Charles Reed Bishop
Charles Reed Bishop was an American businessman and philanthropist in Hawaii. Born in Glens Falls, New York, he sailed to Hawaii in 1846 at the age of 24, made his home there, marrying into the royal family of the kingdom, he served several monarchs in appointed positions in the kingdom, before its overthrow in 1893 by Americans from the United States and organization as the Territory of Hawaii. Bishop was one of the first trustees of and a major donor to the Kamehameha Schools, founded by his late wife's request to provide education to Hawaiian children, he founded Hawaii's first successful bank, now known as First Hawaiian Bank. Based on his business success, he founded the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, named for his late wife. On January 25, 1822, Charles Reed Bishop was born to Maria and Samuel Bishop in Glen Falls, New York, his father was a toll collector for ship traffic on the Hudson River near the town. Charles' mother Maria died two weeks after giving birth to Henry, their father Samuel Bishop died when Charles was four, the boy was taken in by his grandfather on his 125-acre farm in Warrensburg.
Charles Bishop worked on his grandfather's farm, learning how to care for sheep and horses. While living with his grandfather, Bishop was baptized in a Methodist church. Bishop spent his early years of education at a village school, finished his formal schooling at 8th grade, as was customary for many boys in that period. Bishop was hired as a clerk and soon started working for Nelson J. Warren, who headed the largest mercantile company in Warrensburg, he befriended William Little Lee from nearby Hudson Falls called Sandy Hill. Charles' paternal uncle Linus Bishop married Lee's sister Eliza. After attending Harvard Law School, Lee persuaded Bishop to go with him to the Oregon Territory for new opportunities; the two young men sailed for Oregon on the Henry out of New York City, leaving February 23, 1846. By October the ship had needed to stop in Honolulu for provisions. At this time, the islands were still governed by the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, but numerous Americans were settling there for business opportunities and as missionaries.
Lee was recruited to stay as the second western-trained lawyer in the Hawaiian islands. Bishop decided to stay as well, he soon was hired by some Americans to sort out the failed land deal of Ladd & Co., the first major formal law proceeding. He next worked for the U. S. Consul. On February 27, 1849 Bishop became accepted as a citizen of the Kingdom of Hawaii, he became an investor with Henry A. Peirce and Lee in a sugarcane plantation on the island of Kauaʻi, near where the Ladd company had been somewhat successful. From 1849 to 1853 he served as Collector General of Customs. On May 4, 1850 he married Bernice Pauahi Pākī, of the royal House of Kamehameha, despite the objections of her parents, their private ceremony in the Royal School was not attended by her family. Within a year her father Pākī made peace with the marriage and invited the couple to live in the family estate called Haleakala. Bishop formed a partnership with William A. Aldrich, selling merchandise to be shipped to supply the California Gold Rush.
He became known as a trusted person with whom traders could deposit and exchange the various currencies in use at the time. In 1853 Bishop was elected as representative to the legislature of the Hawaiian Kingdom. On August 17, 1858 Aldrich split off the shipping business. Bishop founded Co. as the first chartered bank in the Kingdom. It is the second oldest bank west of the Rocky Mountains. On its first day it took in $4784.25 in deposits. By 1878 it expanded to a two-story building; this structure is designated as a contributing property to the Merchant Street Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. In 1895 Bishop sold the bank to Samuel Mills Damon, son of American missionary Samuel C. Damon. Over time the bank grew and in 1960 was renamed as First Hawaiian Bank, formalizing its role in state history. Bishop served on the Privy Council for five Hawaiian monarchs from 1859–1891, was appointed to the House of Nobles 1859–1886 by King Kamehameha IV. From 1869 to 1891, he served as an appointee to the Board of Education.
During the brief reign of King Lunalilo, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs from January 10, 1873 to February 17, 1874. Bishop was one of the first trustees of and major donor to the Kamehameha Schools, founded at his late wife's bequest to provide education to Hawaiian children, he was a founder of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, which he named after his late wife. Bishop hired William Tufts Brigham, whom he had met on a scientific visit in 1864 with Horace Mann Jr. to be the museum's first director. He donated funds for buildings at the private Punahou School. Bishop was elected and served as president of the Honolulu Chamber of Commerce 1883–1885 and 1888–1894. After the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, in 1893, Bishop left Hawaii in 1894 and settled in San Francisco, California, he became vice-president of the Bank of California, serving until his death on June 7, 1915. He stayed involved in his Hawaiian estate affairs from California. For example, he hired architects Clinton Briggs Ripley and Charles William Dickey to design a new building for the Bishop estate headquarters, for Pauahi Hall on the Punahou School campus.
Bishop died in 1915 at the age of 93. His ashes were returned to Hawaii and interred next to his wife's remains at the Royal Mausoleum of Hawaii. A major street cutting through Bishop property in downtown Honolulu at 21°18′32″N 157°51′38″W was named Bishop. Bernice P. Bishop
Kapaʻa is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi, United States. The population was 10,699 at the 2010 census, up from 9,471 at the 2000 census. Kapaʻa is a Hawaiian adjective meaning "solid". Kapaʻa is located on the east side of the island of Kauai at 22°5′18″N 159°20′16″W, it is bordered to the south by the communities of Wailua and Wailua Homesteads and to the east by the Pacific Ocean. Hawaii Route 56 passes through the eastern part of the community, leading north 6 miles to Anahola and south 8 miles to Lihue. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Kapaa CDP has a total area of 10.3 square miles. 10.0 square miles of it are land and 0.35 square miles of it are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,471 people, 3,129 households, 2,281 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 971.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,632 housing units at an average density of 372.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 27.8% White, 0.3% Black, 0.5% Native American, 31.7% Asian, 10.0% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, 28.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.5% of the population. There were 3,129 households out of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.1% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families. 20.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.44. In the CDP the population was spread out with 29.8% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $39,448, the median income for a family was $45,878. Males had a median income of $30,129 versus $25,680 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,878. About 14.1% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.6% of those under age 18 and 12.6% of those age 65 or over.
The town is served by a feeder elementary school and middle school. There is one private school, St. Catherine Catholic School, founded in 1947
Albert Spencer Wilcox Building
The Albert Spencer Wilcox Building, was a library and converted to the Kauaʻi Museum, which displays exhibits on the history of the island of Kauaʻi in Hawaii. The first library on the island of Kauaʻi was established by Reverend John Mortimer Lydgate in 1900 at his church in Līhuʻe. After moving to a temporary home in 1921, a permanent home was needed. On February 3, 1922, Emma Kauikeolani Wilcox, widow of businessman and politician Albert Spencer Wilcox offered US$75,000 for a public library on Kauaʻi. In October 1922 architect Hart Wood was selected to design the building named in honor of Wilcox. Built with John Hansen as general contractor, it opened in 1924 to house the first public library on the island. In April 1954 a committee started raising funds for a museum to be built next to the library. Juliet Rice Wichman was chair of the committee. A granddaughter of businessman and politician William Hyde Rice, she had married Frederick Warren Wichman after the death of her first husband Holbrook M. Goodale.
The new building was named for Rice. Wichman became the museum's first director, would co-found the National Tropical Botanical Garden and donate land to become the Limahuli Garden and Preserve to the garden; the first manager of the museum was Dora Jane Isenberg Cole, a second cousin of Wichman sharing great-grandfather William Harrison Rice but Paul Isenberg as her paternal grandfather. On December 3, 1960, the museum opened to the public in the Rice building. In 1969 the state of Hawaii built a new library building, the Wilcox building was converted to house additional exhibits of the Kauaʻi Museum, opening in December 1970; the Wilcox building was listed as state historic site 30-11-9344 on February 17, 1979. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places listings in Hawaii on May 31, 1979, as site 79000760, it is located at 21 ° 58 ′ 29 ″ N 159 ° 22 ′ 6 ″ W in Līhuʻe. Albert Spencer Wilcox Beach House, Hawaii NRHP-listed Official website
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 1,067 mm. Since narrow-gauge railways are built with tighter curves, smaller structure gauges, lighter rails, they can be less costly to build and operate than standard- or broad-gauge railways. Lower-cost narrow-gauge railways are built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of a standard- or broad-gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways have specialized use in mines and other environments where a small structure gauge necessitates a small loading gauge, they have more general applications. Non-industrial, narrow-gauge mountain railways are common in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the Pacific Cordillera of Canada, Switzerland, the former Yugoslavia and Costa Rica. In some countries, narrow gauge is the standard. Narrow-gauge trams metre-gauge, are common in Europe. In general, a narrow-gauge railway is narrower than 1,435 mm.
Because of historical and local circumstances, the definition of a narrow-gauge railway varies. The earliest recorded railway appears in Georgius Agricola's 1556 De re metallica, which shows a mine in Bohemia with a railway of about 2 ft gauge. During the 16th century, railways were restricted to hand-pushed, narrow-gauge lines in mines throughout Europe. In the 17th century, mine railways were extended to provide transportation above ground; these lines were industrial. These railways were built to the same narrow gauge as the mine railways from which they developed; the world's first steam locomotive, built in 1802 by Richard Trevithick for the Coalbrookdale Company, ran on a 3 ft plateway. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's Salamanca built in 1812 for the 4 ft 1 in Middleton Railway in Leeds. Salamanca was the first rack-and-pinion locomotive. During the 1820s and 1830s, a number of industrial narrow-gauge railways in the United Kingdom used steam locomotives.
In 1842, the first narrow-gauge steam locomotive outside the UK was built for the 1,100 mm -gauge Antwerp-Ghent Railway in Belgium. The first use of steam locomotives on a public, passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway was in 1865, when the Ffestiniog Railway introduced passenger service after receiving its first locomotives two years earlier. Many narrow-gauge railways were part of industrial enterprises and served as industrial railways, rather than general carriers. Common uses for these industrial narrow-gauge railways included mining, construction, tunnelling and conveying agricultural products. Extensive narrow-gauge networks were constructed in many parts of the world. Significant sugarcane railways still operate in Cuba, Java, the Philippines, Queensland, narrow-gauge railway equipment remains in common use for building tunnels; the first use of an internal combustion engine to power a narrow-gauge locomotive was in 1902. F. C. Blake built a 7hp petrol locomotive for the Richmond Main Sewerage Board sewage plant at Mortlake.
This 2 ft 9 in gauge locomotive was the third petrol-engined locomotive built. Extensive narrow-gauge rail systems served the front-line trenches of both sides in World War I, they were a short-lived military application, after the war the surplus equipment created a small boom in European narrow-gauge railway building. Narrow-gauge railways cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, smaller bridges and tunnels, tighter curves. Narrow gauge is used in mountainous terrain, where engineering savings can be substantial, it is used in sparsely populated areas where the potential demand is too low for broad-gauge railways to be economically viable. This is the case in parts of Australia and most of Southern Africa, where poor soils have led to population densities too low for standard gauge to be viable. For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects, a narrow-gauge railway is cheaper and easier to install and remove.
Such railways have vanished, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs; the choice was not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all. Narrow-gauge railways cannot interchange rolling stock with the standard- or broad-gauge railways with which they link, the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure; some bulk commodities, such as coal and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, the equipment required for the transfer is complex to maintain. If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand i
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Sir W G Armstrong Whitworth & Co Ltd was a major British manufacturing company of the early years of the 20th century. With headquarters in Elswick, Newcastle upon Tyne, Armstrong Whitworth built armaments, locomotives and aircraft; the company was founded by William Armstrong in 1847, becoming Armstrong Mitchell and Armstrong Whitworth through mergers. In 1927, it merged with Vickers Limited to form Vickers-Armstrongs, with its automobile and aircraft interests purchased by J D Siddeley. In 1847, the engineer William George Armstrong founded the Elswick works at Newcastle, to produce hydraulic machinery and bridges, soon to be followed by artillery, notably the Armstrong breech-loading gun, with which the British Army was re-equipped after the Crimean War. In 1882, it merged with the shipbuilding firm of Charles Mitchell to form Armstrong Mitchell & Company and at the time its works extended for over a mile along the bank of the River Tyne. Armstrong Mitchell merged again with the engineering firm of Joseph Whitworth in 1897.
