Roman Theatre, Benevento
The Roman Theatre is an ancient Roman edifice in Benevento, southern Italy. It was built in the 2nd century by emperor Hadrian near the city's cardo maximus. Abandoned in Lombard times, it is now surrounded by the medieval Rione Triggio; the structures is still used for concerts and other spectacles. The theatre has a semicircular plan with a diameter of 90 meters: it could house some 10,000/15,000 spectators; the exterior had 25 arcades on three orders, of which only the lower one remain, with Tuscan columns and part of the second one. The cavea has survived; the large scene features remains of three monumental gates. Above this hall, in the 18th century, the small church of Santa Maria della Verità was built. Behind the scene, three staircases led to a lower level, used an entrance for artists; the entrance alley is decorated by masks similar to those used by the actors. Some edifices around the theatre which are still under excavation included a dancing school and an association of artists. Zazo, Alfredo.
Curiosità storiche Beneventane. Benevento: De Martini
Luni is a comune in the province of La Spezia, in the easternmost end of the Liguria region of northern Italy. It was founded by the Romans as Luna, it gives its name to Lunigiana, a region spanning northern Tuscany. The commune was known as Ortonovo until April 2017, it is now named after the frazione of Luni. Located in a plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea and close to the borders with Tuscany, Luni is crossed by the river Magra and lies between Sarzana and Carrara, it is 4 km far from 15 from Massa and 30 from La Spezia. The village is served by the National Highway 1 "Aurelia", crossed at Luni Mare by the A12 motorway and counts a railway station on the Pisa-Genoa line. Luna was the frontier town of Etruria, on the left bank of the river Macra, the boundary in imperial times between Etruria and Liguria; when the Romans first appeared in these parts and the Ligurians were in possession of the territory. The Roman city was established in 177 BC by Publius Aelius, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Gnaeus Sicinius It was a military stronghold for the campaigns against the Ligures.
An inscription of 155 BC, found in the forum of Luna in 1851, was dedicated to M. Claudius Marcellus in honor of his triumph over the Ligurians and Apuani. In 109 BC it was connected to Rome by the Via Aemilia Scauri, rebuilt in the 2nd century AD as the Via Aurelia, it flourished when exploitation of white marble quarries in the nearby Alpi Apuane and neighboring mountains of Carrara, which in ancient times bore the name of Luna marble.. Pliny speaks of the quarries as only discovered in his day. Pliny the Elder considered the big wheels of cheese from Luna the best in Etruria. Good wine was produced. Luni derived its importance from its harbour, on a gulf of the Tyrrhenian Sea now known as the Gulf of La Spezia, not the estuary of the Macra as some authors supposed. While the town was not established until 177 BC, when a colony of 2000 Roman citizens was founded there, the harbour is mentioned by Ennius, who sailed from there to Sardinia in 205 BC under Manlius Torquatus, it was being contested by the Romans as early as 195 BC, when they were fighting the Ligurians and Apuans in the area.
The site was used as a base for the quarrying of marble from the quarries of modern-day Carrara, as the marble in that quarry is fine, the harbour allowed the marble to be shipped to Rome easily. In the 5th century, it was still notable. Captured by the Goths in the following century, it was reconquered by the Byzantines in 552, who however lost it to the Lombards in 642; the latter damaged the city's economy, favouring the trades routes that passed through the nearby port of Lucca to the south. Luni had been reduced to a small village by the time of the Lombard king Liutprand, it was a countship and see under Charlemagne on the border between the Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States. It was sacked by sea pirates, Saracens in 849 and Vikings who settled in 860. Luna is supposed to have been mistakenly sacked by the Viking leader Björn Järnsida, who thought it was Rome, he tricked his way in by pretending to be a dying Christian convert. The 9th-century Bishop Saint Ceccardo, believed to have been martyred by the Vikings, is celebrated on June 16.
