The rebab is a type of a bowed string instrument so named no than the 8th century and spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, the Far East. The bowed variety has a spike at the bottom to rest on the ground, is thus called a spike fiddle in certain areas, but plucked versions like the kabuli rebab exist; the Arabic rabāb is the earliest known bowed instrument and the parent of the medieval European rebec. The Arabic rabāb is the ancestor of all European bowed instruments, including the rebec and the lyra. Besides the spike fiddle variant, there exists a variant with a pear-shaped body, quite similar to the Byzantine lyra and the Cretan lyra; this latter variant travelled to western Europe in the 11th century, became the rebec. This article will only concentrate on the spike-fiddle rebab, which consists of a small rounded body, the front of, covered in a membrane such as parchment or sheepskin and has a long neck attached. There is a long thin neck with a pegbox at the end and there are one, two or three strings.
There is no fingerboard. The instrument is held upright, either resting on the lap or on the floor; the bow is more curved than that of the violin. The rebab, though valued for its voice-like tone, has a limited range, was replaced throughout much of the Arab world by the violin and kemenche; the Iraqi version of the instrument has four strings. The rebab is used in a wide variety of musical ensembles and genres, corresponding with its wide distribution, is built and played somewhat differently in different areas. Following the principle of construction in Iran, the rebab is a large instrument with a range similar to the viola da gamba, whereas versions of the instrument further west tend to be smaller and higher-pitched; the body varies from being ornately carved, as in Java, to simpler models such as the 2-string Egyptian "fiddle of the Nile." They may have a body made of half a coconut shell, while the more sophisticated versions have a metal soundbox, the front may be half-covered with beaten copper, half with cowskin.
The rebab was used, continues to be used, in Arabic Bedouin music as well traditional Iraqi music under the name "joza", named after the sound box material made of a coconut shell. There is a bowed instrument in Persian music named Kamanche which has similar shape and structure. For a famous Iranian singer and rebab player see Hassaan Egzaar Chenani; the spike fiddle variants are commonly used by many North and Central Asian ethnic groups and their diaspora around the world, such as the Huqin variety used by most ethnic groups of China, the khoochir and morin khuur of Mongolia, the Byzaanchy of Tuva, the Haegeum of Korea, kyl kiak of Kyrgyzstan, Saw sam sai of Thailand and many others. These are used in playing traditional folk tunes, but have become popular in arrangements of contemporary music, including such genres as classical and rock. In the Indonesian gamelan the rebab is an essential elaborating instrument, ornamenting the basic melody. A two-string bowed lute consisting of a wooden body, traditionally though now a single coconut shell, covered with fine stretched skin.
Two brass strings are tuned a fifth apart and the horse hair bow is tied loosely with the proper tension controlled by the players bow hand, contributing to the difficult technique. There are two per ensemble, one for pelog and one for slendro, never played together; the rebab does not have to conform to the scale of the other gamelan instruments and can be played in free time, finishing its phrases after the beat of the gong ageng. The rebab frequently plays the buka when it is part of the ensemble. In the eastern Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu, the Rebab is used in a healing ritual called "Main Puteri"; the musician healer is sometimes taken to hospitals in cases where doctors are unable to heal ailing patients. Margaret J. Kartomi: On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology, University of Chicago Press, 1990 Turkish Rebab Master Ibrahim Metin Ugur Nay-Nava the encyclopedia of persian music instruments Rebab The Rebab Arabic rababa photo nuke.liuteriaetnica.it FERNWOOD, an American music group that uses a Rebab.
The cello or violoncello is a string instrument. It is played by bowing or plucking its four strings, which are tuned in perfect fifths an octave lower than the viola: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3, it is the bass member of the violin family, which includes the violin and the double bass, which doubles the bass line an octave lower than the cello in much of the orchestral repertoire. After the double bass, it is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra; the cello is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, most modern Chinese orchestras, some types of rock bands. Music for the cello is written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clef are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a violoncellist. In a small classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece.
