Lilium is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants are not related to true lilies. Lilies are tall perennials ranging in height from 2–6 ft, they form naked or tunicless scaly underground bulbs which are their organs of perennation. In some North American species the base of the bulb develops into rhizomes, on which numerous small bulbs are found; some species develop stolons. Most bulbs are buried deep in the ground. Many species form stem-roots. With these, the bulb grows at some depth in the soil, each year the new stem puts out adventitious roots above the bulb as it emerges from the soil; these roots are in addition to the basal roots. The flowers are large fragrant, come in a wide range of colors including whites, oranges, pinks and purples.
Markings include spots and brush strokes. The plants are late spring- or summer-flowering. Flowers are borne in racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem, with six tepals spreading or reflexed, to give flowers varying from funnel shape to a "Turk's cap"; the tepals are free from each other, bear a nectary at the base of each flower. The ovary borne above the point of attachment of the anthers; the fruit is a three-celled capsule. Seeds ripen in late summer, they exhibit varying and sometimes complex germination patterns, many adapted to cool temperate climates. Most cool temperate species are deciduous and dormant in winter in their native environment, but a few species which distribute in hot summer and mild winter area lose leaves and remain short dormant in Summer or Autumn, sprout from Autumn to winter, forming dwarf stem bearing a basal rosette of leaves until, after they have received sufficient chilling, the stem begins to elongate in warming weather. The basic chromosome number is twelve.
Taxonomical division in sections follows the classical division of Comber, species acceptance follows the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, the taxonomy of section Pseudolirium is from the Flora of North America, the taxonomy of Section Liriotypus is given in consideration of Resetnik et al. 2007, the taxonomy of Chinese species follows the Flora of China and the taxonomy of Section Sinomartagon follows Nishikawa et al. as does the taxonomy of Section Archelirion. The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, as of January 2014, considers Nomocharis a separate genus in its own right, however some authorities consider Nomocharis to be embedded within Lilium, rather than treat it as a separate genus. There are seven sections: Martagon Pseudolirium Liriotypus Archelirion Sinomartagon Leucolirion DaurolirionFor a full list of accepted species with their native ranges, see List of Lilium species Some species included within this genus have now been placed in other genera; these genera include Cardiocrinum, Notholirion and Fritillaria.
The botanic name Lilium is a Linnaean name. The Latin name is derived from the Greek λείριον, leírion assumed to refer to true, white lilies as exemplified by the Madonna lily; the word was borrowed from Coptic hleri, from standard hreri, from Demotic hrry, from Egyptian hrṛt "flower". Meillet maintains that both the Egyptian and the Greek word are possible loans from an extinct, substratum language of the Eastern Mediterranean; the Greeks used the word κρῖνον, krīnon, albeit for non-white lilies. The term "lily" has in the past been applied to numerous flowering plants with only superficial resemblance to the true lily, including water lily, fire lily, lily of the Nile, calla lily, trout lily, kaffir lily, cobra lily, lily of the valley, ginger lily, Amazon lily, leek lily, Peruvian lily, others. All English translations of the Bible render the Hebrew shūshan, shōshan, shōshannā as "lily", but the "lily among the thorns" of Song of Solomon, for instance, may be the honeysuckle. For a list of other species described as lilies, see Lily.
The range of lilies in the Old World extends across much of Europe, across most of Asia to Japan, south to India, east to Indochina and the Philippines. In the New World they extend from southern Canada through much of the United States, they are adapted to either woodland habitats montane, or sometimes to grassland habitats. A few can survive in marshland and epiphytes are known in tropical southeast Asia. In general they prefer moderately lime-free soils. Lilies are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Dun-bar. Many species are grown in the garden in temperate and sub-tropical regions, they may be grown as potted plants. Numerous ornamental hybrids have been developed, they can be used in herbaceous borders and shrub plantings, as patio plants. Some lilies Lilium longiflorum, form important cut flower crops; these may be forced for particular markets. Lilies are planted as bulbs in the dormant season, they are best planted in a south-facing sloping aspect, in sun or part shade, at a depth 2½ times the height of the bulb.
Most prefer a porous, loamy soil
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes. Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gametophytes during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants, or from the male cone to the female cone of coniferous plants. If pollen lands on a compatible pistil or female cone, it germinates, producing a pollen tube that transfers the sperm to the ovule containing the female gametophyte. Individual pollen grains are small enough to require magnification to see detail; the study of pollen is called palynology and is useful in paleoecology, paleontology and forensics. Pollen in plants is used for transferring haploid male genetic material from the anther of a single flower to the stigma of another in cross-pollination. In a case of self-pollination, this process takes place from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower. Pollen is used as food and food supplement.
