Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. It was established in 1754 as Kings College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain, after the American Revolutionary War, Kings College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university has global research outposts in Amman, Istanbul, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Asunción, Columbia administers annually the Pulitzer Prize. Additionally,100 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Columbia as students, faculty, Columbia is second only to Harvard University in the number of Nobel Prize-winning affiliates, with over 100 recipients of the award as of 2016. In 1746 an act was passed by the assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. Classes were initially held in July 1754 and were presided over by the colleges first president, Dr.
Johnson was the only instructor of the colleges first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan, in 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queens College, and an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777. The suspension continued through the occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. The colleges library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a hospital first by American. Loyalists were forced to abandon their Kings College in New York, the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where they founded Kings Collegiate School. After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, the Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1,1784, it passed an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called Kings College.
The Regents finally became aware of the colleges defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, in April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees. On May 21,1787, William Samuel Johnson, the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected President of Columbia College, prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. The colleges enrollment and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the college functioned. In 1857, the college moved from the Kings College campus at Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue, during the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F. A. P. Barnard, the institution assumed the shape of a modern university
Stratford is a town in Fairfield County, United States. It is situated on Long Island Sound at the mouth of the Housatonic River, Stratford is in the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk Metropolitan Statistical Area. It was founded by Puritans in 1639, the population was 51,384 as of the 2010 census. It has a legacy in aviation, the military. Stratford is bordered on the west by Bridgeport, to the north by Trumbull and Shelton, in 1640 the community was known as Cupheag Plantation. By April 13,1643, the town was known as Stratford. By the late 17th century, the Connecticut government had assumed control over Stratford. Despite its Puritan origins, Stratford was the site of the first Anglican church in Connecticut, founded in 1707, other towns such as Cambria, New York were founded or expanded around new churches by Stratford descendants taking part in the westward migration. U. S. President Gerald Ford was a descendant of one of the Stratford founding families, Stratford was one of the two principal settlements in southwestern Connecticut, the other being Fairfield.
Over time it gave rise to new towns that broke off. The following towns were created from parts of Stratford, Shelton in 1789. In 1789 Ripton Parish separated from Stratford and became the Town of Huntington.9 square miles, of which 17.6 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles, or 11. 52%, is water. Stratford has an elevation of zero feet above sea level along its coastline, with a maximum altitude of 295 feet near its northern border. The town contains five islands, all in the Housatonic River and these are Carting Island, Long Island, Peacock Island, and Popes Flat north of Interstate 95, as well as Goose Island. None of these islands are habitable because of their low elevations, a sixth island known as Brinsmade Island washed away prior to 1964. Town beach stickers are free for residents and $100/season for non-residents with daily rates available, Long Beach – Approximately 1.5 miles long, the eastern end of the beach is open to the public and has parking and lifeguards. The central part of the beach is a nature preserve whose land is set aside for wildlife, particularly nesting seabirds, such as kestrels and ospreys.
The western end of the beach was once the site of about 40 cottages, the cottages were demolished in fall 2010
Upper East Side
The Upper East Side, sometimes abbreviated as UES, is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, between Central Park/Fifth Avenue, 59th Street, the East River, and 96th Street. The area incorporates several smaller neighborhoods, including Lenox Hill, Carnegie Hill, once known as the Silk Stocking District, it is now one of the most affluent neighborhoods in New York City. At that time, along the Boston Post Road taverns stood at the mile-markers, Five-Mile House at 72nd Street and Six-Mile House at 97th, a New Yorker recalled in 1893. A row of townhouses was built on speculation by Mary Mason Jones. It was her habit to sit in a window of her room on the ground floor, as if watching calmly for life. She was sure that presently the quarries, the greenhouses in ragged gardens. The latest arrivals were the rich Pittsburghers Andrew Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick, from the 1880s the neighborhood of Yorkville became a suburb of middle-class Germans. Gracie Mansion, the last remaining suburban villa overlooking the East River at Carl Schurz Park, demolishing the elevated railways on Third and Second Avenues opened these tenement-lined streets to the spotty construction of high-rise apartment blocks from the 1950s.
However, it had an effect on transportation, because the IRT Lexington Avenue Line was now the only subway line in the area. The construction of the Second Avenue Subway has brought up the price of houses in the Upper East Side somewhat, the AIA Guide to New York City extends the northern boundary to 106th Street near Fifth Avenue. The areas north-south avenues are Fifth, Park, Third, First, the major east-west streets are 59th Street, 72nd Street, 79th Street, 86th Street and 96th Street. The Upper East Side Historic District is one of New York City’s largest districts and this district runs from 59th to 78th Streets along Fifth Avenue, and up to 3rd Avenue at some points. In the decades after the Civil War, the once decrepit district transitioned into a thriving middle-class residential neighborhood, at the start of the 20th century, the neighborhood transformed again, but this time into a neighborhood of mansions and townhouses. As the century continued, and living environments altered, a lot of these homes were replaced by lavish apartment buildings.
As of the 2000 census, there were 207,543 people residing in the Upper East Side, the population density was 118,184 people per square mile, making Manhattan Community Board 8, coterminous with the Upper East Side, the densest Community Board in the city. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 89. 25% White,6. 14% Asian,0. 04% Pacific Islander,1. 34% African American,0. 09% Native American,1. 39% from other races, and 1. 74% from two or more races. 5. 62% of the population were Hispanic of any race, twenty-one percent of the population was foreign born, of this,45. 6% came from Europe,29. 5% from Asia,16. 2% from Latin America and 8. 7% from other. The female-male ratio was very high with 125 females for 100 males, the Upper East Side contains a large and affluent Jewish population estimated at 56,000
New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven, in the U. S. state of Connecticut, is the principal municipality in Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut. It is the second-largest city in Connecticut, with a population of 129,779 people as of the 2010 United States Census, according to a census of 1 July 2012, by the Census Bureau, the city had a population of 130,741. New Haven was founded in 1638 by English Puritans, and a year eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square, and the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark and the Nine Square Plan is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark, New Haven is the home of Yale University. The university is an part of the citys economy, being New Havens biggest taxpayer and employer. Health care, professional services, financial services, and retail trade help to form a base for the city.
The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, New Haven has since billed itself as the Cultural Capital of Connecticut for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven is the birthplace of George W. Bush, New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave New Haven the nickname The Elm City. The area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic. In 1637 a small party of Puritans reconnoitered the New Haven harbor area, the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, the theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place. However, the north of New Haven remained Quinnipiac until 1678. The settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, at the time, the New Haven Colony was separate from the Connecticut Colony, which had been established to the north centering on Hartford.
Economic disaster struck the colony in 1646, when the town sent its first fully loaded ship of goods back to England. This ship never reached the Old World, and its disappearance stymied New Havens development in the face of the rising power of Boston. In 1660, founder John Davenports wishes were fulfilled, and Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins, in 1661, the judges who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II
Samuel Johnson (American educator)
Samuel Johnson was a clergyman, linguist, encyclopedist and philosopher in colonial America. Johnson was born in Guilford, the son of a miller, Samuel Johnson Sr. and great-grandson of Robert Johnson. But it was his grandfather William Johnson, an assemblyman, village clerk, grammar school teacher, militia leader, judge. There he studied the orthodox Puritan theology of Johannes Wolleb and William Ames and he graduated in 1714 with a bachelors degree, and in 1717 was awarded a masters degree. Johnson began teaching school in Guilford in 1713, even while a student a Yale. He would continue to teach children and adults all this life, in 1714, he began to write a short work titled Synopsis Philosophiae Naturalis summing up what the Puritan Mind knew of natural philosophy. It was an exploration of all knowledge available to Johnson based on the methods of the Reformation logician Petrus Ramus. His work on this exploration of the Puritan New England Mind would eventually result in 1271 hierarchically arranged thesis.
It has been called by Norman Fiering “the best surviving American example of student application of Ramist method to the body of human knowledge”. His work on the Encyclopaidia was interrupted when a donation of 800 books collected by Colonial Agent Jeremiah Dummer was sent to Yale late in 1714. He discovered Francis Bacon’s Advancement of Learning, the works of John Locke and Isaac Newton and other Enlightenment era authors not known to the tutors and graduates of Puritan Yale and it was prefixed by a hierarchical Table or map of the intellectual world outlining the sum of all knowledge. It would be the first of a series of tables categorizing the sum of knowledge into ever more complex tables used for both categorizing knowledge for libraries and to define curriculum in schools, in 1716, Johnson was appointed the senior tutor at Yale. Founded in 1701, Yale was located on a neck of land in Saybrook. By 1716, Saybrook Point was considered too small to handle the needs of the growing school, Connecticut Governor Gurdon Saltonstall and seven Yale trustees proposed moving the college to New Haven, Connecticut.
