Ligonier Valley Railroad
The Ligonier Valley Railroad connected the communities of Latrobe and Ligonier, Pennsylvania 10 miles apart, between 1877 and 1952. For much of its length, the railroad ran parallel to Loyalhanna Creek in a scenic mountain gorge. In addition to the Latrobe-Ligonier line, there was an extension to the coal mining communities of Wilpen and Fort Palmer to the north of Ligonier, as well as several shorter spurs serving coal mines; the railroad was operated by the Mellon family of banking fame. Freight included coal, coke and quarry stone; the history of the railroad can be traced back to 1853, when the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed the “Act of Incorporation for the Latrobe and Ligonier Rail Road Company.” The name was changed to the Ligonier Valley Rail Road Company in May 1871. Grading and construction were slow owing to financial problems, in August 1877 Thomas Mellon, a Pittsburgh banking magnate, agreed to purchase the line. Service began on December 1, 1877; the railroad was 3 ft narrow gauge, but was converted to 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge in 1882.
Another segment of the railroad has its roots in a 1903 venture known as the Westmoreland Central Railroad. This company proposed to build a railroad connecting Ligonier to Bolivar, where it would connect with the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1904, the Ligonier Valley Railroad purchased the constructed line. In 1908, this was 5.7 miles in length. The segment that would have linked Bolivar was never constructed, leaving the coal mining community of Fort Palmer as the northernmost extent of the Ligonier Valley Railroad. A new headquarters building including station facilities was built 1909-1910 in Ligonier and is still standing. Passenger service was available between Latrobe and Ligonier up to the cessation of service in 1952. Stations in order from west to east were. Distances shown are measured from Latrobe: Latrobe: Connection with Pennsylvania Railroad Oakville Osburn Kingston Long Bridge, Pennsylvania Idlewild: Served the railroad-owned Idlewild Park, an amusement park. Darlington Milbank Bells Ligonier: Headquarters, with connection to Pittsburgh and Somerset Railroad.
The old depot and headquarters building now serves as offices for the Ligonier Valley School District. North Ligonier Hannah's Run Wilpen Some sources show different mileages. For example, a 1941 timetable shows Ligonier as 10.5 miles from Latrobe. Passenger service was quite frequent, considering the small populations of the communities along the line; the railroad-owned Idlewild Park was a substantial draw for passenger traffic, reflected in the fact that extra passenger trains were run on Sundays. In 1941, there were five trains per day in each direction between Ligonier. Four of the five stopped at all stations, while one train per day served only Latrobe, Kingston and Ligonier. In addition, three extra trains ran Sunday only, yet another train ran daily except Saturday; the 1941 timetable shows no passenger service on the Wilpen branch. However, the June 1916 edition of the Official Guide of the Railways and Steam Navigation Lines of the United States shows two trains per day in each direction serving Ligonier, North Ligonier, Hannah's Run, Wilpen.
The worst disaster on the Ligonier Valley occurred at 3:40 PM on July 5, 1912, 2 miles from Ligonier, on the Wilpen branch near the Wilpen Fair Grounds. A locomotive pushing a single wooden coach, collided head-on with a southbound freight train locomotive on a curve; the passenger coach, crowded with revelers returning from a holiday celebration, absorbed the brunt of the impact. In total, 26 people died and 29 were injured, including many children; the railroad relied on verbal orders to train crews, without signals, written orders, or written rules. According to the resulting investigation by the Interstate Commerce Commission, the dispatcher and passenger train conductor disputed whether a verbal order had been issued to wait for the passage of the freight train. Investigators were shocked that the railroad had been relying on oral instructions to avoid collisions. Both freight and passenger service ended on August 31, 1952, except for the 3.5-mile Latrobe-Kingston segment, operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad as an industrial spur.
Much of the railroad's right-of-way is occupied by the westbound lanes of U. S. Route 30, parallel to Loyalhanna Creek; some of the stations are still standing, including those at Ligonier. Both Idlewild stations stand within the function as park buildings; the Darlington station is located on park property and was given to the Ligonier Valley Rail Road Association by the park, has been restored, is home to the association's museum. Idlewild Park Ligonier, Pennsylvania Pittsburgh and Somerset Railroad Ligonier Valley Rail Road Association Virtual Museum of Coal Mining in Western Pennsylvania Ligonier Valley Railroad steam locomotive 594 was built by Richmond in 1904 as Southern Railway 594, Class Ks, it was sold as Ligonier 594 in 1950 and retired in 1952
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, the Crown dependencies. British nationality law governs modern British citizenship and nationality, which can be acquired, for instance, by descent from British nationals; when used in a historical context, "British" or "Britons" can refer to the Celtic Britons, the indigenous inhabitants of Great Britain and Brittany, whose surviving members are the modern Welsh people, Cornish people, Bretons. It may refer to citizens of the former British Empire. Though early assertions of being British date from the Late Middle Ages, the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 triggered a sense of British national identity; the notion of Britishness was forged during the Napoleonic Wars between Britain and the First French Empire, developed further during the Victorian era. The complex history of the formation of the United Kingdom created a "particular sense of nationhood and belonging" in Great Britain and Ireland.
Because of longstanding ethno-sectarian divisions, British identity in Northern Ireland is controversial, but it is held with strong conviction by Unionists. Modern Britons are descended from the varied ethnic groups that settled in the British Isles in and before the 11th century: Prehistoric, Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Normans; the progressive political unification of the British Isles facilitated migration and linguistic exchange, intermarriage between the peoples of England and Wales during the late Middle Ages, early modern period and beyond. Since 1922 and earlier, there has been immigration to the United Kingdom by people from what is now the Republic of Ireland, the Commonwealth, mainland Europe and elsewhere; the British are a diverse, multinational and multilingual society, with "strong regional accents and identities". The social structure of the United Kingdom has changed radically since the 19th century, with a decline in religious observance, enlargement of the middle class, increased ethnic diversity since the 1950s.
The population of the UK stands at around 66 million, with a British diaspora of around 140 million concentrated in Australia and New Zealand, with smaller concentrations in the United States, Republic of Ireland, South Africa and parts of the Caribbean. The earliest known reference to the inhabitants of Great Britain may have come from 4th century BC records of the voyage of Pytheas, a Greek geographer who made a voyage of exploration around the British Isles. Although none of his own writings remain, writers during the time of the Roman Empire made much reference to them. Pytheas called the islands collectively αἱ Βρεττανίαι, translated as the Brittanic Isles, the peoples of what are today England, Wales and the Isle of Man of Prettanike were called the Πρεττανοί, Pritani or Pretani; the group included Ireland, referred to as Ierne "inhabited by the different race of Hiberni", Britain as insula Albionum, "island of the Albions". The term Pritani may have reached Pytheas from the Gauls, who used it as their term for the inhabitants of the islands.
Greek and Roman writers, in the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD, name the inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland as the Priteni, the origin of the Latin word Britanni. It has been suggested that this name derives from a Gaulish description translated as "people of the forms", referring to the custom of tattooing or painting their bodies with blue woad made from Isatis tinctoria. Parthenius, a 1st-century Ancient Greek grammarian, the Etymologicum Genuinum, a 9th-century lexical encyclopaedia, mention a mythical character Bretannus as the father of Celtine, mother of Celtus, the eponymous ancestor of the Celts. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia, although the people of Caledonia and the north were the self same Britons during the Roman period, the Gaels arriving four centuries later.
Following the end of Roman rule in Britain, the island of Great Britain was left open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors such as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Jutes from Continental Europe, who gained control in areas around the south east, to Middle Irish-speaking people migrating from what is today Northern Ireland to the north of Great Britain, founding Gaelic kingdoms such as Dál Riata and Alba, which would subsume the native Brittonic and Pictish kingdoms and become Scotland. In this sub-Roman Britain, as Anglo-Saxon culture spread across southern and eastern Britain and Gaelic through much of the north, the demonym "Briton" became restricted to the Brittonic-speaking inhabitants of what would be called Wales, North West England, parts of Scotland such as Strathearn, Morayshire and Strathclyde. In addition the term was applied to Brittany in what is today France and Britonia in north west Spain, both regions having been colonised by Britons in the 5th century fleeing the Anglo-Saxon invasions.
Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania
Westmoreland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. At the 2010 census, the population was 365,169; the county seat is Greensburg. Formed from, Lancaster and Bedford Counties, Westmoreland County was founded on February 26, 1773, was the first county in the colony of Pennsylvania whose entire territorial boundary was located west of the Allegheny Mountains. Westmoreland County included the present-day counties of Fayette, Washington and parts of Beaver, Allegheny and Armstrong counties, it is named after a historic county of England. Westmoreland County is included in the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,036 square miles, of which 1,028 square miles is land and 8.5 square miles is water. Armstrong County Indiana County Cambria County Somerset County Fayette County Washington County Allegheny County Butler County At the 2010 census, there were 365,169 people, 153,650 households and 101,928 families residing in the county.
The population density was 355.4 per square mile. There were 168,199 housing units at an average density of 163.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.3% White, 2.3% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. 0.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 153,650 households of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.2% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.86. 22.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 22.4% from 25 to 44, 31.3% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45.1 years. For every 100 females there were 94.8 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males. In November 2008, there were 249,147 registered voters in Westmoreland County. Democratic: 136,882 Republican: 87,813 Other Parties: 24,452 The Democratic Party had been dominant in county-level politics, however Westmoreland has trended Republican at the national and statewide levels. In 2000, Republican George W. Bush won 51% and Democrat Al Gore won 45%. In 2004, Republican George W. Bush won 56% and Democrat John Kerry won 43%. In 2008, Republican John McCain won 57% to Democrat Barack Obama's 41%. Governor Ed Rendell lost Westmoreland in both 2002 and 2006. In 2008 Republican Tim Krieger picked up the 57th House district left open by the retirement of Democrat Tom Tangretti. In 2010, both Pat Toomey and Tom Corbett won Westmoreland in their statewide bids; the GOP gained control of two more State House districts, the 54th with Eli Evankovich and the 56th with George Dunbar. In 2011, the Republican Party swept all county row offices Gina Cerilli, Democrat Ted Kopas, Democrat Charles Anderson, Republican Clerk of Courts, Bryan Kline, Republican Controller, Jeff Balzer, Republican Coroner, Kenneth Bacha, Democrat District Attorney, John Peck, Democrat Prothonotary, Christina O'Brien, Democrat Recorder of Deeds, Tom Murphy, Democrat Register of Wills, Sherry Magretti-Hamilton, Republican Sheriff, Jonathan Held, Republican Treasurer, Jared M Squires, Republican Belle Vernon Area School District Blairsville-Saltsburg School District Burrell School District Derry Area School District Franklin Regional School District Greater Latrobe School District Greensburg-Salem School District Hempfield Area School District Jeannette City School District Kiski Area School District Leechburg Area School District Ligonier Valley School District Monessen City School District Mount Pleasant Area School District New Kensington–Arnold School District Norwin School District Penn-Trafford School District Southmoreland School District Yough School District Dr. Robert Ketterer Charter School grades 7th through 12th Latrobe According to EdNA Greensburg Central Catholic High School Penn State New Kensington Seton Hill University Saint Vincent College Westmoreland County Community College University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg Carlow College at Greensburg Triangle Tech A major coal strike occurred in the county in the winter of 1910–11.
Volkswagen's Westmoreland plant near New Stanton in Westmoreland County was the first foreign-owned factory mass-producing automobiles in the U. S, it operated from 1978 to 1988. There are four Pennsylvania state parks in Westmoreland County. Keystone State Park Laurel Ridge State Park Laurel Summit State Park Linn Run State Park Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities, townships, and, in at most two cases, towns; the following cities and townships are located in Westmoreland County: Arnold Greensburg Jeannette Latrobe Lower Burrell Monessen New Kensington Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the U. S. Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data, they are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities, such as villages, may be listed here as well. Franklin Township - now known as Murrysville, Pennsylvania The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Westmorelan
Idlewild and Soak Zone
Idlewild and Soak Zone known as Idlewild Park or Idlewild, is a children's amusement park situated in the Laurel Highlands near Ligonier, United States, about 50 miles east of Pittsburgh, along US Route 30. Founded in 1878 as a campground along the Ligonier Valley Railroad by Thomas Mellon, Idlewild is the oldest amusement park in Pennsylvania and the third oldest operating amusement park in the United States behind Lake Compounce and Cedar Point; the park has won several awards, including from industry publication Amusement Today as the best children's park in the world. The park was established by the prominent Mellon family in 1878, remained family-owned for over 100 years, it expanded throughout the first half of the 20th century, adding rides including a Philadelphia Toboggan Company Rollo Coaster in 1938, one of the company's earliest. The park is home to the Ligonier Highland Games, a Scottish athletic and cultural festival that has annually drawn over 10,000 spectators. In 1983, the park was purchased by Kennywood Entertainment Company, which oversaw additional expansion, including an attraction designed and voiced by Fred Rogers based on his television show Mister Rogers' Neighborhood.
