Wendell Phillips was an American abolitionist, advocate for Native Americans and attorney. Phillips was born in Boston, Massachusetts on November 29, 1811, to Sarah Walley and John Phillips, a wealthy lawyer and philanthropist, the first mayor of Boston, he was a descendant of the Rev. George Phillips who emigrated from England to Watertown in 1630. All of his ancestors migrated to North America from England, all of them arrived in Massachusetts between the years 1630 and 1650. Phillips was schooled at Boston Latin School, graduated from Harvard College in 1831, he went on to attend Harvard Law School, from which he graduated in 1833. In 1834, Phillips was admitted to the Massachusetts state bar, in the same year, he opened a law practice in Boston, his professor of oratory was Edward T. Channing, a critic of flowery speakers such as Daniel Webster. Channing emphasized the value of a philosophy which Phillips took to heart. On October 21, 1835, the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society announced that George Thompson would be speaking.
Pro-slavery forces posted nearly 500 notices of a $100 reward for the citizen that would first lay violent hands on him. Thompson canceled at the last minute, William Lloyd Garrison, a newspaper writer who spoke against the wrongs of slavery, was scheduled to speak in his place. A lynch mob formed, forcing Garrison to escape through the back of the hall and hide in a carpenter's shop; the mob soon found him. Several strong men took him to the Leverett Street Jail. Phillips, watching from nearby Court Street, was a witness to the attempted lynching. After being converted to the abolitionist cause by Garrison in 1836, Phillips stopped practicing law in order to dedicate himself to the movement. Phillips joined the American Anti-Slavery Society and made speeches at its meetings. So regarded were Phillips' oratorical abilities that he was known as "abolition's Golden Trumpet". Like many of Phillips' fellow abolitionists who honored the free produce movement, he took pains to avoid cane sugar and wear no clothing made of cotton, since both were produced by the labor of Southern slaves.
He was a member of an organization that assisted fugitive slaves. It was Phillips's contention. Like Garrison, Phillips denounced the Constitution for tolerating slavery, he disagreed with the argument of abolitionist Lysander Spooner that slavery was unconstitutional, more disputed Spooner's notion that any unjust law should be held void by judges. In 1845, in an essay titled "No Union With Slaveholders", he argued for disunion: The experience of the fifty years... shows us the slaves trebling in numbers – slaveholders monopolizing the offices and dictating the policy of the Government – prostituting the strength and influence of the Nation to the support of slavery here and elsewhere – trampling on the rights of the free States, making the courts of the country their tools. To continue this disastrous alliance longer is madness; the trial of fifty years only proves that it is impossible for free and slave States to unite on any terms, without all becoming partners in the guilt and responsible for the sin of slavery.
Why prolong the experiment? Let every honest man join in the outcry of the American Anti-Slavery Society. In 1836, Phillips was supporting the abolitionist cause, it was her opinion. Phillips and Greene were engaged that year and Greene declared Wendell to be her "best three quarters", they were to be married for 46 years. On December 8, 1837, in Boston's Faneuil Hall, Phillips' leadership and oratory established his preeminence within the abolitionist movement. Bostonians gathered at Faneuil Hall to discuss Elijah P. Lovejoy's murder by a mob outside his abolitionist printing press in Alton, Illinois on November 7. Lovejoy died defending himself and his press from pro-slavery rioters who set fire to a warehouse storing his press and shot Lovejoy as he stepped outside to tip a ladder being used by the mob, his death engendered a national controversy between anti-abolitionists. At Faneuil Hall, Massachusetts attorney general James T. Austin defended the anti-abolitionist mob, comparing their actions to 1776 patriots who fought against the British.