However, because of agricultural practices, it is contaminated by agricultural pesticides. Pollen itself is not the male gamete; each pollen grain contains a generative cell. In flowering plants the vegetative tube cell produces the pollen tube, the generative cell divides to form the two sperm cells. Pollen is produced in the microsporangia in the male cone of a conifer or other gymnosperm or in the anthers of an angiosperm flower. Pollen grains come in a wide variety of shapes and surface markings characteristic of the species. Pollen grains of pines and spruces are winged; the smallest pollen grain, that of the forget-me-not, is around 6 µm in diameter. Wind-borne pollen grains can be as large as about 90–100 µm. In angiosperms, during flower development the anther is composed of a mass of cells that appear undifferentiated, except for a differentiated dermis; as the flower develops, four groups of sporogenous cells form within the anther. The fertile sporogenous cells are surrounded by layers of sterile cells that grow into the wall of the pollen sac.
Some of the cells grow into nutritive cells that supply nutrition for the microspores that form by meiotic division from the sporogenous cells. In a process called microsporogenesis, four haploid microspores are produced from each diploid sporogenous cell, after meiotic division. After the formation of the four microspores, which are contained by callose walls, the development of the pollen grain walls begins; the callose wall is broken down by an enzyme called callase and the freed pollen grains grow in size and develop their characteristic shape and form a resistant outer wall called the exine and an inner wall called the intine. The exine is. Two basic types of microsporogenesis are recognised and successive. In simultaneous microsporogenesis meiotic steps I and II are completed prior to cytokinesis, whereas in successive microsporogenesis cytokinesis follows. While there may be a continuum with intermediate forms, the type of microsporogenesis has systematic significance; the predominant form amongst the monocots is successive.
During microgametogenesis, the unicellular microspores undergo mitosis and develop into mature microgametophytes containing the gametes. In some flowering plants, germination of the pollen grain may begin before it leaves the microsporangium, with the generative cell forming the two sperm cells. Except in the case of some submerged aquatic plants, the mature pollen grain has a double wall; the vegetative and generative cells are surrounded by a thin delicate wall of unaltered cellulose called the endospore or intine, a tough resistant outer cuticularized wall composed of sporopollenin called the exospore or exine. The exine bears spines or warts, or is variously sculptured, the character of the markings is of value for identifying genus, species, or cultivar or individual; the spines may be less than a micron in length referred to as spinulose, or longer than a micron referred to as echinate. Various terms describe the sculpturing such as reticulate, a net like appearance consisting of elements separated from each other by a lumen.
The pollen wall protects the sperm. The pollen grain surface is covered with waxes and proteins, which are held in place by structures called sculpture elements on the surface of the grain; the outer pollen wall, which prevents the pollen grain from shrinking and crushing the genetic material during desiccation, is composed of two layers. These two layers are the tectum and the foot layer, just above the intine; the tectum and foot layer are separated by a region called the columella, composed of strengthening rods. The outer wall is constructed with a resistant biopolymer called sporopollenin. Pollen apertures are regions of the pollen wall that may involve exine thinning or a significant reduction in exine thickness, they allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. Elongated apertures or furrows in the pollen grain are called sulci. Apertures that are more circular are called pores. Colpi and pores are major features in the identification of classes of pollen.
Pollen may be referre
John Lindley FRS was an English botanist and orchidologist. Born in Catton, near Norwich, John Lindley was one of four children of George and Mary Lindley. George Lindley ran a commercial nursery garden. Although he had great horticultural knowledge, the undertaking was not profitable and George lived in a state of indebtedness; as a boy he would assist in the garden and collected wild flowers he found growing in the Norfolk countryside. Lindley was educated at Norwich School, he would have liked to go to university or to buy a commission in the army but the family could not afford either. He became Belgian agent for a London seed merchant in 1815. At this time Lindley became acquainted with the botanist William Jackson Hooker who allowed him to use his botanical library and who introduced him to Sir Joseph Banks who offered him employment as an assistant in his herbarium, his first publication, in 1819, a translation of the Analyse du fruit of L. C. M. Richard, was followed in 1820 by an original Monographia Rosarum, with descriptions of new species, drawings executed by himself in 1821 by Monographia Digitalium, "Observations on Pomaceae", which were both contributed to the Linnean Society.