Since 2008, the park, as well as others under Kennywood Entertainment, have been owned by Spanish company Parques Reunidos and operated by their American subsidiary Palace Entertainment. On April 15, 1853, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania granted a charter for a railroad to haul coal and timber between the towns of Ligonier and Latrobe. For nearly twenty years and Ligonier Rail Road Company performed no work on the railroad, renewed their charter in 1866 and 1869. Following an additional renewal in 1871, the company changed its name to the Ligonier Valley Railroad and acquired a 10.3 miles stretch of land. Land grading and bridge construction for the narrow gauge line was completed by 1873. In 1875, the constructed railway was sold at a sheriff's sale after the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Latrobe terminus of the line, declined to assume financial responsibility. Thomas Mellon, a retired Court of Common Pleas judge from Allegheny County, purchased the Ligonier Valley Railroad at auction. Mellon had founded the T.
Mellon and Sons Bank, was invested in coal, oil and other railroad ventures. In an effort to attract passengers, Mellon decided to offer recreational grounds along the route. On May 1, 1878, William Darlington and namesake of the nearby village of Darlington, responded to Mellon's request to use his land: Dear Sir: In compliance with your request, I will and do hereby agree to grant to the Ligonier Valley Rail Road Company the right and privilege to occupy for picnic purposes or pleasure grounds that portion of land in Ligonier Township, Westmoreland County as follows – the strip or piece of ground lying between the railway and the creek and extending from the old cornfield to Byards run – two or three acres on the opposite side of the creek adjoining near the same. Without compensation in the shape of rent for three years from the first of April 1878 provided no timber or other trees are to be cut or injured – the underbrush you may clear out if you wish to do so. Yours respectfully, Wm. M. Darlington The first structure, built that year, was a train depot measuring 10 feet by 25 feet.
The depot was described as the smallest full-service station in the United States. Initial development of the land included camp sites, an artificial lake for fishing and boating, picnic tables, a large hall; the railroad provided easy access to the site, attracting visitors from 50 miles away in Pittsburgh and the surrounding areas for a getaway in the country. The Ligonier Echo noted that on July 4, 1890, the trains to the park were so crowded that the "tops of the coaches were covered with boys."While the initial lease with Darlington confined the park to between the railroad and the north bank of the Loyalhanna Creek, permission was granted for construction of a bridge across the river, allowing expansion to the south in the mid-1880s. Three lakes, Woodland, St. Clair, Bouquet, were dug between 1880 and 1896. In 1896, the park added a T. M. Harton Company steam carousel in the center of the park; the Pittsburgh-based company was a major manufacturer of carousels and roller coasters. By the end of the 19th century, attractions at the park included a bicycle track around Lake Bouquet, a hiking trail on the lake's island, fishing in the Loyalhanna Creek and many walks and gardens.
The park had dining halls, pavilions, a boathouse, an amphitheater, a bandstand, athletic facilities. In 1931, Judge Mellon's son Richard B. Mellon, brother of Andrew Mellon, C. C. Macdonald acquired the park under a partnership known as the Idlewild Management Company; the first season under the financial support of Mellon and the management of Macdonald and his family brought electricity to the park, allowing for operating hours and electric-powered rides, including a three-row Philadelphia Toboggan Company carousel. The park debuted a den of black bears that year; the bears were across the path from a cage of monkeys, who escaped in 1932. Park management offered a reward of $3 each for the return of the seven monkeys, believing that they had been set loose. R. Z. Macdonald said that his father, C. C. was always amused and pleased with the publicity that the escape created, though he never formally accused his father. The Macdonalds sought to maintain the park's natural beauty, planting 10,000 shrubs in the first year, thousands of trees during the 1930s.