In an orchestra of the Baroque era and Classical period, the cello plays the bass part doubled an octave lower by the double basses. In Baroque-era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline along with a keyboard instrument or a fretted, plucked stringed instrument. In such a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined or replaced by other bass instruments, playing bassoon, double bass, viol or other low-register instruments; the name cello is derived from the ending of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone". Violone was a large-sized member of the violin family; the term "violone" today refers to the lowest-pitched instrument of the viols, a family of stringed instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except England and France, where they survived another half-century before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country as well. In modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument.
Thus, the name "violoncello" contained both the augmentative "-one" and the diminutive "-cello". By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the missing stem, it is now customary to use "cello" without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the root viola, derived from Medieval Latin vitula, meaning stringed instrument. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3, A3, it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight; the cello is most associated with European classical music, has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, is the bass voice of the string quartet, as well as being part of many other chamber groups. Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach's six unaccompanied Suites.
The cello figures as a member of the basso continuo group in chamber works by Francesca Caccini, Barbara Strozzi with pieces such as Il primo libro di madrigali, per 2–5 voci e basso continuo, op. 1 and Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre who wrote six sonatas for violin and basso continuo. From the Classical era, the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven, which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution. A Divertimento for Piano, Clarinet and Cello is among the surviving works by Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. A review of compositions for cello in the Romantic era must include the German composer Fanny Mendelssohn who wrote the Fantasy in G minor for cello and piano and a Capriccio in A-flat for cello. Other well-known works of the era include the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms.
Compositions from the late-19th and early 20th century include three cello sonatas by Dame Ethel Smyth, Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, Claude Debussy's Sonata for Cello and Piano, unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály and Paul Hindemith. Pieces including cello were written by American Music Cente founder Marion Bauer and Ruth Crawford Seeger. Polish composer Grażyna Bacewicz was writing for cello in the mid 20th century with Concerto No. 1 for Cello and Orchestra, Concerto No. 2 for Cello and Orchestra and in 1964 composed her Quartet for four cellos. The cello's versatility made it popular with many male composers in this era as well, such as Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, György Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski and Henri Dutilleux. Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudna
The rabel is a bowed stringed instrument from Spain, a rustic folk-fiddle descended from the medieval rebec, with both descended from the Arab rabab. The instrument has two or three strings of gut or steel, or sometimes twisted horse-hair; the instrument is first mentioned in the 12th century, it is still used in parts of Latin America, as well as the Spanish provinces of Cantabria and Asturias. Rebec
The lirone is the bass member of the lira family of instruments, popular in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. It is a bowed string instrument with a fretted neck; when played, it is held between the legs in the manner of a viol. The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians describes the lirone as a larger version of the lira da braccio, which has a similar wide fingerboard, flat bridge, leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal pegs, its flat bridge allows for the playing of chords of between five notes. The lirone was used in Italy during the late 16th and early 17th centuries to provide continuo, or harmony for the accompaniment of vocal music, it was used in Catholic churches by Jesuits. Despite the resurgence in Baroque instrument performance during the 20th century, only a handful of musicians play the lirone. Notable performers on the instrument include Erin Headley of England, Hille Perl and Claas Harders of Germany, Annalisa Pappano of the United States, Laura Vaughan of Australia, Paulina van Laarhoven of the Netherlands.
Lira da braccio Viol Violone, a contrabass instrument of the viol family Erin Headley. "Lirone", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy, grovemusic.com. John Weretka. "Homer the lironist: P. F. Mola and Music in the Baroque" Article Photo of Annalisa Pappano with a 14-string lirone Photograph of a lirone Lirone audio Lirone audio
In music, a bow is a tensioned stick with hair affixed to it, moved across some part of a musical instrument to cause vibration, which the instrument emits as sound. The vast majority of bows are used with string instruments, such as the violin, although some bows are used with musical saws and other bowed idiophones. A bow consists of a specially shaped stick with other material forming a ribbon stretched between its ends, used to stroke the string and create sound. Different musical cultures have adopted various designs for the bow. For instance, in some bows a single cord is stretched between the ends of the stick. In the Western tradition of bow making—bows for the instruments of the violin and viol families—a hank of horsehair is employed; the manufacture of bows is considered a demanding craft, well-made bows command high prices. Part of the bow maker's skill is the ability to choose high quality material for the stick. Western bows have been made of pernambuco wood from Brazil. However, pernambuco is now an endangered species whose export is regulated by international treaty, so makers are adopting other materials: woods such as Ipê and synthetic materials, such as carbon fiber epoxy composite and fiberglass.