Lindley went to work at Banks’ house in London. He concentrated on the genera “Rosa” and “Digitalis” and published the monograph “A Botanical History of Roses” which distinguished seventy-six species, describes thirteen new ones and was illustrated by nineteen coloured plates painted by himself, he became acquainted with Joseph Sabine who grew a large assortment of roses and was the Secretary of the Horticultural Society of London. His employment came to an abrupt end with the death of Banks a few months later. One of Banks’ friends, a wealthy merchant called William Cattley, paid Lindley to draw and describe new plants in his garden at Barnet, he paid for the publication of “Digitalia Monographia”. In 1820, at the age of twenty-one, Lindley was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society of London. From 1821 to 1826 he published a folio work with coloured illustrations that he had painted himself, “Collectanea botanica or Figures and botanic Illustrations of rare and curious exotic Plants”. Many of these plants came from the family Orchidaceae.
Lindley was appointed assistant secretary to the Royal Horticultural Society and its new garden at Chiswick in 1822, where he supervised the collection of plants. Assistant secretary to the Horticultural Society since 1822, in 1829 Lindley was appointed to the chair of botany at University College, which he retained until 1860, he lectured on botany from 1831 at the Royal Institution, including delivering the 1833 Royal Institution Christmas Lecture, from 1836 at the Chelsea Physic Garden, starting the society's flower show in the late 1830s. Lindley described the plants collected on Thomas Livingstone Mitchell's expeditions of 1838 and wrote an Appendix to Edwards's Botanical Register of 1839, describing plants collected by James Drummond and Georgiana Molloy of the Swan River Colony in Western Australia. According to John Ryan, Lindley’s 1840 ‘Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony’ provided ‘the most succinct portrait to date of the flora of the Swan River Settlement’, established in 1829.
The Sketch, published during November 1839 and January 1840 in Edwards’ Botanical Register and separately on its completion, was illustrated by nine hand-coloured lithographs and four wood-cuts. He played a large part in having Charles Moore appointed as Director of the Sydney Botanical Gardens. During his professorship, he wrote many scientific and popular works as well as making significant contributions to the Botanical Register, of which he was the editor for many years, to The Gardeners' Chronicle, where he was in charge of the horticultural department from 1841, he was a fellow of the Royal and Geological Societies. He received the Royal Society's royal medal in 1857, in 1853 became a corresponding member of the Institut de France. About this time, the Horticultural Society of London, which became the Royal Horticultural Society at a date, asked Lindley to draw roses and in 1822 he became the Assistant Secretary of the Society’s garden; the Society’s historian, Harold R Fletcher described him as “ … the backbone of the Society and the greatest servant it had had.”
Now with a steady income, in 1823 he married Sarah Freestone. They rented a house in rural Acton Green, a location convenient for the Society’s garden at Turnham Green; the Secretary of the Horticultural Society of London at that time was Joseph Sabine and he authorised expenditure on large projects beyond the Society’s means. Lindley was unsuccessful in moderating his actions. By 1830, the Society had mounting debts and a committee of enquiry was set up. Sabine resigned as Secretary and Lindley defended his own position and carried the Society forward with the new Honorary Secretary, George Bentham. An eminent botanist of the time, John Claudius Loudon, sought Lindley’s collaboration on his “Encyclopedia of Plants”; this covered nearly fifteen thousand species of flowering ferns. It was a massive undertaking and Lindley was responsible for most of it. During his labour on this undertaking, completed in 1829, through arduous study of character patterns, he became convinced of the superiority of the "natural" classification system devised by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu – a system that he believed reflected the great plan of nature as distinct from the "artificial" system of Linnaeus followed in the Encyclopaedi
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Activated carbon called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions. Activated is sometimes substituted with active. Due to its high degree of microporosity, one gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 3,000 m2 as determined by gas adsorption. An activation level sufficient for useful application may be obtained from high surface area. Further chemical treatment enhances adsorption properties. Activated carbon is derived from charcoal and is sometimes used as biochar; when derived from coal or corn it is referred to as activated coal. Activated coke is derived from coke. Activated carbon is used in methane and hydrogen storage, air purification, gold purification, metal extraction, water purification, sewage treatment, air filters in gas masks and respirators, filters in compressed air, teeth whitening, many other applications. One major industrial application involves use of activated carbon in metal finishing for purification of electroplating solutions.