In the first few years, the park added a circle swing, a Whip, a miniature railroad, in 1938, the Philadelphia Toboggan Comp
The Mellon family is a wealthy and influential American family from Pittsburgh, whose members include one of the longest-serving U. S. Treasury Secretaries; the family fortune originated with Mellon Bank, founded 1869. They became principal investors and majority owners of Gulf Oil, The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, New York Shipbuilding and Carborundum Corporation, as well as their major financial and ownership influence on Westinghouse, H. J. Heinz, Newsweek, U. S. Steel, Credit Suisse First Boston and General Motors; the family founded the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. donating both art works and funds, is a patron to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Yale University, the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer in Haiti, with art the University of Virginia. Carnegie Mellon University, its Mellon College of Science, is named in honor of the family, as well as for its founder, Andrew Carnegie, a close associate of the Mellons; the family's founding patriarch was Judge Thomas Mellon, the son of Andrew Mellon and Rebecca Wauchob, who were Scotch-Irish farmers from Camp Hill Cottage, Lower Castletown, parish of Cappagh, County Tyrone and emigrated to what is now the Pittsburgh suburb of north-central Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.
The family can be divided into four branches: the descendants of Thomas Alexander Mellon Jr, of James Ross Mellon, of Andrew William Mellon, of Richard Beatty Mellon. Thomas Mellon, a judge and founder of the Mellon Bank who married Sarah Jane Negley of Pittsburgh; as a boy he decided to abandon his parents' farming lifestyle for law and banking in the city after reading Benjamin Franklin's autobiography. Andrew William Mellon, one of the longest-serving U. S. Treasury secretaries in history and the namesake of Washington, D. C.'s Andrew W. Mellon Auditorium. Richard Beatty Mellon, a banker and philanthropist, who married Jennie Taylor King William Larimer Mellon, Sr. a founder of the Gulf Oil Corporation Richard King Mellon, a financier and philanthropist, who married Constance Prosser McCaulley Sarah Mellon, a including Mellon Bank and major investments in Gulf Oil and Alcoa, her husband is Alan Magee Scaife William Larimer Mellon, Jr. founder of the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer Haiti Cordelia Scaife May, a prominent philanthropist Richard Mellon Scaife, the chief sponsor of the Heritage Foundation and publisher of the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review since 1970.
First marriage was to Frances L. Gilmore, second marriage was to Margaret "Ritchie" Battle Timothy Mellon and majority owner of Pan Am Systems, a Portsmouth, New Hampshire-based transportation holding company. James Ross Mellon II, an author of books about Abraham Lincoln, Slavery in America and his family's founding patriarch, Thomas Mellon. According to an interview with the Swiss weekly newspaper, "SonntagsZeitung", he travels permanently in order to minimize taxes. Christopher Mellon, the former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Intelligence in the Clinton and Bush Administrations. A. in international relations. Matthew Taylor Mellon II, a chairman of the Republican Party Finance of New York and served as a regent director of finance for the Republican National Committee. Mr. Mellon founded or participated in multiple start ups such as Jimmy Choo, Harrys of London, Hanley Mellon, Marquis Jets, Arrival Aviation and Challenge Capital Partners
Latrobe is a city in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania in the United States and part of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. The city population was 8,338 as of the 2010 census, it is located near Pennsylvania's scenic Chestnut Ridge. Latrobe was incorporated as a borough in 1854, as a city in 1999; the current Mayor is Rosemarie M. Wolford. Among its claims to fame, Latrobe is the home of Saint Vincent Archabbey, the Latrobe Brewery, Saint Vincent College. Latrobe was the home of golfer Arnold Palmer, it was the childhood home of Fred Rogers, children's television personality, buried there in Unity Cemetery after his death in 2003. While it was believed for years that the first professional American football game was played in Latrobe, the city's claim was refused induction into the Hall of Fame records. Latrobe is home of the first banana split, invented in Latrobe by David Strickler in 1904. Latrobe is home to the training camp of the six time Super Bowl champion Pittsburgh Steelers. In May 2006, Anheuser-Busch purchased the Rolling Rock brands, but not the brewery.