Carbon fiber bows have become popular, some of the better carbon fiber bows are now comparable to fine pernambuco sticks. For the frog, which holds and adjusts the near end of the horsehair, ebony is most used, but other materials decorative, were used as well, such as ivory and tortoiseshell. Materials such as mother of pearl or abalone shell are used on the slide that covers the mortise, as well as in round decorative "eyes" inlaid on the side surfaces. Sometimes "Parisian eyes" are used, with the circle of shell surrounded by a metal ring; the metal parts of the frog, or mountings, may be used by the maker to mark various grades of bow, ordinary bows being mounted with nickel silver, better bows with silver, the finest being gold-mounted. Near the frog is the grip, made of a wire, silk, or "whalebone" wrap and a thumb cushion made of leather or snakeskin; the tip plate of the bow may be made of bone, mammoth ivory, or metal, such as silver. A bow maker or archetier uses between 150 and 200 hairs from the tail of a horse for a violin bow.
Bows for other members of the violin family have a wider ribbon, using more hairs. There is a held belief among string players, neither proven nor disproven scientifically, that white hair produces a "smoother" sound and black hair is coarser and thus produces a "rougher" sound. Lower quality bows use nylon or synthetic hair. Rosin, or colophony, a hard, sticky substance made from resin, is applied to the bow hair to increase friction. In making a wooden bow, the greater part of the woodworking is done on a straight stick. According to James McKean, "the bow maker graduates the stick in precise gradations so that it is evenly flexible throughout"; these gradations were calculated by François Tourte, discussed below. To shape the curve or "camber" of the bow stick, the maker heats the stick in an alcohol flame, a few inches at a time, bending the heated stick gradually—using a metal or wooden template to get the model's exact curve and shape; the art of making wooden bows has changed little since the 19th century.
Most modern composite sticks resemble the Tourte design. Various inventors have explored new ways of bow-making; the Incredibow, for example, has a straight stick cambered only by the fixed tension of the synthetic hair. Different bows, varying in weight and length, are used for the violin, viola and double bass; these are variations on the same basic design. However, bassist use two distinct forms of the double bass bow; the "French" overhand bow is constructed like the bow used with other bowed orchestral instruments, the bassist holds the stick from opposite the frog. The "German" or "Butler" underhand bow is broader and longer than the French bow, with a larger frog curved to fit the palm of the hand; the bassist holds the German stick with the hand loosely encompassing the frog. The German bow is the older of the two designs; the French bow became popular with its adoption in the 19th century by virtuoso Giovanni Bottesini. Both are found in the orchestra, though an individual bass player prefers to perform using one or the other type of bow.
The characteristic long and singing sound produced by the violin, viola and double bass is due to the drawing of the bow against their strings. This sustaining of musical sound with a bow is comparable to a singer using breath to sustain sounds and sing long, smooth, or legato melodies. In modern practice, the bow is always held in the right hand while the left is used for fingering; when the player pulls the bow across the strings, it is called a down-bow. Two consecutive notes played in the same bow direction are referred to as a hooked bow; the player uses down-bow for strong musical beats and up-bow for weak beats. However, this is reversed in the viola da gamba—players of violin family instruments look like they are "pulling" on the strong beats, where gamba players look like they are "stabbing" on the strong beats; the differ
Lira da braccio
The lira da braccio was a European bowed string instrument of the Renaissance. It was used by Italian poet-musicians in court in the 15th and 16th centuries to accompany their improvised recitations of lyric and narrative poetry, it is most related to the medieval fiddle, or vielle, like the vielle had a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal pegs. Fiddles with drone strings are seen beginning in the 9th century, the instrument continued to develop through the 16th century. In many depictions of the instrument, it is being played by mythological characters members of angel consorts, most by Orpheus and Apollo; the lira da braccio was used in ensembles in the intermedi, may have acted as a proto-continuo instrument. The instrument was shaped like a violin, but with a wider fingerboard and flatter bridge, it had seven strings, five of them tuned like a violin with a low d added to the bottom with two strings off the fingerboard which served as drones and were tuned in octaves. Michael Praetorius shows the instrument with frets.
The wide fingerboard and flat bridge, along with long curved bows, facilitated chordal playing on the instrument. Although Praetorius depicts the instrument as lyra de bracio with various viols "da gamba", it was in fact played on the shoulder, as is implied by its name, which refers to the arm, or braccio in Italian. From the few treatises and compositions which survive, it seems that the lira was played with triple and quadruple stops; the player was somewhat limited in terms of what inversions they could play, it is believed that the top strings may have been used for melody, the lower strings for chordal playing. In addition, it is believed that when accompanying singing, the instrument played at a higher pitch than the performer sang. In the late 16th century a fretted bass version of the lira da braccio with an expanded number of strings was developed, the lirone known as the lira da gamba, played "da gamba", or between the legs; the lira da braccio was first cited in 1533 by Giovanni Maria Lanfranco describing its tuning:.
Lira was devised to accompany humanist sung verse by poets, such as the 14th century Petrarch and his imitators, was popular in the North Italian city-states such as Florence, Mantua, Venice and so on. In this role, the Lira enjoyed a prestige among instruments that it was never quite to achieve again. Amongst its exponents at the time were several great painters, notably Leonardo da Vinci, who according to Emmanuel Winternitz, was held to be the doyen among performers upon the Lira; the rise of the Madrigal, its counterpart, the instrumental consort, as well as the meteoric rise of the more vocal Violin, soon toppled the Lira from its pre-eminent position at court, by the 1530s it had been relegated to stage use, in the great Renaissance festivals held by the city states and their powerful ruling dynasties. Here it was found onstage associated with the presence of the god Apollo, or blended in proto-continuo offstage ensembles; the Pesaro Manuscript, from the mid-16th century, an important document in the history of the Lira, records a Passemezzo Moderno, written in lira tablature.
Discovered in the town of Pesaro, on the Adriatic coast, this strange, mutilated script is the sole surviving example of written music for the Lira. It suggests at least the possibility that the instrument was being used as a dance instrument by this time, its harmonic character, useful range of home keys would have been ideally suited to render the fashionable dance music of the day. The great Italian musicologist Disertori showed that it was possible to reconstruct convincing examples of the Lira da Braccio in its early forms, from the meticulous paintings and drawings of Leonardo da Vinci, Giovanni Bellini, Vittore Carpaccio and many other artists from the late 15th/early 16th century, thus opening many exciting possibilities relating to the re-creation of late 15th century performance practice. There are up to ten surviving examples of the violin-like Lira, though their authenticity is still in, somewhat acrimonious, contention; the Lira da Braccio fell out of use sometime in the mid-17th century.
It last appears in a Dutch allegorical still-life, "Hearing", by Jan Brueghel II.. Lirone Vielle
Mate Bulić is a Bosnian-Croatian pop and folk singer, whose songs are influenced by his native Herzegovina region. He lives in Frankfurt. Bulić finished his schooling at Mostar, where he graduated in electrical engineering. However, he decided not to pursue a teaching job in Mostar and moved to Frankfurt where he married and began a family, it was not until that he began to develop his music career. It was not until the early 1990s that he began recording, in 1994 his first album was released, he is known for using numerous elements of traditional Croatian music which he incorporates into his music, such as the use of the lijerica and the singing of ganga. He has collaborated with many Croatian artists, most notably Miroslav Škoro and Marko Perković. Gdje ste noćas prijatelji stari Dodijalo pajdo Hrvatske narodne pjesme 1 Pjevajte sa mnom Sve najbolje Gori borovina Megamix Kako mi je, tako mi je Domu mom Official website