In the mid-10th century it experienced the last period of splendour under count Oberto I, lord of the whole Ligurian Mark, momentarily repulsed the pirate threat. However, in the 990s the situation worsened again, the episcopal see was moved, first to Carrara definitively, to Sarzana in 1207. In 1015 Luna was conquered by the Andalusian emir of Denia, Mujāhid with his Sardinian ships: when Pisa and Genoa beat back his forces, Luni was left destroyed; the spreading of malaria in the area and the silting up of the port contributed to the steep decline of Luni. In 1058 the whole population moved to Sarzana, while other refugees founded Nicola; the title of bishop and count of Luni remained in use for various centuries, but Petrarch noted Luni as "once famous and powerful and now only a naked and useless name". It was only in 1442 that the visible remains were identified with Luni and the Gulf of La Spezia recognized as its harbour; the depredation of the Roman ruins of Luni aroused the concern of the local Cardinal Filippo Calandrini, who urged the Humanist pope Pius II to issue a brief forbidding any further dilapidations.
It was of little practical use: when the Palazzo del Commune of Sarzana was constructed in 1471 dressed stone from Luni supplied a considerable part of the building material. In 1510 the city council of Sarzana made a gift to the French governor at Genoa of a marble triton found at Luni. Luni was excavated in the 1970s and many of the material brought to light is now housed in the adjacent museum. Archeological evidence suggests that the Roman forum had been abandoned as a public space by the end of the sixth century CE, its buildings fell to ruin or were demolished and decorative marbles removed. Remains of small wooden houses were found in the space occupied by the forum. A theatre and an amphitheatre may still be distinguished on the site. No Etruscan remains have come to light. Cuntz's investigations seem to lead to the conclusion that an ancient road crossed the Apennines from it, following the line of the modern road, dividing near Pontremoli, one branch going to Borgotaro, Veleia
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD. Its ruins are located in the comune of Ercolano, Italy. Herculaneum is one of the few ancient cities to be preserved more or less intact, with no accretions or modifications. Like its sister city, Herculaneum is famous for having been buried in ash, along with Pompeii, Stabiae and Boscoreale, during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. Unlike Pompeii, the pyroclastic material that covered Herculaneum carbonized and thereby preserved wood in objects such as roofs and doors as well as other organic-based materials such as food. Although most of the residents had evacuated the city in advance of the eruption, the first well-preserved skeletons of some 400 people who perished near the seawall were discovered in 1980. Although it was smaller than Pompeii, Herculaneum was a wealthier town, possessing an extraordinary density of fine houses with, for example, far more lavish use of coloured marble cladding.
Ancient tradition connected Herculaneum with the name of the Greek hero Heracles, an indication that the city was of Greek origin. In fact, it seems that some forefathers of the Samnite tribes of the Italian mainland founded the first civilization on the site of Herculaneum at the end of the 6th century BC. Soon after, the town came under Greek control and was used as a trading post because of its proximity to the Gulf of Naples; the Greeks named Heraklion. In the 4th century BC, Herculaneum again came under the domination of the Samnites; the city remained under Samnite control until it became a Roman municipium in 89 BC, having participated in the Social War, it was defeated by Titus Didius, a legate of Sulla. After the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD, the town of Herculaneum was buried under 20 metres of ash, it lay hidden and intact until discoveries from wells and underground tunnels became more known, notably following the Prince d'Elbeuf's explorations in the early 18th century. Excavations continued sporadically up to the present and today many streets and buildings are visible, although over 75% of the town remains buried.
Today, the Italian towns of Portici lie on the approximate site of Herculaneum. Until 1969 the town of Ercolano was called Resina, it changed its name to Ercolano, the Italian modernisation of the ancient name in honour of the old city. The inhabitants worshipped above all Hercules, believed to be the founder of both the town and Mount Vesuvius. Other important deities worshipped include Venus and Apollo, who are depicted in multiple statues in the city; the catastrophic eruption of Mt. Vesuvius occurred in October or November AD 79; because Vesuvius had been dormant for 800 years, it was no longer recognized as a volcano. Based on archaeological excavations and on two letters of Pliny the Younger to the Roman historian Tacitus, the course of the eruption can be reconstructed. At around 1pm, Vesuvius began spewing volcanic material thousands of metres into the sky; when it reached the tropopause, the top of the cloud flattened, prompting Pliny to describe it to Tacitus as a stone pine tree. The prevailing winds at the time blew toward the southeast, causing the volcanic material to fall on the city of Pompeii and the surrounding area.
