Monroe is the eighth-largest city in the U. S. state of Louisiana. It is the parish seat of Ouachita Parish. In the official 2010 census, Monroe had a population of 48,815; the municipal population declined by 8.1 percent over the past decade. After a recheck in 2012, the Census Bureau changed the 2010 population from 48,815 to 49,147. Mayor Jamie Mayo, maintains that the Monroe population is more than 50,000 and indicated that he will pursue a continued challenge to the count. Monroe is the principal city of the Monroe Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes the parishes of Ouachita and Union; the two-parish area had a total population of 170,053 in 2000 and an estimated population of 172,275 as of July 1, 2007. The larger Monroe-Bastrop Combined Statistical Area is composed of both the Monroe Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Bastrop Micropolitan Statistical Area; the CSA had a population of 201,074 in 2000. Monroe and the neighboring city of West Monroe, located just across the Ouachita River, are referred to as the Twin Cities of northeast Louisiana.
The settlement known as Fort Miro adopted the name Monroe, during the first half of the 19th century, in recognition of the steam-powered paddle-wheeler James Monroe. The arrival of the ship had a profound effect on the settlers; the ship is depicted in a mural at the main branch of the Monroe Library on North 18th Street. Therefore, credit is indirectly given to James Monroe of Virginia, the fifth President of the United States, for whom the ship was named. During the American Civil War and Opelousas, the seat of St. Landry Parish in south Louisiana, had Confederate training camps, they were established after the fall of New Orleans to the Union in 1862. Conscripts were soon sent to both camps. In 1862, Monroe and Delhi in Richland Parish became overcrowded with unwelcome refugees from rural areas to the east, they had fled the forces of Union General U. S. Grant, who moved into northeastern Louisiana and spent the winter of 1862–1863 at Winter Quarters south of Newellton in Tensas Parish, he was preparing for the siege of Vicksburg, not completed until July 4, 1863.
Historian John D. Winters reported "strong Union sympathy" in both Monroe; as the refugees moved farther west toward Minden in Webster Parish, many of the residents, themselves poor, refused to sell them food or shelter and treated them with contempt. Union boats came up the Ouachita River to Monroe to trade coffee, dry goods, money for cotton. "Confederate officers were accused by a citizen of encouraging the trade and of fraternizing with the enemy, eating their oysters, drinking their liquor." As the war continued and stragglers about Monroe became "so plentiful that the Union Army sent a special detachment" from Alexandria to apprehend them. In 1913, Joseph A. Biedenharn, the first bottler of Coca-Cola, moved to Monroe from Vicksburg, Mississippi; until Biedenharn's breakthrough, Coca-Cola had been available only when individually mixed at the soda fountain. Biedenharn and his son Malcolm were among the founders of Delta Air Lines Delta Dusters; that company was founded in Louisiana in Madison Parish.
It was based on products and processes developed by the Agriculture Experimental Station to dust crops from airplanes in order to combat the boll weevil, destroying cotton crops. Biedenharn's home and gardens at 2006 Riverside Drive in Monroe have been preserved and are now operated as the Biedenharn Museum and Gardens and are open to the public. Collett E. Woolman, the Ouachita Parish agent, was from Indiana, he pioneered crop dusting to eradicate the boll weevil, which destroyed cotton throughout the Mississippi River delta country in the early 20th century. Woolman originated the first crop-dusting service in the world; the collapse of cotton production meant a widespread loss of farm jobs. This contributed to the Great Migration of the early 20th century, when a total of 1.5 million African Americans left the rural South for jobs in northern and midwestern cities. They were escaping the oppressive racial conditions and violence under Jim Crow and the disenfranchisement that excluded most blacks from the political system.
Howard D. Griffin purchased a boat dealership in 1936 while he was a student at what became the University of Louisiana at Monroe. By the 1960s, Griffin's company had become the largest outboard motor dealership in the world, he sold motorcycles. From 1965 to 1985, Griffin and his wife, Birdie M. Griffin, operated their seasonal Land O' Toys store on South Grand Street in Monroe; the motto was "Land O' Toys. Once Christmas was over, the toy store was phased out, the outboard motors returned to the showroom. From her childhood memories, Sherry Lynn Mason recalls the Land O' Toys: "I loved that store; every time took me there, we were waiting for his outboard motor to be fixed across the street. It was a magical place to me!" Amy Berry Baker recalls, "It wasn't Christmas until we went to Howard Griffin... magical for kids," according to an article in The Monroe News-Star. Mrs. Griffin died December 15, 1985, the store close permanently a few days after Christmas of that year. In March 2011, the remaining abandoned building burned.
All that remains are the memories of the former customers, now all adults. Cheri Chadduck recalled, "Memories are magical, I am so grateful for my childhood recollections of time there." Monroe has an elevation of 72 feet. Ac
Johanna Emilia Agnes Gadski was a German soprano. She was blessed with a secure, ringing voice, fine musicianship and an excellent technique; these attributes enabled her to enjoy a top-flight career in New York City and London, performing heavy dramatic roles in the German and Italian repertoires. She was born in Anklam, Prussia, on 15 June 1872, according to most references, but birth records still extant at the Evangelical Church of Saint Mary, Germany, state that Johanna Wilhelmine Agnes Emilie Gadski was born on June 15, in 1870. After receiving a musical education in Stettin, she made her operatic debut in Berlin in 1889 in the title role of Tchaikovsky's Undina, her studies in singing were principally with Mme. Schroeder-Chaloupha; when she was ten years old she sang in concert at Stettin. Her operatic début was made in 1889, in Weber's Der Freischütz, she appeared in the opera houses of Bremen and Mayence. In 1894 Dr. Walter Damrosch organized his opera company in New York and engaged Mme.
Gadski for leading rôles. In 1898 she became high dramatic soprano with the Metropolitan Opera Company in New York, the following year appeared at Covent Garden, she was developing as a singer of Wagner rôles, notably Brunhilde and Isolde. Her repertoire included forty rôles in all, the demand for her appearance at festivals here and abroad became more and more insistent, she sang at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York until 1917, when the notoriety caused by the activities of her husband, Captain Hans Tauscher, American agent for large German weapon manufacturers, forced her to resign. Hans Tauscher attended an opera, met Gadski, they married on November 20, 1892 in Berlin, Germany, they had a daughter, Charlotte Tauscher Busch, born in Berlin on August 31, 1893, married Ernest Busch, a German grand nephew of Adolphus Busch on June 12 1923. Highlights of her subsequent career in Germany included appearances in Wagner's works at the 1899 Bayreuth Festival and at the 1905/06 Munich Festival.
However, it was in English-speaking countries that Gadski built her international reputation as a diva. She made her successful American debut in New York in 1895 with the Damrosch Opera Company and became popular, too, in England. In 1896 she created the role of Hester Prynne in the staged premiere of Walter Damrosch's opera The Scarlet Letter in Boston, she sang in London at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in 1899, 1900, 1901 and 1906. Some sources credit her with appearing at England's Worcester Festival but this is an error, she sang at America's Worcester festivals, held in the American state of Massachusetts during the late 1890s. Gadski was an popular recitalist and, in 1899 to 1900, she capitalised on this business opportunity by embarking on a concert tour of the United States, she had joined the star-studded roster of singers at the New York Metropolitan Opera, singing there from 1898 to 1904 and again from 1907 to 1917. Around 1902 she met Mabel Riegelman, a young soprano in San Francisco, brought Mabel and her sister Ruby Riegelman to Berlin in 1903 as her guest settling the two sisters in Stettin to continue their musical studies.
In 1911 Gadski and Mabel Riegelman took the SS Kaiser Wilhelm II to New York City, where Gadski arranged for her star pupil Mabel Riegelman to debut as Gretel in Engelbert Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel. The first ways-and-means affair held in the clubhouse was a performance by Madame Johanna Gadski and her accompanist, Francis Moore, in December 1916; the net proceeds of $440.00 were used to buy furnishings and equipment for the clubhouse. During World War I, Hans Tauscher was accused of plotting sabotage against the Welland Canal along with Franz von Papen, Captain Karl Boy-Ed, Constantine Covani, Franz von Rintelen, he was acquitted by a federal jury. At the height of World War I, she was obliged to resign from the Metropolitan Opera because of her German links. Legend has it that she was deported from the United States as an alien enemy but this is not true, she spent the duration of the war living in New York and Lake Spofford, New Hampshire, did not revisit Germany until 1922. Gadski resumed her professional concert career in the United States in 1921.
She did not return to the operatic stage, until the late 1920s. Thereafter, in the years 1929 to 1931, she made two tours as the star of her German Grand Opera Company, which produced dozens of performances of Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen. By this late date, her voice had been eroded by advancing age and strenuous use in her early years. A United States citizen since 1929, she was visiting Germany when she died in a car accident in Berlin on 22 February 1932, her citizenship papers are easy to find on Fold3 and similar sites. Jessica Chastain bought Gadski's apartment at The Osborne on West 57th Street in 2015. During her prime, Gadski was celebrated on both sides of the Atlantic as a Wagnerian singer, she had a beautiful voice in her prime, with auditorium-filling high notes and a remarkably nimble technique for such a large vocal instrument. Gadski made numerous impressive recordings in the United States prior to World War I; these have been re-issued complete by Marston Records on two multi-disc sets of CDs.
These sets contain the Mapleson Cylinders of he
Jean de Reszke
Jean de Reszke was a Polish tenor, a major male opera star of the late 19th century. Jan Mieczysław Reszke was born into comfortable circumstances in Warsaw, Poland in 1850. Both his parents were Poles, he sang as a boy in Warsaw's cathedral and studied law at the city's university, but after a few years he abandoned his legal schooling to study at the Warsaw Conservatory with the Italian tenor Francesco Ciaffei, who trained him as a baritone. At age 19, Jean and his father visited Italy. In Venice he attended a performance. Cotogni's singing made such a profound impression on him that the young de Reszke followed him for the next five years wherever he performed—London, St. Petersburg, etc. During that time he was under Cotogni's tutelage as baritone. In January 1874, he made his debut in Venice as Jan de Reschi, undertaking the baritone part of Alfonso in a production of Donizetti's La favorite; the following April, he sang for the first time in London, performing at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, a little in Paris, essaying an array of different baritone roles.
De Reszke displayed limitations as a baritone and he withdrew from the stage to allow for a further period of study, this time with Giovanni Sbriglia in Paris. Under Sbirgilia's tutelage, his voice gained remarkably in the freedom of its upper register. Accordingly, when he made his first operatic reappearance in 1879, it was as a tenor, scoring a success in the title-role of Meyerbeer's Robert le diable. Indeed, the 29-year-old de Reszke's immense fame as a singer dates from this moment, he sang at the Paris Opéra during the ensuing years of his vocal prime and, in 1887, was re-engaged by the management at London's Drury Lane, delivering among other things a notable Radamès in Verdi's Aida. The following year he was heard again in London, appearing no longer at Drury Lane but at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, lending his unique blend of dash and charm to the following roles: Vasco da Gama in L'Africaine and Raoul in Les Huguenots, Faust in Faust, Lohengrin in Lohengrin, Riccardo in Un ballo in maschera, Radamès again.
De Reszke's 1888 Covent Garden appearances proved exceedingly popular with audiences. Indeed, they were responsible for the revival of the operatic art form as a fashionable amusement in London, he would sing in the British capital nearly every year until 1900, adding a number of new roles to his canon during this time. They included, among others, John of Leyden in Meyerbeer's Le prophète, Don José in Bizet's Carmen, Roméo in Gounod's Roméo et Juliette, Wagner's Tristan in Tristan und Isolde, Walther von Stolzing in Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg and Siegfried in Siegfried, he gave a single performance as the tenor lead in Massenet's Werther. De Reszke's singing was admired by Queen Victoria, between 1889 and 1900 he was invited to take part in a number of royal galas mounted at Covent Garden or command performances held at Windsor Castle. In 1891, de Reszke sang in the United States for the first time. From 1893 to 1899 he starred in every season at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City duplicating his London list of operatic roles and having an charismatic effect on trans-Atlantic audiences.
One of De Reszke's colleagues, the Australian lyric soprano Nellie Melba, became a close personal friend of his during this period. She replaced the ageing star Adelina Patti as the most celebrated of his various stage partners, she speaks admiringly of him in her memoirs, he was associated with the French and Wagnerian operatic repertoires during the peak of his career at Covent Garden and the Met. His French signature parts were considered to be Meyerbeer's three big tenor heroes, Gounod's Faust and Romeo, the title role in Massenet's Le Cid. De Reszke was successful singing in German, his appearances as Lohengrin, Walther von Stolzing and Tristan were lauded by music critics, who praised him for demonstrating how the demanding and declamatory music that Wagner wrote for his heldentenors could be sung with beauty of tone and, wherever practicable, a smooth legato line. American-born Lillian Nordica was the most illustrious of the dramatic sopranos that partnered him in Wagner's operas. During his heyday, De Reszke sang Italian operas less than French or Wagnerian ones.