The company expanded into the manufacture of cars and trucks in 1902, created an "aerial department" in 1913, which became the Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft subsidiary in 1920. In 1927, it merged with Vickers Limited to form Vickers-Armstrongs; the Armstrong Whitworth was manufactured from 1904, when the company decided to diversify to compensate for a fall in demand for artillery after the end of the Boer War. It took over construction of the Wilson-Pilcher, designed by Walter Gordon Wilson, produced cars under the Armstrong Whitworth name until 1919, when the company merged with Siddeley-Deasy and to form Armstrong Siddeley; the Wilson-Pilcher was an advanced car with a 2.4-litre engine, made in London from 1901 until 1904 when production moved to Newcastle. When Armstrong Whitworth took over production two models were made, a 2.7-litre flat four and a 4.1-litre flat six, the cylinders on both being identical with bore and stroke of 3.75in. The engines had the flywheel at the front of the engine, the crankshaft had intermediate bearings between each pair of cylinders.
Drive was to the rear wheels via helical bevel axle. The cars were listed at £ 900 for the six, they were still theoretically available until 1907. According to Automotor in 1904, "Even the first Wilson-Pilcher car that made its appearance created quite a sensation in automobile circles at the time on account of its remarkably silent and smooth running, of the total absence of vibration"; the first Armstrong Whitworth car was the 28/36 of 1906 with a water-cooled, four-cylinder side-valve engine of 4.5 litres which unusually had "oversquare" dimensions of 120 mm bore and 100 mm stroke. Drive was via a four-speed shaft to the rear wheels. A larger car was listed for 1908 with a choice of either 5-litre 30 or 7.6-litre 40 models sharing a 127 mm bore but with strokes of 100 mm and 152 mm respectively. The 40 was listed at £798 in bare chassis form for supplying to coachbuilders; these large cars were joined in 1909 by the 4.3-litre 18/22 and in 1910 by the 3.7-litre 25, which seems to have shared the same chassis as the 30 and 40.
In 1911, a new small car appeared in the shape of the 2.4-litre 12/14, called the 15.9 in 1911, featuring a monobloc engine with pressure lubrication to the crankshaft bearings. This model had an 88-inch wheelbase compared with the 120 inches of the 40 range; this was joined by four larger cars ranging from the 2.7-litre 15/20 to the 3.7-litre 25.5. The first six-cylinder model, the 30/50 with 5.1-litre 90 mm bore by 135 mm stroke engine came in 1912 with the option of electric lighting. This grew to 5.7 litres in 1913. At the outbreak of war, as well as the 30/50, the range consisted of the 3-litre 17/25 and the 3.8-litre 30/40. The cars were if not always bodied by external coachbuilders and had a reputation for reliability and solid workmanship; the company maintained a London sales outlet at New Bond Street. When Armstrong Whitworth and Vickers merged, Armstrong Whitworth's automotive interests were purchased by J D Siddeley as Armstrong Siddeley, based in Coventry. An Armstrong Whitworth car is displayed in the Discovery Newcastle upon Tyne.
Armstrong Whitworth established an Aerial Department in 1912. This became the Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Company; when Vickers and Armstrong Whitworth merged in 1927 to form Vickers-Armstrongs, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft was bought out by J. D. Siddeley and became a separate entity; the Elswick Ordnance Company was created in 1859 to separate William Armstrong's armaments business from his other business interests, to avoid a conflict of interest as Armstrong was Engineer of Rifled Ordnance for the War Office and the company's main customer was the British Government. Armstrong held no financial interest in the company until 1864 when he left Government service, Elswick Ordnance was reunited with the main Armstrong businesses to form Sir W. G. Armstrong & Company. EOC was the armaments branch of W. G. Armstrong & Company and of Armstrong Whitworth. Elswick Ordnance was a major arms developer before and during World War I; the ordnance and ammunition it manufactured for the British Government were stamped EOC, while guns made for export were marked "W.
G. Armstrong". After the Great War, Armstrong Whitworth converted its Scotswood Works to build railway locomotives. From 1919 it penetrated the locomotive market due to its modern plant, its two largest contracts were 200 2-8-0s for the Belgian State Railways in 1920 and 327 Black 5 4-6-0s