Since Herculaneum lay to the west of Vesuvius, it was only mildly affected by the first phase of the eruption. While roofs in Pompeii collapsed under the weight of falling debris, only a few centimetres of ash fell on Herculaneum, causing little damage but nonetheless prompting most inhabitants to flee. During the following night, the eruptive column which had risen into the stratosphere collapsed onto Vesuvius and its flanks; the first pyroclastic surge, formed by a mixture of ash and hot gases, billowed through the evacuated town of Herculaneum at 160 km/h. A succession of six flows and surges buried the city's buildings, causing little damage in some areas and preserving structures and victims intact. However, in other areas there was significant damage, knocking down walls, tearing away columns and other large objects. Recent multidisciplinary research on the lethal effects of the pyroclastic surges in the Vesuvius area showed that in the vicinity of Pompeii and Herculaneum, heat was the main cause of the death of people, thought to have died by ash suffocation.
This study shows that exposure to the surges, measuring at least 250 °C at a distance of 10 kilometres from the vent, was sufficient to cause the instant death of all residents if they were sheltered within buildings. In 1709 the digging of a deep well revealed some exceptional statues at the lowest levels, found to be the site of the theatre; the Prince d'Elbeuf purchased the land and proceeded to tunnel out from the bottom of the well, collecting any statues they could find. Among the earliest statues recovered were the two superbly sculpted Herculaneum Women now in the Dresden Skulpturensammlung. Major excavation was resumed in 1738 by Spanish engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre; the elaborate publication of Le Antichità di Ercolano under the patronage of the King of the Two Sicilies had an effect on incipient European Neoclassicism out of all proportion to its limited circulation.
Villa of the Papyri
The Villa of the Papyri is named after its unique library of papyri, discovered in 1750, but is one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum and in the Roman world. Its luxury is shown by its exquisite architecture and by the large number of outstanding works of art discovered, including frescoes and marble sculpture which constitute the largest collection of Greek and Roman sculptures discovered in a single context, it is located in the current comune of Ercolano, southern Italy. It was situated on the ancient coastline below the volcano Vesuvius with nothing to obstruct the view of the sea, it was owned by Julius Caesar's father-in-law, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus. Barker 1908 suggested. In AD 79, the eruption of Vesuvius covered all of Herculaneum with some 30 m of volcanic ash. Herculaneum was first excavated in the years between 1750 and 1765 by Karl Weber by means of underground tunnels; the villa's name derives from the discovery of its library, the only surviving library from the Graeco-Roman world that exists in its entirety.
It contained over 1,800 papyrus scrolls, now carbonised by the heat of the eruption, the "Herculaneum papyri". Most of the villa is still underground. Many of the finds are displayed in the Naples National Archaeological Museum; the Getty Villa is a reproduction of the Villa of the Papyri. The villa is located a few hundred metres from the nearest house in Herculaneum. Although it now lies inland, before the October of A. D. 79, the structure occupied more than 250 metres of coastline along the Gulf of Naples. On the other sides it was surrounded by a closed garden and woods; the villa had four levels beneath the main floor, arranged in terraces overlooking the sea. It has been ascertained that the main floor was 16 m above sea level in antiquity; the villa's layout is an expanded version of the traditional Campanian villa suburbana. One entered through the fauces and proceeded to the atrium, which functioned as an entrance hall and a means of communication with the various parts of the house; the entrance opened with a columned portico on the sea side.
After passing through the tablinum, one arrived at the first peristyle, made up of 10 columns on each side, with a swimming pool in the centre. In this area were found the bronze herm adapted from the Doryphorus of Polykleitosand the herm of an Amazon made by Apollonios son of Archias of Athens; the large second peristyle could be reached by passing through a large tablinum in which, under a propylaeum, was the archaic statue of Athena Promachos. A collection of bronze busts were in the interior of the tablinum; these included the head of Scipio Africanus. The living and reception quarters were grouped around the porticoes and terraces, giving occupants ample sunlight and a view of the countryside and sea. In the living quarters, bath installations were brought to light, the library of rolled and carbonised papyri placed inside wooden capsae, some of them on ordinary wooden shelves and around the walls and some on the two sides of a set of shelves in the middle of the room; the grounds included a large area of covered and uncovered gardens for walks in the shade or in the warmth of the sun.