For example, it is the main purification technique for removing organic impurities from bright nickel plating solutions. A variety of organic chemicals are added to plating solutions for improving their deposit qualities and for enhancing properties like brightness, ductility, etc. Due to passage of direct current and electrolytic reactions of anodic oxidation and cathodic reduction, organic additives generate unwanted breakdown products in solution, their excessive build up can adversely affect plating quality and physical properties of deposited metal. Activated carbon treatment removes such impurities and restores plating performance to the desired level. Activated carbon is used to treat overdoses following oral ingestion. Tablets or capsules of activated carbon are used in many countries as an over-the-counter drug to treat diarrhea and flatulence. However, activated charcoal shows no effect of intestinal gas and diarrhea, is, medically ineffective if poisoning resulted from ingestion of corrosive agents such as alkalis and strong acids, boric acid, petroleum products, or alcohol.
Activated carbon will not prevent these chemicals from being absorbed into the human body. It is ineffective against poisonings of strong acids or alkali, iron, arsenic, ethanol or ethylene glycol. Incorrect application results in pulmonary aspiration, which can sometimes be fatal if immediate medical treatment is not initiated. Activated carbon, in 50% w/w combination with celite, is used as stationary phase in low-pressure chromatographic separation of carbohydrates using ethanol solutions as mobile phase in analytical or preparative protocols. Carbon adsorption has numerous applications in removing pollutants from air or water streams both in the field and in industrial processes such as: Spill cleanup Groundwater remediation Drinking water filtration Air purification Volatile organic compounds capture from painting, dry cleaning, gasoline dispensing operations, other processes. During early implementation of the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act in the US, EPA officials developed a rule that proposed requiring drinking water treatment systems to use granular activated carbon.
Because of its high cost, the so-called GAC rule encountered strong opposition across the country from the water supply industry, including the largest water utilities in California. Hence, the agency set aside the rule. Activated carbon filtration is an effective water treatment method due to its multi-functional nature. There are specific types of activated carbon filtration methods and equipment that are indicated – depending upon the contaminants involved. Activated carbon is used for the measurement of radon concentration in air. Activated carbon is an allowed substance used by organic farmers in both livestock production and wine making. In livestock production it is used as a pesticide, animal feed additive, processing aid, nonagricultural ingredient and disinfectant. In organic winemaking, activated carbon is allowed for use as a processing agent to adsorb brown color pigments from white grape concentrates. Activated carbon filters can be used to filter vodka and whiskey of organic impurities which can affect color and odor.
Passing an organically impure vodka through an activated carbon filter at the proper flow rate will result in vodka with an identical alcohol content and increased organic purity, as judged by odor and taste. Research is being done testing various activated carbons' ability to store natural gas and hydrogen gas; the porous material acts like a sponge for different types of gases. The gas is attracted to the carbon material via Van der Waals forces; some carbons have been able to achieve bonding energies of 5–10 kJ per mol. The gas may be desorbed when subjected to higher temperatures and either combusted to do work or in the case of hydrogen gas extracted for use in a hydrogen fuel cell. Gas storage in activated carbons is an appealing gas storage method because the gas can be stored in a low pressure, low mass, low volume environment that would be much more feasible than bulky on-board pressure tanks in vehicles; the United States Department of Energy has specified certain goals to be achieved in the area of research and development of nano-porous carbon materials.
All of the goals are yet to be satisfied but numerous institutions, including the ALL-CRAFT program, are continuing to conduct work in this promising field. Filters with activated carbon are used in compressed air and gas purification to remove oil vapors, o
Glycerides, more known as acylglycerols, are esters formed from glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol has three hydroxyl functional groups, which can be esterified with one, two, or three fatty acids to form monoglycerides and triglycerides. Vegetable oils and animal fats contain triglycerides, but are broken down by natural enzymes into mono and diglycerides and free fatty acids and glycerol. Soaps are formed from the reaction of glycerides with sodium hydroxide; the product of the reaction is glycerol and salts of fatty acids. Fatty acids in the soap emulsify the oils in dirt. Partial glycerides are esters of glycerol with fatty acids, where not all the hydroxyl groups are esterified. Since some of their hydroxyl groups are free their molecules are polar. Partial glycerides may be diglycerides. Short chain partial glycerides are more polar than long chain partial glycerides, have excellent solvent properties for many hard-to-solubilize drugs, making them valuable as excipients in improving the formulation of certain pharmaceuticals.
The most common forms of acylglycerol are triglycerides, having high caloric value and yielding twice as much energy per gram as carbohydrate. An acylglyceride linkage is the covalent bond between the organic acid groups and one of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol