian roads, the FIATs of Nazzaro and Lancia led but when they had to stop at the pits it was Vincenzo Trucco close behind who took the lead, he held it to the finish to give Isotta-Fraschini its first major victory. The French Grand Prix was once again held on the 77km circuit on the northern French coast at Dieppe.
Although this was only the third annual Grand Prix, the organising body, the ACF, numbered it the 11th French Grand Prix – by retroactively including the earlier inter-city races to add more faux-prestige. The track was well-provided for. Teams had service places built in a divided trench, from whence, came the term “pits”. A big field of 48 cars arrived. Challenging the established Renault, Richard-Brasier, Clément-Bayard and Mors were FIAT and Itala from Italy, Benz and Opel from Germany. Otto Salzer, in his Mercedes, led the first lap; as he fell back with engine issues it was Nazzaro and Wagner, Lautenschlager and Hémery who diced for the lead. The French cars dropped out with mechanical problems. Hémery was caught by a stone thrown up that put glass splinters in his eye. Despite the injury, he pressed on. Though Lautenschlager had to ease off to save his tyres he took the victory from Hémery, with René Hanriot third in another Benz; the partisan French crowd was left disgruntled. The day before, a huge field of 64 French cars had entered for the inaugural Grand Prix des Voiturettes.
Albert Guyot had enough fuel in his Delage to run the near 6-hour race without stopping. So when the leading pair of Sizaire-Naudins had to pit he could carry on to a comfortable 16-minute victory. Naudin was second followed by the Lion-Peugeots of Georges Boillot. In the year, at the "Coupe des Voiturettes" run at Compiègne, the Sizaire-Naudins had bigger fuel-tanks so now they could run non-stop. Naudin won ahead with Goux coming third. Following its sponsorship of the great race from Peking to Paris in 1907, this year French newspaper Le Matin organised an longer one from New York to Paris – travelling across the United States to Alaska before getting a boat to Japan, Vladivostok. Six cars started in Times Square on February 12th. After much controversy, the American team in a Thomas Flyer was declared the winner. In the United States, there had been a schism between the AAA and the ACA; the former ran the Vanderbilt Cup races, but these had been plagued by poor crowd control, the 1907 race had been cancelled accordingly.
It was reinstated in 1908 to the AAA’s own rules. This upset the European teams, who boycotted the race, so the ACA took the opportunity to launch their own race: the American Grand Prize run to the AIACR regulations and held on Thanksgiving Day, a month after the Vanderbilt Cup; the race was held on a 25-mile course outside of Georgia. The roads were in good condition and on race-day were lined with armed police and soldiers to maintain crowd control; the twenty entrants included the best European drivers. FIAT had Wagner, with a third car for Italian-American Ralph DePalma. Hémery and Hanriot were sent by Benz, as was Arthur Duray and Alessandro Cagno. DePalma thrilled the local crowd by taking the initial lead; the French and American cars lost ground leaving it to be a contest between Benz. Hémery crossed the line first but it was Wagner who won by a minute on corrected time. After the American Grand Prize, Henry Ford declared that American manufacturers could not compete with European cars unless they started building specialist racing cars.
However, he could not do so himself, as he had just started tooling up for mass-production of the Model T. Although French cars d