The gardens included a gallery of busts and small marble and bronze statues. These were laid out between columns amid the open part of the garden and on the edges of the large swimming bath; the luxury of the villa is evidenced not only by the many works of art, but by the large number of rare bronze statues found there, all masterpieces. The villa housed a collection of at least 80 sculptures of magnificent quality, many now conserved in the Naples National Archaeological Museum. Among them is the bronze Seated Hermes, found at the villa in 1758. Around the bowl of the atrium impluvium were 11 bronze fountain statues depicting Satyrs pouring water from a pitcher and Amorini pouring water from the mouth of a dolphin. Other statues and busts were found in the corners around the atrium walls. Five statues of life-sized bronze dancing women wearing the Doric peplos sculpted in different positions and with inlaid eyes are adapted Roman copies of originals from the fifth century BC, they are hydrophorai drawing water from a fountain.
The owner of the house Calpurnius Piso, established a library of a philosophical character. It is believed that the library might have been collected and selected by Piso's family friend and client, the Epicurean Philodemus of Gàdara, although his conclusion is not certain. Followers of Epicurus studied the teachings of this natural philosopher; this philosophy taught that man is mortal, that the cosmos is the result of accident, that there is no providential god, that the criteria of a good life are pleasure and temperance. Philodemus' connections with Piso brought him an opportunity to influence the young students of Greek literature and philosophy who gathered around him at Herculaneum and Naples. Much of his work was discovered in about a thousand papyrus rolls in the philosophical library recovered at Herculaneum. Although his prose work is detailed in the strung-out, non-periodic style typical of Hellenistic Greek prose before the revival of the Attic style after Cicero, Philodemus surpassed the average literary standard to which most epicureans aspired.
Philodemus succeeded in influencing the most distinguished Romans of his age. None of his prose work was known until the rolls of papyri were discovered among the ruins of the Villa of the Papyri. At the time of the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79, the valuable library was packed in cases ready
Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term expulsion is used as a synonym for deportation, though expulsion is more used in the context of international law, while deportation is more used in national law. Definitions of deportation apply to nationals and foreigners. Nonetheless, in the common usage the expulsion of foreign nationals is called deportation, whereas the expulsion of nationals is called extradition, exile, or penal transportation. For example, in the United States: "Strictly speaking, transportation and deportation, although each has the effect of removing a person from the country, are different things, have different purposes. Transportation is by way of punishment of one convicted of an offense against the laws of the country. Extradition is the surrender to another country of one accused of an offense against its laws, there to be tried, and, if found guilty, punished. Deportation is the removal of an alien out of the country because his presence is deemed inconsistent with the public welfare and without any punishment being imposed or contemplated either under the laws of the country out of which he is sent or of those of the country to which he is taken."
Expulsion is an act by a public authority to remove a person or persons against his or her will from the territory of that state. A successful expulsion of a person by a country is called a deportation. According to the European Court of Human Rights, collective expulsion is any measure compelling non-nationals, as a group, to leave a country, except where such a measure is taken on the basis of a reasonable and objective examination of the particular case of each individual non-national of the group. Mass expulsion may occur when members of an ethnic group are sent out of a state regardless of nationality. Collective expulsion, or expulsion en masse, is prohibited by several instruments of international law. Deportations occurred in ancient history, is well-recorded in ancient Mesopotamia. Deportation was practiced as a policy toward rebellious people in Achaemenid Empire; the precise legal status of the deportees is unclear. Instances include: Unlike in the Achaemenid and Sassanian periods, records of deportation are rare during the Arsacid Parthian period.
One notable example was the deportation of the Mards in Charax, near Rhages by Phraates I. The 10,000 Roman prisoners of war after the Battle of Carrhae appear to have been deported to Alexandria Margiana near the eastern border in 53 BC, who are said to married to local people, it is hypothesized that some of them founded the Chinese city of Li-Jien after becoming soldiers for the Hsiung-nu, but this is doubted. Hyrcanus II, the Jewish king of Judea, was settled among the Jews of Babylon in Parthia after being taken as captive by the Parthian-Jewish forces in 40 BC. Roman POWs in the Antony's Parthian War may have suffered deportation. Deportation was used by the Sasanians during the wars with the Romans. During Shapur I's reign, the Romans who were defeated at the Battle of Edessa were deported to Persis. Other destinations were Parthia and Asorestan. There were cities which were founded and were populated by Romans prisoners of war, including Shadh-Shapur in Meshan, Bishapur in Persis, Wuzurg-Shapur, Gundeshapur.