Indeed, in 1891, his keenly awaited interpretation of the title role in Verdi's last tragic masterpiece, had disappointed the critics somewhat. On this occasion Shaw chided him for his laziness and his customary lateness in meeting cues, though by and large he was appreciative of both Jean and Edouard de Reszke's abilities. De Reszke married Marie de Mailly-Nesle, a French countess who ran away from her husband to be with the singer, in 1896, he reduced his performance load during the opening years of the 20th century. Prudently, in 1904, he decided to retire while his voice was still in good shape, citing illness as the reason for his departure. Enrico Caruso, 23 years de Reszke's junior, took up his mantle as the world's most famous tenor, he subsequently busied himself breeding racehorses in Poland and teaching singing in Paris and at Nice on
Milka Ternina was a Croatian dramatic soprano who enjoyed a high reputation in major American and European opera houses. Praised by audiences and music critics alike for the electrifying force of her acting and the excellence of her singing in both German and Italian works, her career was curtailed at its peak in 1906 by a medical condition which paralyzed a nerve in her face. A native of Vezišće, the young Trnina studied singing with Ida Winterberg in Zagreb and with Joseph Gänsbacher at the conservatory in Vienna, graduating from his class in 1883 with a gold medal, she had made her operatic debut while still a student in Zagreb, singing Amelia in an 1882 production of Giuseppe Verdi's Un ballo in maschera. Ternina sang as a full-time professional performer in Leipzig and subsequently took up a position with the resident operatic company in Graz in 1884, she stayed there for two years, acquiring a useful knowledge of stagecraft and manifesting a burning devotion to opera as a serious art form.
The conductor Anton Seidl was impressed by Ternina's potential and he recommended her to replace another acclaimed dramatic soprano, Katharina Klafsky, at the Bremen Opera. While in Bremen, she participated in a production of Richard Wagner's Ring Cycle. In 1890, she was engaged by the Munich Royal Opera, over the next few years, she consolidated her reputation as a top-class singer and distinguished herself as an outstanding exponent of Wagnerian music dramas, she excelled, too, as Beethoven's Leonore. Ternina's North American debut took place in Boston in 1896, when she sang Brünnhilde in Die Walküre with the Damrosch Opera Company. In 1898, she appeared for the first time in opera in London, performing Isolde in Tristan und Isolde, she would continue to appear at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, until 1906, achieving a total of 98 appearances there in a variety of operas. Ternina appeared at the 1899 Bayreuth Festival in the role of Kundry in Parsifal. According to Oxford's concise operatic dictionary, this would prove to be her sole appearance at Bayreuth.
On January 27, 1900, Ternina made her debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City as Elisabeth in Tannhäuser. During her fruitful association with the Met she sang Kundry in Parsifal's first American performance; because this staging of the opera was not authorized by the Wagner family, she was never again invited to appear at Bayreuth, despite her stature as an artist. Ternina famously sang the title role in the 1901 American premiere of Giacomo Puccini's Tosca, performing the part at the Met to considerable acclaim on 18 further occasions; the previous year she had been London's first Floria Tosca, with the composer, in the audience at Covent Garden that night, describing her interpretation as "ideal". She thus became the English-speaking world's most renowned interpreter of this particular Puccini heroine. In early May 1902, while on vacation in Switzerland, Ternina suffered an attack of facial paralysis which affected the left side of her mouth; the ailment did not yield to medical treatment and she decided to retire from the stage at the height of her powers, as she believed it was no longer possible for her to maintain the highest level of performance.
