Scarlet lily beetle
The scarlet lily beetle, red lily beetle, or lily leaf beetle, is a leaf beetle that eats the leaves, stem and flower, of lilies and other members of the family Liliaceae. It lays its eggs most on Lilium and Fritillaria species. In the absence of Lilium and Fritillaria species, there are fewer eggs laid and the survival rate of eggs and larvae is reduced, it is now a pest in most temperate climates. This lily beetle belongs to the order Coleoptera, the family Chrysomelidae, the leaf beetles; the adult lily beetle is about 6 to 9 mm in length, with long legs and antennae. Its elytra are bright shiny, its underside, eyes and head are all black. It has large eyes, a slim thorax, a wide abdomen; each antenna is made up of 11 segments. The eyes are notched and there are two grooves on the thorax; this lily beetle may be confused with the cardinal beetle, which has red elytra and a black underside. The wing cases of the lily leaf beetle are dimpled and are shinier and more rounded than those of the cardinal beetle, which are dull, narrower and more elongated.
The cardinal beetle has comb-like antennae. The lily leaf beetle is herbivorous; the lily leaf beetle is confused with unspotted ladybirds, but it is narrower in shape. The lily leaf beetle is indigenous to parts of Asia, it is thought to have been introduced to North America through the importation of plant bulbs in 1943. First spotted in Montreal, it spread throughout Canada and appeared in Massachusetts in 1992, by 2012 was in all six New England States, as well as New York and Washington states. In Canada it is found from the Maritime Provinces west to Manitoba; as of 2001, it spread as far west as Alberta, as of 2017 full infestations reported as far north as the Edmonton, AB area. It has become established as an invasive species in the United Kingdom since being first recorded in 1839, although the first colony did not become established until 1939 and it did not spread far until the 1980s more from the 1980s. Since it has spread from Surrey in southern England as far north as Inverness, Scotland and is found in Ireland.
It is found in the Middle East and North Africa. The beetle emerges early in spring; the adult is found in moist, cool environments. It emerges in spring to mate; the female can lay up to 450 eggs each season in batches of about 12 on the undersides of leaves. It arranges the red-orange to brown eggs in narrow irregular lines along the midrib, where they are more concealed; the eggs hatch into yellow, brown or orange larvae in about 1–2 weeks. The larvae feed for up to 24 days, beginning underneath the leaf working up the rest of the plant, cause the most damage, their preferred feeding locale is at the node where the leaf meets the stem. They burrow in the ground to pupate in a cocoon of soil bound with saliva. In about 20 days they continue to feed until winter. More than one cycle can occur in one year; the first evidence of lily leaf beetle infestation is sticky brown frass piles containing larvae on leaves. The larvae remain in the frass for protection from predators. However, the fecal shield is not effective protection against parasitoids, it may make it easier for parasitoids such as the wasp Lemophagus pulcher to locate the larvae.
An adult that senses danger displays a defense mechanism, becoming motionless, folding up its appendages and falling with its black under surface facing up, thereby helping it camouflage with the ground to get away. If unable to escape, they are able to ‘squeak’, by rubbing two parts of their body together, which may be used to startle the attacker; this process is known as stridulation and could shock a bird or any other predator that may attack the lily leaf beetle. Lily plants may first show evidence of holes chewed in the leaves from consumption, if left unchecked progress to blackening, total loss of the leaves, leaving only the stem. Beetles and their larvae may inhabit and devour the developing flower buds. Invasion may occur shortly after the new plants emerge from the soil if there are nearby Fritillaria which emerge earlier than Lilium. While Lilium and Fritillaria are affected, Hemerocallis is not. All Lily types may be affected, but while Asiatic lilies are the most vulnerable, some Oriental lilies may be more resistant.
Resistant types include Lilium henryi'Madame Butterfly', Lilium speciosum'Uchida', Lilium'Black Beauty'. Other garden plants affected include Convallaria majalis, potato, flowering tobacco and Hosta. Fritillaria and Lilium specimens in Canadian gardens around Halifax, Nova Scotia are affected by the lily leaf beetle. A garden in Waverley, Nova Scotia has reported decline of lily species and cultivars from 50 in 1996 to only one in 2006. There are no registered chemicals for lily leaf beetle control, which limits options for the gardener. Although the most surefire strategy for preventing infestation by any pest is to avoid planting susceptible plants in the first place, with lily beetle this necessitates avoiding growing so many desirable cultivars of lilium, that other strategies may be preferred. Regular handpicking and crushing of eggs and adults is effective if somewhat laborious. Domestic insecticides registered for general leaf beetle control containing carbaryl, methoxychlor and rotenone can prove useful in controlling populations
Lilium is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants growing from bulbs, all with large prominent flowers. Lilies are a group of flowering plants which are important in culture and literature in much of the world. Most species are native to the temperate northern hemisphere, though their range extends into the northern subtropics. Many other plants are not related to true lilies. Lilies are tall perennials ranging in height from 2–6 ft, they form naked or tunicless scaly underground bulbs which are their organs of perennation. In some North American species the base of the bulb develops into rhizomes, on which numerous small bulbs are found; some species develop stolons. Most bulbs are buried deep in the ground. Many species form stem-roots. With these, the bulb grows at some depth in the soil, each year the new stem puts out adventitious roots above the bulb as it emerges from the soil; these roots are in addition to the basal roots. The flowers are large fragrant, come in a wide range of colors including whites, oranges, pinks and purples.
Markings include spots and brush strokes. The plants are late spring- or summer-flowering. Flowers are borne in racemes or umbels at the tip of the stem, with six tepals spreading or reflexed, to give flowers varying from funnel shape to a "Turk's cap"; the tepals are free from each other, bear a nectary at the base of each flower. The ovary borne above the point of attachment of the anthers; the fruit is a three-celled capsule. Seeds ripen in late summer, they exhibit varying and sometimes complex germination patterns, many adapted to cool temperate climates. Most cool temperate species are deciduous and dormant in winter in their native environment, but a few species which distribute in hot summer and mild winter area lose leaves and remain short dormant in Summer or Autumn, sprout from Autumn to winter, forming dwarf stem bearing a basal rosette of leaves until, after they have received sufficient chilling, the stem begins to elongate in warming weather. The basic chromosome number is twelve.
Taxonomical division in sections follows the classical division of Comber, species acceptance follows the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, the taxonomy of section Pseudolirium is from the Flora of North America, the taxonomy of Section Liriotypus is given in consideration of Resetnik et al. 2007, the taxonomy of Chinese species follows the Flora of China and the taxonomy of Section Sinomartagon follows Nishikawa et al. as does the taxonomy of Section Archelirion. The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, as of January 2014, considers Nomocharis a separate genus in its own right, however some authorities consider Nomocharis to be embedded within Lilium, rather than treat it as a separate genus. There are seven sections: Martagon Pseudolirium Liriotypus Archelirion Sinomartagon Leucolirion DaurolirionFor a full list of accepted species with their native ranges, see List of Lilium species Some species included within this genus have now been placed in other genera; these genera include Cardiocrinum, Notholirion and Fritillaria.
The botanic name Lilium is a Linnaean name. The Latin name is derived from the Greek λείριον, leírion assumed to refer to true, white lilies as exemplified by the Madonna lily; the word was borrowed from Coptic hleri, from standard hreri, from Demotic hrry, from Egyptian hrṛt "flower". Meillet maintains that both the Egyptian and the Greek word are possible loans from an extinct, substratum language of the Eastern Mediterranean; the Greeks used the word κρῖνον, krīnon, albeit for non-white lilies. The term "lily" has in the past been applied to numerous flowering plants with only superficial resemblance to the true lily, including water lily, fire lily, lily of the Nile, calla lily, trout lily, kaffir lily, cobra lily, lily of the valley, ginger lily, Amazon lily, leek lily, Peruvian lily, others. All English translations of the Bible render the Hebrew shūshan, shōshan, shōshannā as "lily", but the "lily among the thorns" of Song of Solomon, for instance, may be the honeysuckle. For a list of other species described as lilies, see Lily.
The range of lilies in the Old World extends across much of Europe, across most of Asia to Japan, south to India, east to Indochina and the Philippines. In the New World they extend from southern Canada through much of the United States, they are adapted to either woodland habitats montane, or sometimes to grassland habitats. A few can survive in marshland and epiphytes are known in tropical southeast Asia. In general they prefer moderately lime-free soils. Lilies are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the Dun-bar. Many species are grown in the garden in temperate and sub-tropical regions, they may be grown as potted plants. Numerous ornamental hybrids have been developed, they can be used in herbaceous borders and shrub plantings, as patio plants. Some lilies Lilium longiflorum, form important cut flower crops; these may be forced for particular markets. Lilies are planted as bulbs in the dormant season, they are best planted in a south-facing sloping aspect, in sun or part shade, at a depth 2½ times the height of the bulb.
Most prefer a porous, loamy soil
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
United States Department of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture known as the Agriculture Department, is the U. S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service program. The largest component of the FNS budget is the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the cornerstone of USDA's nutrition assistance; the current Secretary of Agriculture is Sonny Perdue. Many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless people each month.
USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness. The USDA is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both the domestic and world markets, it plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved nonprofits; the Agricultural Act of 1949, section 416 and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 known as Food for Peace, provides the legal basis of such actions. The USDA is a partner of the World Cocoa Foundation. Early in its history, the economy of the United States was agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds and animals for import into the United States. In 1837 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State.
He began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes." Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, statewide reports about crops in different regions, the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth was called the "Father of the Department of Agriculture."In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring. On May 15, 1862, Abraham Lincoln established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a commissioner without Cabinet status, the agriculturalist Isaac Newton was appointed to be the first such commissioner.
Lincoln called it the "people's department." In 1868, the Department moved into the new Department of Agriculture Building in Washington, D. C. designed by famed DC architect Adolf Cluss. Located on Reservation No.2 on the National Mall between 12th Street and 14th SW, the Department had offices for its staff and the entire width of the Mall up to B Street NW to plant and experiment with plants. In the 1880s, varied advocacy groups were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives and Senate passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was defeated in conference committee after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. On February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level. In 1887, the Hatch Act provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment stations in each state.