Disgusted, Phillips spontaneously rebutted, praising Lovejoy's actions as a defense of liberty. Inspired by Phillips' eloquence and conviction, Garrison entered a partnership with him that came to define the beginning of the 1840s abolitionist movement; the married couple went abroad in 1839 for two years. They spent the summer in the rest of each year in mainland Europe, they made important connections and Ann wrote of them meeting Elizabeth Pease and being impressed by the Quaker abolitionist Richard D. Webb. In 1840 they went to London to join up with other American delegates to the World Anti-Slavery Convention at the Exeter Hall in London. Phillips' new wife was one of a number of female delegates, who included Lucretia Mott, Mary Grew, Sarah Pugh, Abby Kimber, Elizabeth Neall and Emily Winslow; the delegates were astounded to find that female delegates had not been expected and they were not allowed at the convention. Instructed by his wife not to "shilly-shally", Phillips went in to appeal the case.
According to Susan B. Anthony's and Elizabeth Cady Stanton's history of the women's rights movement, Phillips spoke as the convention opened, scolding the organizers for precipitating an unnecessary conflict: When the call reac
Berkshire Hathaway Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Omaha, United States. The company wholly owns GEICO, Dairy Queen, BNSF, Fruit of the Loom, Helzberg Diamonds, Long & Foster, FlightSafety International, Pampered Chef, NetJets, owns 38.6% of Pilot Flying J. Since 2016, the company has acquired large holdings in the major US airline carriers, is the largest shareholder in United Airlines and Delta Air Lines, a top three shareholder in Southwest Airlines and American Airlines. Berkshire Hathaway has averaged an annual growth in book value of 19.0% to its shareholders since 1965, while employing large amounts of capital, minimal debt. The company is known for its control and leadership by Warren Buffett, who serves as chairman and chief executive, Charlie Munger, the company's vice chairman. In the early part of his career at Berkshire, Buffett focused on long-term investments in publicly traded companies, but more he has more bought whole companies.
Berkshire now owns a diverse range of businesses including confectionery, railroads, home furnishings, manufacturers of vacuum cleaners, jewelry sales, newspaper publishing and distribution of uniforms, several regional electric and gas utilities. According to the Forbes Global 2000 list and formula, Berkshire Hathaway is the third largest public company in the world, the tenth largest conglomerate by revenue and the largest financial services company by revenue in the world. Berkshire is the seventh largest company in the S&P 500 Index by market capitalization, is famous for having the most expensive share price in history with a Class A share costing around $300,000 each; this is due to the fact that there has never been a stock split and Buffett has stated in a 1984 letter to shareholders that he does not intend to do so. Berkshire Hathaway traces its roots to a textile manufacturing company established by Oliver Chace in 1839 as the Valley Falls Company in Valley Falls, Rhode Island. Chace had worked for Samuel Slater, the founder of the first successful textile mill in America.
Chace founded his first textile mill in 1806. In 1929, the Valley Falls Company merged with the Berkshire Cotton Manufacturing Company established in 1889, in Adams, Massachusetts; the combined company was known as Berkshire Fine Spinning Associates. In 1955, Berkshire Fine Spinning Associates merged with the Hathaway Manufacturing Company, founded in 1888 in New Bedford, Massachusetts by Horatio Hathaway with profits from whaling and the China Trade. Hathaway had been successful in its first decades, but it suffered during a general decline in the textile industry after World War I. At this time, Hathaway was run by Seabury Stanton, whose investment efforts were rewarded with renewed profitability after the Great Depression. After the merger, Berkshire Hathaway had 15 plants employing over 12,000 workers with over $120 million in revenue, was headquartered in New Bedford. However, seven of those locations were closed by the end of the decade, accompanied by large layoffs. In 1962, Warren Buffett began buying stock in Berkshire Hathaway after noticing a pattern in the price direction of its stock whenever the company closed a mill.
Buffett acknowledged that the textile business was waning and the company's financial situation was not going to improve. In 1964, Stanton made an oral tender offer of $111⁄2 per share for the company to buy back Buffett's shares. Buffett agreed to the deal. A few weeks Warren Buffett received the tender offer in writing, but the tender offer was for only $113⁄8. Buffett admitted that this lower, undercutting offer made him angry. Instead of selling at the lower price, Buffett decided to buy more of the stock to take control of the company and fire Stanton. However, this put Buffett in a situation where he was now majority owner of a textile business, failing. Buffett maintained Berkshire's core business of textiles, but by 1967, he was expanding into the insurance industry and other investments. Berkshire first ventured into the insurance business with the purchase of National Indemnity Company. In the late 1970s, Berkshire acquired an equity stake in the Government Employees Insurance Company, which forms the core of its insurance operations today.
In 1985, the last textile operations were shut down. In 2010, Buffett claimed that purchasing Berkshire Hathaway was the biggest investment mistake he had made, claimed that it had denied him compounded investment returns of about $200 billion over the subsequent 45 years. Buffett claimed that had he invested that money directly in insurance businesses instead of buying out Berkshire Hathaway, those investments would have paid off several hundredfold. Berkshire's class A shares sold for $313,350.00 as of February 1, 2019, making them the highest-priced shares on the New York Stock Exchange, in part because they have never had a stock split and have only paid a dividend once since Warren Buffett took over, retaining corporate earnings on its balance sheet in a manner, impermissible for mutual funds. Shares closed over $100,000 for the first time on October 23, 2006. Despite its size, Berkshire had for many years not been included in broad stock market indices such as
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic; the Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army, including 178,895 colored troops. Of these soldiers, 596,670 were wounded or went missing; the initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,367 men in the U.
S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. 20% of these officers, most of them Southerners, choosing to tie their lives and fortunes to the Army of the Confederacy. In addition 200 West Point graduates who had left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, Braxton Bragg, would return to service at the outbreak of the war; this group's loyalties were far more divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and 102 putting on the blue of the Union Army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, three of mounted infantry; the regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River along the Canada–United States border and on the Atlantic coast. With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the Union, with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection.
Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, 1861; that was the day that Congress approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause. The call for volunteers was met by patriotic Northerners and immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania responded to Lincoln's call, the French were quick to volunteer; as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers, it is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army.
At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S. Military Academy on the active list. Of the 900 West Point graduates who were civilians, 400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283; the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right. While the total number of those is unknown, only 26 enlisted men and non-commissioned officers of the regular army are known to have left the army to join the Confederate army when the war began; the Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were organized geographically. Military division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the more modern term Theater. Department An organization that covered a defined region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein and for the field armies within their borders.
Those named for states referred to Southern states, occupied. It was more common to name departments for regions. District A subdivision of a Department
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Outlook (New York City)
The Outlook was a weekly magazine, published in New York City. The Outlook began publication January 1870, as The Christian Union; the magazine was titled The Outlook from 1893 to 1928, reflecting a shift of focus from religious subjects to social and political issues. In 1900, the ranking weekly magazines of news and opinion were The Independent, The Nation, The Outlook, with a different emphasis, The Literary Digest. In 1928 The Independent was merged with The Outlook to form The Independent. From 1932 to 1935 the magazine was published as The New Outlook, its last issue was dated June 1935. Theodore Roosevelt was an associate editor for The Outlook. Edwin Arlington Robinson In 1900 Booker T. Washington published autobiographical pieces in The Outlook; these pieces were published in 1901 as Up from Slavery. A report by Washington about the new state of Oklahoma was published in the first issue of 1908. Alfred Emanuel Smith, Francis Rufus Bellamy, Harold Trowbridge Pulsifer were editors. Oscar Cesare was an editorial cartoonist for the magazine.
Benjamin Kidd's interview article, "Future of the United States" made him a celebrity in the United States. Robert Cantwell was literary editor of The New Outlook A collection of poetry from The Outlook, Scribner's Magazine, Harper's Magazine, The Century Magazine was published in 1913; the complete run from July 1, 1893 to June 1935 is online. The Nation The Independent The Literary Digest The Outlook at UNZ.org The Outlook at the HathiTrust
Theodore Dwight Weld
Theodore Dwight Weld was one of the architects of the American abolitionist movement during its formative years from 1830 through 1844, playing a role as writer, editor and organizer. He is best known for his co-authorship of the authoritative compendium American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses, published in 1839. Harriet Beecher Stowe based Uncle Tom’s Cabin on Weld's text and it is regarded as second only to that work in its influence on the antislavery movement. Weld remained dedicated to the abolitionist movement until slavery was ended by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. Born in Hampton, the son and grandson of Congregational ministers, at age 14 Weld took over his father's 100-acre farm near Hartford, Connecticut to earn money to study at Phillips Academy in Andover, attending from 1820 to 1822 until failing eyesight caused him to leave. After a doctor urged him to travel, he started an itinerant lecture series on mnemonics, traveling for three years throughout the United States, including the South where he saw slavery first-hand.
In 1825 Weld moved with his family to New York in upstate New York. Weld studied at Hamilton College in Clinton, Oneida County, New York, where he became a disciple of the famous evangelist Charles Finney, spending several years working as a member of his "holy band" before deciding to become a preacher and entering the Oneida Manual Labor Institute in Oneida, New York. While there, he would spend two weeks at a time traveling about lecturing on the virtues of manual labor and moral reform. At age 28 he was hired by moral reform philanthropists Lewis Tappan and Arthur Tappan as the general agent for the Society for Promoting Manual Labor in Literary Institutions. Weld's report to the Tappans as a manual labor agent reveals. En route, he made 236 public addresses."During his time as a manual labor agent, Weld scouted land and found the location for, recruited the faculty for became a student at Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati in 1833. There he became the leader of the so-called "Lane Rebels," a group of students who determined to engage in free discussion, including the topic of slavery, holding a series of slavery debates over 18 days in 1834, resulting in a decision to support abolitionism.
The group pledged to help the 1500 free blacks in Cincinnati. When the school's board of directors, including president Lyman Beecher prohibited them from discussing slavery, about 80% of the students left, most of them enrolling at the new Oberlin Collegiate Institute. Weld however, left his studies in 1834 to become an agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society and training people to work for the cause, making converts of James G. Birney, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Henry Ward Beecher. Weld became one of the leaders of the antislavery movement, working with the Tappan brothers, New York philanthropists James G. Birney and Gamaliel Bailey, the Grimké sisters. Weld was influenced to join the abolitionist movement by retired British army officer Charles Stuart at Western Reserve College. In 1836, Weld discontinued lecturing when he lost his voice, was appointed editor of its books and pamphlets by the American Anti-slavery Society. In 1836-1840 Weld worked as the editor of The Emancipator. In 1838, Weld married Angelina Grimké, a strong abolitionist and women's rights advocate, retired to a farm in Belleville, New Jersey, where in 1839 he and the Grimké sisters co-wrote and published the pivotal book American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses.
In June 1840 the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London denied seats to Lucretia Mott and other women, mobilizing them to fight for women's rights, causing the U. S. abolitionist movement to split between nonviolent "moral suasion" William Lloyd Garrison and his American Anti-Slavery Society, which linked abolition with women's rights, Weld, the Tappan brothers and other "pragmatic" abolitionists, who formed the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society and entered politics through the anti-slavery Liberty Party, founded by James Birney, their U. S. presidential candidate this year and 1844, who founded the National Anti-Slavery Society. In 1841-1843, Weld traveled to Washington, D. C. to direct the national campaign for sending antislavery petitions to Congress, assisted John Quincy Adams when Congress tried him for reading petitions in violation of the gag rule, which stated that slavery could not be discussed in Congress. Having demonstrated the value of an antislavery lobby in Washington, Weld returned to private life, where he and his wife spent the remainder of their lives directing schools and teaching in New Jersey and Massachusetts.
As Weld used pen names for all of his writings, he is not as well known as many other 19th century abolitionists. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Many historians regard Weld as the most important figure in the abolitionist movement, surpassing Garrison, but his passion for anonymity long made him an unknown figure in American history. In 1854, Weld established a school of the Raritan Bay Union at Eagleswood in Perth Amboy, New Jersey; the school accepted students of all sexes. In 1864 he moved to Hyde Park, where he helped open another school in Lexington, Massachusetts dedicated to the same principles. Here, Weld had "charge of Conversation and English Literature." Weld was the son of Ludovicus Weld an
Daniel Craig McCallum was a Scottish-born American railroad engineer, general manager of the New York and Erie Railroad and Union Brevet Major General during the American Civil War, known as one of the early pioneers of management. He set down a set of general principles of management, is credited for having developed the first modern organizational chart. McCallum was born in Johnstone in the council area of Renfrewshire in the west central Lowlands of Scotland in 1815. In 1822 his family emigrated to New York, they settled in New York, where he spent a few years at elementary school. He didn't want to follow his father's footsteps to become a tailor. Instead he worked his way up. Early 1840s McCallum worked as an engineer in Rochester, where among other buildings he designed the Saint Joseph's Church. By the 1840s he started building and maintaining railway bridges as subcontractor for the New York and Erie Railroad. Late 1840s McCallum became in charge of the bridges of the New York and Erie railroad, where he started experimenting with new construction methods.
He developed and in 1851 patented a new type of bridge, named the "McCallum Inflexible Arched Truss Bridge". Which could required less maintenance than previous designs. One bridge was built at Lanesboro, Pennsylvania over the Susquehanna River, which enduring construction drew national attention. Early 1850s at the New York and Erie Railroad Company McCallum was promoted to superintendent of the Susquehanna Division, one of five operating divisions of the railroad, and about two years in 1854/54 he was further promoted to General Superintendent of the New York and Erie Railroad as successor of Charles Minot under Homer Ramsdell's presidency. In this position he supervised the entire railroad and restructured the organization to make it more efficient and safe, he introduced new communication methods using the telegraph. He described these new principles of management, introduced the first modern organizational chart as a way to manage business operations. On 25 February 1857 McCallum resigned from the Erie Railroad and founded the McCallum Bridge Company in 1858.
During the American Civil War the Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton appointed McCallum Military Director and Superintendent of the United States Military Railroad with the staff rank of colonel, he was brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for faithful and meritorious services in 1864, to major general in 1865. In July 1866 he was mustered out of the service, published a report on the military railroads during the war. MacCallum wrote a set of poems; the most famous was called'Lights on the Bridge', which he wrote shortly before his death for his friend, Sam Campbell, a fellow railroad engineer killed in 1842. McCallum himself died in Brooklyn, New York, 27 December 1878. McCallum was an architect in Rochester from 1840, for a few subsequent years, he held a high position in his profession. Among the prominent buildings erected by him are the House of Refuge, St. Josephs Church, St. Marys Hospital, the Odd-Fellows' Hall building, he did much to improve the general architecture of the city. His drawings and studies were made, his plans well-adapted to location.
The St. Josephs Church was built 1843-1846 in the simple monumental tradition of the Greek Revival, with a gray stone facade of series of arched bays on the exterior facade; the simple church was enlarged 1849 into cruciform plan. The interior was remodeled in 1895; the first steeple replaced with a tower in 1909, designed by Joseph Oberlies. Nowadays only the preserved facade of St. Joseph's Church has remained. Late 1840s McCallum developed a specific truss bridge construction for the railroad bridges, called McCallum inflexible arched truss, it was constructed principally of pine timber, with less than the ordinary portion of iron rods and casings. An editorial notice from Appletons' Mechanics' Magazine, edited by Julius W. Adams commented on McCullam's Patent Timber Bridge, built in 1851 over the Susquehanna River, near Lanesboro', for the New York and Erie railroad. We have no hesitation in affirming, that of all the timber bridges patented in this country, there are none, in point of strength, facility of repair, uniformity of action, to be preferred before this plan of bridge patented by Mr. D. C.
McCallum, of Oswego, engineer or ways and structures on the New York and Erie railroad. The bridge shown in elevation has been built for the New York and Erie railroad, at Lanesboro', over the Susquehanna river, in the place of one built by ourselves, several years since, under the orders, according to the plan of the chief engineer of that road, but which proved unequal to the duty imposed upon it. We objected to the plan of the original bridge, built in that locality, as we have done to any plan of bridge in which the attempt was made to unite the independent systems of arch and truss, make toe stability of the bridge dependent upon their uniformity of action. In this plan of Mr. McCallum, the two principles are not independent. In the construction of bridges for railroad purposes, two prominent difficulties have long been discovered, viz. a lack of sustaining principle