In June 2006, City Brewing Company from La Crosse, Wisconsin entered into negotiations to buy the brewery. In September 2006, City Brewing Company agreed to purchase the brewery, they licensed it to the Boston Beer Company in April 2007 as a satellite brewery to produce Samuel Adams beers. Sam Adams production did not last long; the plant is brewing Iron City Beer under contract. In addition, Duquesne Bottling Company has brewed the revived Duquesne Beer, "The Prince of Pilseners", at the Latrobe plant. In 1852, Oliver Barnes laid out the plans for the community, incorporated in 1854 as the Borough of Latrobe. Barnes named the town for his best friend and college classmate, Benjamin Latrobe, a civil engineer for the B&O Railroad, its location along the route of the Pennsylvania Railroad helped Latrobe develop into a significant industrial hub. Latrobe was served by the Ligonier Valley Railroad from 1877 to 1952. In 1904, the banana split was invented in Latrobe by David Evans Strickler at Strickler's Drug Store.
Two interurban lines served Latrobe: The Westmoreland County Railway Company, which connected Latrobe to Derry and operated from 1904 to 1932, The Latrobe Street Railway Company, which connected Latrobe to Kingston and began operations in 1900. This line was purchased by West Penn Railways, which linked it with its network running through Youngstown, Pleasant Unity, to Greensburg and Uniontown. Service ceased in 1952. Latrobe has two sites on the National Register of Historic Places within its city boundaries: Pennsylvania Railroad Station at Latrobe: This station was built by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1903. Citizens National Bank of Latrobe: This was known as the Mellon Bank Building; this six-story, 1926 structure was designed by the Greensburg firm of Smith. The former Fort Sloan, a small fortress established by the British settlers in the 1700's, is now a private residence, situated on the corner of Cedar St. and Raymond Ave. From 1895 until 1909, Latrobe was the home of the Latrobe Athletic Association, one of the earliest professional football teams.
The team's quarterback, John Brallier, became the first football player to admit playing for money. In 1895 he accepted $10 and expenses to play for Latrobe in a 12-0 victory over the Jeannette Athletic Club. Brallier was thought to be the first professional football player, until the 1960s, it was that documents surfaced showing that William "Pudge" Heffelfinger, a former three-time All-American from Yale, was employed to play guard for the Allegheny Athletic Association three years earlier. In 1897, Latrobe was the first football team to play a full season with a team composed of professional players. In 1898 Latrobe and two players from their rivals, the Greensburg Athletic Association, formed the first professional football all-star team for a game against the Duquesne Country and Athletic Club, to be played at Pittsburgh's Exposition Park. Duquesne went on to win the game 16-0. On November 18, 1905, Latrobe defeated the Canton Bulldogs, which became a founding member, two-time champion, of the National Football League, 6-0.
Aside from Brallier, the Latrobe Athletic Association included several of the era's top players, such as: Ed Abbaticchio, Charles Barney, Alf Bull, Jack Gass, Walter Okeson, Harry Ryan, Doggie Trenchard, Eddie Wood and manager Dave Berry. Latrobe is located at 40°18′54″N 79°22′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.3 square miles, all land. Latrobe shares borders with the townships of Derry to the north, northwest and southeast, Unity to the west and southwest; as of the census of 2010, there were 8,338 people, 3,786 households, 2,458 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,913.6 people per square mile. There were 4,258 housing units at an average density of 1,852.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.78% White, 0.32% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.07% from other races, 0.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.37% of the population. There were 3,786 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.0% were non-families.
34.1% of a
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. As of 2018, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve personnel; the modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army, created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between Scotland. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff. The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt, the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army. While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.
The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661 and became a standing military force for Britain. The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Ireland. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. After the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget; this became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance to prevent a French invasion restoring James II. In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier.
The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army