click links in text for more info


Lightworks is a professional non-linear editing system for editing and mastering digital video in various formats, including 2K and 4K resolutions, television in PAL, NTSC, high-definition formats. It was an early developer of computer-based non-linear editing systems, has been in development since 1989 and won a 2017 EMMY Award for pioneering digital nonlinear editing. Lightworks has millions of adoptors worldwide due to the software being available across three platforms in Windows and Linux; the development of an open-source version was announced in May 2010. No source code of the program has yet been released; the free version comes with a limited number of features: Realtime effects Advanced multicam editing Second monitor output Ability to import a wide range of file types Export to Vimeo up to 720p HD Export to YouTube up to 720p HDThe free version cannot export to DVD, Blu-ray, but can export to a hard drive. OLE Limited was founded in 1989 by Nick Pollock and Neil Harris. In 1994 it was sold to Tektronix.

In 1999 it was sold on to the newly formed Lightworks Inc. owned by Fairlight Japan, purchased by Gee Broadcast in May 2004. Under Gee Broadcast ownership, new product releases resumed with the release of the Lightworks Touch range, the Alacrity and Softworks ranges for SD & HD editing. Softworks offered the Lightworks User Interface and toolset in a software only package for laptops or office workstations. Softworks and Alacrity supported mixed formats and resolutions in real time and project output in different resolutions without re-rendering. Alacrity supported dual outputs while the same facility was available for Softworks users as an option. In August 2009 the UK and US based company EditShare acquired Gee Broadcast and the Lightworks editing platform from, along with their video server system GeeVS. At the annual convention of the National Association of Broadcasters, NAB Show, on 11 April 2010, EditShare announced that they plan to transform Lightworks into Lightworks Open Source, it was presented at IBC in Amsterdam September 2010.

On 9 November 2010, EditShare announced that Lightworks would be downloadable on 29 November of the same year, at first for the users who had registered during the initial announcement, but subsequently publishing the software as "public beta". EditShare planned the release of the open source version in Q4 of 2011, after they finished code review, they plan to make money from proprietary plugins offered in their associated online shop, including plugins needed to access professional video formats. Shortly before the scheduled release date of 29 November 2011, EditShare announced that an open source release of the software would be temporarily delayed, but did not announce a new release date; the announcement noted. After an 18-month beta program, EditShare released Lightworks 11, for Windows only, on 28 May 2012; the non beta release of Lightworks includes a host of new features for editors, runs on wide range of PC hardware. The software was re-designed and re-written for portability and now supports many more codecs including AVCHD, H.264, AVC-Intra, DNxHD, ProRes, Red R3D, DPX, XDCAM HD 50, XDCAM EX, DVD, Blu-ray, 4K, but only for the paid Pro version.

The free version supports MPEG, Uncompressed and other codecs for both import and export. On 29 May 2013, v11.1 stable release was made available for download. A major development in the Pro version is much improved performance of the H.264/AVC codec in MP4 and MOV containers. This makes it possible to edit this format natively with less powerful CPUs; this should interest GoPro camera users. Native editing of H.264 MTS files has been possible since version 11.0.3. This version of Lightworks has replaced HASP with the new EditShare Licensing System, which eliminates some installation problems. Lightworks Free users can now download the 64 bit version, limited to Pro users; the Free version now comes with a 30-day Pro Trial period. EditShare demonstrated the Linux version at the NAB in Las Vegas in April 2012, posted a video of it running on Ubuntu on their YouTube channel. At IBC in Amsterdam in September, an updated Linux demo was presented, EditShare announced that the initial Linux alpha version would become available on 30 October.

Lightworks 11 alpha for Linux was released on 30 April 2012, but only to a limited audience. The Linux version of Lightworks was made available as a Public Beta on 30 April 2013. On 8 August 2014, the first beta of Lightworks version 12 working on Windows and Mac was released. On 29 August 2015, Lightworks version 12.5 for Windows and Mac was released. On 4 February 2016, Lightworks version 12.6 for Windows and Mac was released. In October 2018, Lightworks released version 14.5 for Windows and Mac platforms. 14.5 added a vast array of new features including variable frame rate support, a huge amount of codec support including Red Cinema R3D, Cineform and Blackmagic Q1 codecs. Lightworks confirmed that over 4-million registrations had taken place. List of video editing software Comparison of video editing software Official website Lightworks Tutorials Lightworks Users' Video Tutorials


The Rheinsender is a large medium-wave transmission facility near Wolfsheim, southwest of Mainz for the frequency 1017 kHz. The Rhine transmitter was established in 1950 and went on the air May 15, 1950, it transmitted until the middle of the 1990s with 600 kilowatts. In the last years the transmission power was reduced to 100 kilowatts. From 1950 to 2003 two 150-metre-high guyed steel tube masts were used as the transmission aerial, which are insulated from ground and which were separated by an insulator in the mast construction electrically in two parts for double feeding as fade reducing aerial. By the usage of two masts a direction minimum toward the southeast was obtained according to international regulations when working with a transmission power of 600 kilowatts at nighttime. Furthermore, there is a 114-metre-tall guyed steel tube mast, insulated against ground; this mast, used as reserve antenna for medium wave broadcasting, has an FM-transmission antenna on its top. Furthermore, there is a free-standing grounded lattice tower used for radio services in UHF/VHF-ranges.

After transmission power was reduced to 100 kilowatts a direction minimum toward the southeast was no longer necessary and running the transmitter with omnidirectional radiation was possible. Hence the second radio mast was obsolete and was demolished on February 26, 2003. On the remaining radio mast of the Rhine transmitter there are aerials for FM broadcasting for SWR 4 on 94.9 MHz. At the site of the demolished radio mast, a further grounded free-standing lattice tower was built in 2003. On this tower in 2004 a cage antenna was installed, used for broadcasting the SWR program "Das Ding" in the DRM-mode on 1485 kHz with an output power on 1 kW. List of masts Sendemasten des Rheinsenders Wolfsheim at Structurae Reservesendemast des Rheinsenders Wolfsheim at Structurae

Westermarck effect

The Westermarck effect known as reverse sexual imprinting, is a psychological hypothesis that people who live in close domestic proximity during the first few years of their lives become desensitized to sexual attraction. This hypothesis was first proposed by Finnish anthropologist Edvard Westermarck in his book The History of Human Marriage as one explanation for the incest taboo; the existence of the Westermarck effect has achieved some empirical support. Observations interpreted as evidence for the Westermarck effect have since been made in many places and cultures, including in the Israeli kibbutz system, the Chinese Shim-pua marriage customs, as well as in biologically-related families. In the case of the Israeli kibbutzim, children were reared somewhat communally in peer groups, based on age, not biological relations. A study of the marriage patterns of these children in life revealed that out of the nearly 3,000 marriages that occurred across the kibbutz system, only fourteen were between children from the same peer group.

Of those fourteen, none had been reared together during the first six years of life. This result suggests that the Westermarck effect operates during the period from birth to the age of six; when proximity during this critical period does not occur—for example, where a brother and sister are brought up separately, never meeting one another—they may find one another sexually attractive when they meet as adults or adolescents, according to the hypothesis of genetic sexual attraction. This supports the theory that the populations that appear to exhibit the hypothetical Westermarck effect became predominant because of the deleterious effects of inbreeding on those that did not. Sigmund Freud argued that as children, members of the same family lust for one another, making it necessary for societies to create incest taboos, but Westermarck argued the reverse, that the taboos themselves arise as products of innate attitudes. Steven Pinker wrote on the subject: The idea that boys want to sleep with their mothers strikes most men as the silliest thing they have heard.

It did not seem so to Freud, who wrote that as a boy he once had an erotic reaction to watching his mother dressing. But Freud had a wet-nurse, may not have experienced the early intimacy that would have tipped off his perceptual system that Mrs. Freud was his mother; the Westermarck theory has out-Freuded Freud. Some sociologists and anthropologists have criticized the validity of research presented in support of the Westermarck effect and the contention that it serves as an ultimate demonstration for the viability of natural selection theory in explaining human behaviour. For example, a 2009 study by Eran Shor and Dalit Simchai demonstrated that although most peers who grew up together in the Israeli kibbutzim did not marry one another, they did report substantial attraction to co-reared peers; the authors conclude that the case of the kibbutzim provides little support for the Westermarck effect and that childhood proximity cannot in itself produce sexual avoidance without the existence of social pressures and norms.

However, Walter Scheidel argues that recent research has raised some support for Westermarck's hypothesis, arguing that studies show that cousin-marriage in Lebanon has a lower success rate if the cousins were raised in sibling-like conditions, first-cousin unions being more successful in Pakistan if there was a substantial age difference, as well as reduces marital appeal for cousins who grew up sleeping in the same room in Morocco. Evidence indicates that siblings separated for extended periods of time since childhood were more to report having engaged in sexual activity with one another. Jesse Bering cites several studies that seem to contradict the standard view of the Westermarck effect as an innate learning process. People seem to have sexual preferences toward faces. If correct, this would suggest. Accidental incest Kibbutz communal child rearing and collective education Oedipus complex Paul, Robert A.. "Psychoanalysis and the Propinquity Theory of Incest Avoidance". The Journal of Psychohistory 3, 255–261.