The Smith-Lever Act of 1914 funded cooperative extension services in each state to teach agriculture, home economics, other subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state. During the Great Depression, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans; the Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Home Economics, established in 1923, published shopping advice and recipes to stretch family budgets and make food go farther. USDA helped ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisted with loans for small landowners, contributed to the education of the rural youth, it was revealed on August 27th, 2018 that the U. S. Department of Agriculture would be providing U. S. farmers with a farm aid package, which will total $4.7 billion in direct payments to American farmers. This package is meant to offset the losses farmers are expected to incur from retaliatory tariffs placed on American exports during the Trump tariffs.
The Department of Agriculture was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $139.7 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service Animal Damage Control (
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Royal Horticultural Society
The Royal Horticultural Society, founded in 1804 as the Horticultural Society of London, is the UK's leading gardening charity. The RHS promotes horticulture through flower shows including the Chelsea Flower Show, Hampton Court Palace Flower Show, Tatton Park Flower Show and Cardiff Flower Show, it supports training for professional and amateur gardeners. The current president is Sir Nicholas Bacon, 14th Baronet and the current director general is Sue Biggs CBE; the creation of a British horticultural society was suggested by John Wedgwood in 1800. His aims were modest: he wanted to hold regular meetings, allowing the society's members the opportunity to present papers on their horticultural activities and discoveries, to encourage discussion of them, to publish the results; the society would award prizes for gardening achievements. Wedgwood discussed the idea with his friends, but it was four years before the first meeting, of seven men, took place, on 7 March 1804 at Hatchards bookshop in Piccadilly, London.
Wedgwood was chairman. Banks proposed his friend Thomas Andrew Knight for membership; the proposal was accepted, despite Knight's ongoing feud with Forsyth over a plaster for healing tree wounds which Forsyth was developing. Knight was president of the society from 1811–1838, developed the society's aims and objectives to include a programme of practical research into fruit-breeding. In 2009, more than 363,000 people were members of the society, the number increased to more than 414,000 in 2013. Membership and fellowship of the society were decided by election, but are now by financial contribution. Fellowship may be secured through a "suggested" £5,000 donation each year. Members and Fellows of the Royal Horticultural Society are entitled to use the post-nominal letters MRHS and FRHS, respectively; the Royal Horticultural Society's four major gardens in England are: Wisley Garden, near Wisley in Surrey. The society's first garden was in Kensington, from 1818–1822. In 1820 the society leased some of Hugh Ronalds' nursery ground at Little Ealing to set up an experimental garden, but the next year part of the Duke of Devonshire's estate at Chiswick was obtained.
In 1823 it employed Joseph Paxton there. From 1827 the society held fêtes at the Chiswick garden, from 1833, shows with competitive classes for flowers and vegetables. In 1861 the RHS developed a new garden at South Kensington on land leased from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, but it was closed in 1882; the Chiswick garden was maintained until 1903–1904, by which time Sir Thomas Hanbury had bought the garden at Wisley and presented it to the RHS. RHS Garden Wisley is thus the society's oldest garden. Rosemoor came next, presented by Lady Anne Berry in 1988. Hyde Hall was given to the RHS in 1993 by its owners Helen Robinson. Dick Robinson was the owner of the Harry Smith Collection, based at Hyde Hall; the most recent addition is Harlow Carr, acquired by the merger of the Northern Horticultural Society with the RHS in 2001. It had been the Northern Horticultural Society's trial ground and display garden since they bought it in 1949. In 2013, more than 1.63 million people visited the four gardens.
In 2015, the RHS announced plans for a fifth garden at Worsley New Hall, Greater Manchester, under the name RHS Garden Bridgewater. The RHS is well known for its annual flower shows which take place across the UK; the most famous of these shows is the RHS Chelsea Flower Show, visited by people from across world. This is followed by the Hampton Court Palace Flower Show and RHS Tatton Park Flower Show in Cheshire; the most recent addition to the RHS shows line-up is the RHS Show Cardiff, held at Cardiff Castle since 2005. The society is closely involved with the spring and autumn shows at Malvern and with BBC Gardeners' World Live held annually at the Birmingham National Exhibition Centre; the RHS is custodian of the Lindley Library, housed within its headquarters at 80 Vincent Square, in branches at each of its four gardens. The library is based upon the book collection of John Lindley; the RHS Herbarium has its own image library consisting of more than 3,300 original watercolours 30,000 colour slides and a increasing number of digital images.
Although most of the images have been supplied by photographers commissioned by the RHS, the archive includes a substantial number of slides from the Harry Smith Collection and Plant Heritage National Plant Collection holders. The reference library at Wisley Garden is open to visitors to the Garden. In 2002, the RHS took over the administration of the Britain in Bloom competition from the Tidy Britain Group. In 2010, The society launched'It's your neighbourhood', a campaign to encourage people to get involved in horticulture for the benefit of their community. In 2014, the'Britain in Bloom' celebrates its 50th anniversary; the RHS runs formal courses for professional and amateur gardeners and horticulturalists and validates qualifications gained elsewhere. The RHS Level 1 Award in