Agricultural land were given to the deportees. These deportations initiated the spread Christianity in the Sassanian empire. In Rēw-Ardashīr, there was a church for the Romans and another one for Carmanians. In the mid-3rd century, Greek-speaking deportees from north-western Syria were settled in Kashkar, Mesopotamia. After the Arab incursion into Persia during Shapur II's reign, he scattered the defeated Arab tribes by deporting them to other regions; some where deported to Bahrain and Kirman to both populate these unattractive regions and bringing the tribes under control. In 395 AD, 18,000 Roman populations of Sophene, Mesopotamia and Cappadocia were captured and deported by the "Huns"; the prisoners were freed by the Persians as they reached Persia, were settled in Slōk and Kōkbā. The author of the text Liber Calipharum has praised the king Yazdegerd I for his treatment of the deportees, who allowed some to return. Major deportations occurred during the Anastasian War, including Kavad I's deportation of the populations of Theodosiopolis and Amida to Arrajan.
Major deportations occurred during the campaigns of Khosrau I from the Roman cities of Sura, Antioch, Apamea and Batnai in Osrhoene, to Wēh-Antiyōk-Khosrow. The city was founded near Ctesiphon for them, Khosrow "did everything in his power to make the residents want to stay"; the number of the deportees is recorded to be 292,000 in another source. Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention prohibits the deportation of people into or out of occupied territory under belligerent military occupation: Individual or mass forcible transfers, as well as deportations of protected persons from occupied territory to the territory of the Occupying Power or to that of any other country, occupied or not, are prohibited, regardless of their motive.... The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies. All countries reserve the right to deport persons without right of abode those who are longtime residents or possess permanent residency. In general, foreigners who have committed serious crimes, entered the country
Circello is a comune in the Province of Benevento in the Italian region Campania, located about 70 kilometres northeast of Naples and about 25 km north of Benevento and 700 metres above sea level. Circello borders the following municipalities: Campolattaro, Colle Sannita, Fragneto l'Abate, Reino, Santa Croce del Sannio. Circello has an mountainous climate with cold and snowy winters, sometimes exceeding 1 m of snow precipitation. Snowstorms are quite common during winter, while the summers are mild with temperatures that exceed 35 degrees Celsius; the lowest temperature recorded in Circello was on 2 December 1985, at -21 degrees Celsius. Other low temperatures were -13 degrees Celsius in January 2003, -15 degrees Celsius in December 2010; the highest temperature recorded was at 36 degrees Celsius. Circello is a small rural center situated within the Province of Benevento, it sits upon a rocky outcropping between the vallies of the Tammarecchia rivers. In ancient times, Circello was a Samnite city.
This zone, according to Titus Livius, was called "Taurasia". The territories of Upper Samnium were conquered by the Romans following the Samnite Wars, the area around Circello became Ager publicus, public land belonging to the Roman people. Excavations in the area, in particular in the Macchia district, demonstrate the Roman presence in Circello. Just a few kilometers from the center of Circello, there is an archaeological site at what was once the capital of Ligures Baebiani, a population of Ligurians who were deported from their homeland in 181 BC under the orders of the Roman consul Marcus Baebius Tamphilus, from whom they took the name Baebiani. In 1831, the Tabula Alimentaria Ligurum Baebianorum was found in the Macchia district of Circello. According to the tablet, the interest rate was set at 2.5%. The tablet was found in 1831 by Giosuè De Agostini at his own farm, it was transcribed for the first time in 1845 by Raffaele Garrucci. Today, it can be seen at the Museo Nazionale Romano in Rome.
A castle was built here by the Normans in the 11th century. A tower was added in the 14th century under the Aragonese The Castle and Ducal palace Chiesa dell'Annunziata Chiesa di San Nicola Chiesa di San Francesco Chiesa di San Rocco Torre di Sant'Angelo Ruins of the city of Ligures Baebiani in contrada Macchia Antonio Ricci, Italian author and television producer Loretta Goggi, Italian singer, television hostess, imitator