Spain, David H.. "The Westermarck–Freud Incest-Theory Debate: An Evaluation and Reformation". Current Anthropology 5, 623–635, 643–645. Westermarck, Edvard A.. The history of human marriage, 5th ed. London: Macmillan. Lieberman, D. Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L.. "The architecture of human kin detection", Nature, 445, 727–731

Public domain (land)

Public domain land is land that cannot be sold because it belongs to the citizenry. Public domain land is managed by a public entity—such as a state, province or municipality—directly or by institutes or state companies, it is called domínio público, domaine public or demanio pubblico. Public domain land in the United States is land that has belonged to the federal government since the 13 original colonies bought or took them from indigenous tribes or from other countries, have not been dedicated to a specific use. For most of the nation's early history, the federal government sought to promote settlement of the expanding frontier by deeding the public domain to states and private interests through the auspices of the General Land Office; the authority for this came under laws such as the Homestead Act, the Timber and Stone Act, the Morrill Act. Creation of the first public domain of the United States, the Northwest Territory, began an epoch in American political history; the government decided early to create new states from it, to add to the union in full equality to the original 13 states.

Its subsequent expansion, the mode of its administration, legislation for its government, its relation to constitutional questions, the diplomacy and politics involved in its acquisition, its international boundary questions, the enactment of settlement laws, the attraction of immigrants and growth of population, internal improvements and increased facilities of transportation, the discovery of precious metals, other topics of interest might be cited here in connection with the public domain. During the American Revolutionary War, Congress spent the nation was in debt; the government promised soldiers land in lieu of pay. After the Revolution, the new federal government owned all the public land except that within the 13 original colonies and a few non-original states; the land owned by the government was called The Public Domain. The Land Act of 1785 gave land warrants to the soldiers to fulfill the promise; the Act allowed the Treasury Department to sell land in auctions to the highest bidders.

A new surveying system was created. The first auction was held in D. C. but the land sold was in Ohio. Soldiers could not afford to travel to Ohio to see the land, back to D. C. for the auction. Soldiers sold their warrants too cheaply; the government sold 640 acres at minimum. Small farmers could not afford the prices. Speculators bought the warrants, purchased land, sold the land in smaller lots to small farmers, at a huge profit; the government lowered the minimum acres, sold land on credit, offered some free land. The government made more money this way by copying the speculators' method; the government gained other land in time. States were carved out of the public domain; the government has given away over one billion acres of land. 5 million land patents were granted. The Bureau of Land Management grew from the older General Land Office and now controls public domain land. Public land Eminent domain General Mining Act of 1872 Acquired lands

Christian Calmes

Christian Calmes was a Luxembourgian civil servant and historian. He served as Secretary-General of the precursor to the Council of the European Union from its inception as part of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952 until 1973, he attended the Lycée classique before studying law in Strasbourg and Paris. In 1940, as a sign of protest against the Nazi occupation of Luxembourg he closed his legal firm, became a manual labourer in Karelshaff near Colmar-Berg; as a member of the Resistance, he was imprisoned in October 1943 in the Grund, was interned in Hinzert concentration camp for 18 months. After escaping in March 1945, he hid until the end of the war. After the war, he worked again as a lawyer worked for the government from 1947, as an attaché, legation secretary, government councillor and highest-ranking diplomat in the foreign ministry, he was involved in the negotiations for the Benelux Treaty. From 1981 he was court marshal to the Grand Ducal Family. Calmes was President of the Young Lawyers of Luxembourg from 1945 to 1946.

He wrote two books on the history of Luxembourg: Histoire contemporaine du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg and Au fil de l'Histoire. They have been printed in several editions since, the former has been used as a textbook. Calmes was Grand Marshal of Luxembourg from 1981 until 1984, he died in Grasse, France, in 1995, at the age of 81

Remix Romance Vol. 2

Remix Romance Vol. 2 is a remix compilation album by Sally Shapiro. Like its predecessor Remix Romance Vol. 1, it collects existing and newly produced versions of tracks from Disco Romance. This collection includes remixes from Dntel, The Russian Futurists and famed Italo disco producer Alexander Robotnick. All tracks written by Johan Agebjörn except. "Time to Let Go" — 5:19 "I Know" — 7:16 "Find My Ghost" — 4:32 "Skating in the Moonshine" — 5:33 "I'll Be By Your Side" — 2:53 "Time to Let Go — 5:16 "Anorak Christmas" — 6:26 "Hold Me So Tight" — 4:50 "Find My Soul" — 4:59 "Jackie Jackie" — 4:45iTunes Bonus Tracks "I'll Be By Your Side" — 5:26 "I Know" — 5:02 Sally Shapiro — Vocals Johan Agebjörn — Original production, backing vocals Evelina Joëlson — Backing vocals on original versions of "Anorak Christmas", "Jackie Jackie", "Skating in the Moonshine" Anna Sanne Göransson — Backing vocals on original versions of "Jackie Jackie" and "Skating in the Moonshine" Compilation selection by Sally Shapiro and Johan Agebjörn.

Paper Bag Records catalogue entry