Die Walküre in Munich, on September 1, 1906, was her last stage appearance. For a year she taught singing at the Institute of Musical Art in New York City, after which she withdrew from the international music scene and returned to Zagreb. One of her pupils in New York was Lucia Dunham, her best known pupil in Zagreb was the celebrated spinto soprano and Metropolitan Opera star Zinka Milanov. Ternina died in Zagreb in 1941, aged 77, she did not make any commercial recordings of her voice but fragments of her singing can be discerned on Mapleson Cylinders recorded live at the Met at the start of the 20th century. These are available on a CD re-issue by Symposium Records. David Ewen, Encyclopedia of the Opera: New Enlarged Edition. New York. Harold Rosenthal and John Warrack, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera, second edition. London. Richard Somerset-Ward and Angels, New Haven and London. Http://hbl.lzmk.hr/clanak.aspx?id=11895 Milka Ternina at Find a Grave
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Thursday Island, colloquially known as TI, or in the native language, Waiben, is an island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago located 39 kilometres north of Cape York Peninsula in the Torres Strait, Australia. It has an area of about 3.5 square kilometres. The Muralag peoples are the traditional owners of the land and seas surrounding Thursday Island; the highest point on Thursday Island, standing at 104 metres above sea level, is Milman Hill, a World War II defence facility. At the 2011 census, Thursday Island had a population of 2,610. Thursday Island is within the Shire of Torres, but is the administrative and commercial centre of the Torres Strait Island Region despite not being part of that local government area; the island has been populated for thousands of years by the Torres Strait Islanders, though archeological evidence on Badu, further north in Torres Strait, suggests that the area has been inhabited from before the end of the last Ice Age. The archeology from Badhu, Pulu and Mer shows that Melanesian occupation started around 2,600 years ago.
The original place of permanent European settlement in Torres Strait was Somerset, south-east of the tip of Cape York Peninsula, established in 1864. However, the channel between Albany Island and Somerset proved to be hazardous for a port and in 1875 it was jointly decided by the Queensland and British governments to transfer the port to the deep anchorage on the south side of Thursday Island; the new port was called Port Kennedy, after Edmund Kennedy, the explorer of Cape York Peninsula, was established in 1867. In 1877, an administrative centre for the Torres Strait Islands was set up on the island by the Queensland Government and by 1883 over 200 pearling vessels were based on the island. A lucrative pearling industry was founded on the island in 1884, attracting workers from around Asia, including Japan and India, seeking their fortune; the Japanese community was in part indentured divers and boat hands who returned to Japan after a period of service and some longer term residents who were active in boat building and in the ownership of luggers for hire -, illegal but bypassed by leases through third parties back to other Japanese, a practice called "dummying."
Additionally, many south Pacific Islanders worked in the industry, some imported against their will. While the pearling industry has declined in importance, the mix of cultures is evident to this day; the pearling industry centred on the harvesting of pearl shell, used to make shirt buttons. The local pearl oyster is Pinctada maxima. Trochus shell was gathered by boats that specialised in this. Most shell was exported as the raw material - to a London-based market. Pearls themselves were rare and a bonus for the crew; the boats used were graceful two-masted luggers. In shallow water free diving was used while in deeper water diver's dress, or an abbreviated form of it, with a surface air supply was used. In good times there were three divers to a lugger, a stern diver, one midships, one diver off the bow. A manual air compressor was used, it looked. For part of the fleet that operated further from Thursday Island, larger vessels schooners were used as mother ships to the luggers. Shell was opened on the mother vessels rather than on the luggers, in order to secure any pearls found.
The waters of the Straits are murky and visibility was very poor. Though dive depths were not great, except at the Darnley Deep, 40 fathoms, attacks of the bends were common and deaths frequent. On 25 August 1887, The Paterson Telegraph Station on the West Coast of Cape York was opened, it connected the Cape York Telegraph Line with Thursday Island, via an undersea cable. In the late-19th and early-20th centuries Thursday Island was a regular stop for vessels trading between the east coast of Australia and Southeast Asia. A shipping disaster to a vessel in this service occurred in 1890 when RMS Quetta struck an uncharted reef in the Strait and sank in five minutes with the loss of over 130 lives; the Anglican Church on Thursday Island built shortly afterwards was named the Quetta All Souls Memorial Cathedral in memory of the event. Today the church is called All St Bartholomew Church. Cyclone Mahina, which hit Bathurst Bay, southeast of Thursday Island in 1899, wrecked the pearling fleet sheltering there, with huge losses of vessels and lives.
The fear of Russian invasion as a result of the deterioration of relations between the Russian Empire and the British Empire led to a fort on Battery Point being built in 1892 to protect the island. The fort is today a heritage feature of the island. Local pearling declined up to the Second World War through competition from a Japanese-based fleet which did not use local resources or personnel. In the 1950s plastic buttons imitating pearl supplanted much of the demand for shell. Before the decline, pearl fishing was taken by the island-based fleet to the Aru Islands in what was the Dutch East Indies. During World War II, Thursday Island became the military headquarters for the Torres Strait and was a base for Australian and United States forces. January 1942 saw the evacuation of civilians from the island. Residents of Japanese origin or descent were interned; the residents did not return until after the end of the war and many ethnic Japanese were forcibly repatriated. The island was spared from bombing in World War II, due, it was thought, to it being the burial place of many Japanese pearl shell divers, or the
Bel canto —with several similar constructions —is a term with several meanings that relate to Italian singing. The phrase was not associated with a "school" of singing until the middle of the 19th century, when writers in the early 1860s used it nostalgically to describe a manner of singing that had begun to wane around 1830. Nonetheless, "neither musical nor general dictionaries saw fit to attempt definition until after 1900"; the term remains vague and ambiguous in the 21st century and is used to evoke a lost singing tradition. As understood today, the term bel canto refers to the Italian-originated vocal style that prevailed throughout most of Europe during the 18th century and early 19th centuries. Late 19th- and 20th-century sources "would lead us to believe that bel canto was restricted to beauty and evenness of tone, legato phrasing, skill in executing florid passages, but contemporary documents describe a multifaceted manner of performance far beyond these confines." The main features of the bel canto style were: prosodic singing matching register and tonal quality of the voice to the emotional content of the words a articulated manner of phrasing based on the insertion of grammatical and rhetorical pauses a delivery varied by several types of legato and staccato a liberal application of more than one type of portamento messa di voce as the principal source of expression frequent alteration of tempo through rhythmic rubato and the quickening and slowing of the overall time the introduction of a wide variety of graces and divisions into both arias and recitatives gesture as a powerful tool for enhancing the effect of the vocal delivery vibrato reserved for heightening the expression of certain words and for gracing longer notes.
The Harvard Dictionary of Music by Willi Apel says that bel canto denotes "the Italian vocal technique of the 18th century, with its emphasis on beauty of sound and brilliancy of performance rather than dramatic expression or romantic emotion. In spite of the repeated reactions against bel canto and the frequent exaggeration of its virtuoso element, it must be considered as a artistic technique and the only proper one for Italian opera and for Mozart, its early development is bound up with that of the Italian opera seria." Since the bel canto style flourished in the 18th and early 19th centuries, the music of Handel and his contemporaries, as well as that of Mozart and Rossini, benefits from an application of bel canto principles. Operas received the most dramatic use of the techniques, but the bel canto style applies to oratorio, though in a somewhat less flamboyant way; the da capo arias these works contained provided challenges for singers, as the repeat of the opening section prevented the story line from progressing.
Nonetheless, singers needed to keep the emotional drama moving forward, so they used the principles of bel canto to help them render the repeated material in a new emotional guise. They incorporated embellishments of all sorts, but not every singer was equipped to do this, some writers, notably Domenico Corri himself, suggesting that singing without ornamentation was an acceptable practice. Singers embellished both arias and recitatives, but did so by tailoring their embellishments to the prevailing sentiments of the piece. Two famous 18th-century teachers of the style were Antonio Bernacchi and Nicola Porpora, but many others existed. A number of these teachers were castrati. Singer/author John Potter declares in his book Tenor: History of a Voice that: For much of the 18th century castrati defined the art of singing. In another application, the term bel canto is sometimes attached to Italian operas written by Vincenzo Bellini and Gaetano Donizetti; these composers wrote bravura works for the stage during what musicologists sometimes call the "bel canto era".
But the style of singing had started to change around 1830, Michael Balfe writing of the new method of teaching, required for the music of Bellini and Donizetti, so the operas of Bellini and Donizetti were the vehicles for a new era of singing. The last important opera role for a castrato was written in 1824 by Giacomo Meyerbeer; the phrase "bel canto" was not used until the latter part of the 19th century, when it was set in opposition to the development of a weightier, more powerful style of speech-inflected singing associated with German opera and, above all, Richard Wagner's revolutionary music dramas. Wagner decried the Italian singing model, alleging that it was concerned with "whether that G or A will come out roundly", he advocated a new, Germanic school of singing that would draw "the spiritually energetic and profoundly passionate into the orbit of its matchless Expression."French musicians and composers never embraced the more florid extremes of the 18th-century Italian bel canto style.
They disliked the castrato v