They were opposed by three trustees, two of whom split the college, and opened a branch in Wethersfield, taking half the students. For over two years Tutor Johnson was the member of the Yale faculty and the only administrator on-site at the college in New Haven. Unsupervised, he took the opportunity to introduce the Enlightenment into Yale, Johnsons first publication was a broadside printed for the 1718 Yale Commencement, which contained Latin commencement thesis. It shows that Johnson taught Locke, Copernican astronomy, modern medicine and biology, the next year was one of tumult
Susan B. Anthony
Susan Brownell Anthony was an American social reformer and womens rights activist who played a pivotal role in the womens suffrage movement. Born into a Quaker family committed to equality, she collected anti-slavery petitions at the age of 17. In 1856, she became the New York state agent for the American Anti-Slavery Society, in 1851, she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who became her lifelong friend and co-worker in social reform activities, primarily in the field of womens rights. In 1852, they founded the New York Womens State Temperance Society after Anthony was prevented from speaking at a temperance conference because she was female, in 1866, they initiated the American Equal Rights Association, which campaigned for equal rights for both women and African Americans. In 1868, they began publishing a womens rights newspaper called The Revolution, in 1869, they founded the National Woman Suffrage Association as part of a split in the womens movement. In 1876, Anthony and Stanton began working with Matilda Joslyn Gage on what eventually grew into the six-volume History of Woman Suffrage, the interests of Anthony and Stanton diverged somewhat in years, but the two remained close friends.
In 1872, Anthony was arrested for voting in her hometown of Rochester, New York, although she refused to pay the fine, the authorities declined to take further action. In 1878, Anthony and Stanton arranged for Congress to be presented with an amendment giving women the right to vote, popularly known as the Anthony Amendment and introduced by Sen. Aaron A. Sargent, it became the Nineteenth Amendment to the U. S. Anthony traveled extensively in support of suffrage, giving as many as 75 to 100 speeches per year. She worked internationally for womens rights, playing a key role in creating the International Council of Women and she helped to bring about the Worlds Congress of Representative Women at the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. When she first began campaigning for rights, Anthony was harshly ridiculed and accused of trying to destroy the institution of marriage. Public perception of her changed radically during her lifetime and her 80th birthday was celebrated in the White House at the invitation of President William McKinley.
She became the first actual woman to be depicted on U. S. coinage when her portrait appeared on the 1979 dollar coin. Susan Brownell Anthony was born on February 15,1820, to Daniel Anthony and Lucy Read in Adams and her family shared a passion for social reform. Her brothers Daniel and Merritt moved to Kansas to support the movement there. Merritt fought with John Brown against pro-slavery forces during the Bleeding Kansas crisis, Daniel eventually owned a newspaper and became mayor of Leavenworth. Anthonys sister Mary, with whom she shared a home in years, became a public school principal in Rochester. Anthonys father was an abolitionist and a temperance advocate, a Quaker, he had a difficult relationship with his traditionalist congregation, which rebuked him for marrying a non-Quaker and disowned him for allowing a dance school to operate in his home
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
Joe Nickell is an American prominent skeptic and investigator of the paranormal. He has helped expose such famous forgeries as the diary of Jack the Ripper. Nickell is Senior Research Fellow for the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry and writes regularly for their journal and he is an associate dean of the Center for Inquiry Institute. He is the author or editor of over 30 books, Joe Nickell is the son of J. Wendell and Ella Nickell, and grew up in West Liberty, Kentucky. His parents indulged his interest in magic and investigation, allowing him to set aside a room in their house as a crime lab. In 1968, he avoided the draft by moving to Canada where he began his careers as a magician, a dealer. When President Jimmy Carter granted unconditional pardons to draft dodgers in 1977, in late 2003, Nickell reconnected with his college girlfriend, Diana G. Harris, and learned he had a daughter and two grandsons and Chase. Harris and Nickell married in Springfield, Illinois on April 1,2006, Harris has assisted Nickell in his investigative work.
Cherette had always told that her biological father was her mothers first husband. On her wedding day, one of the guests mentioned that her parents werent married when she was conceived, Cherette asked her mother about her father and sensed an equivocation in the answer. More conversations with her mother and a DNA test proved that Nickell was her father, Nickell used his daughters claim that her search was the result of an intuition as the basis for an article on the unconscious collection and processing of data. Nickell concluded, Cautions notwithstanding, I must admit to a new appreciation of intuition and its enough to warm an old skeptics heart. Nickell holds B. A. M. A. and Ph. D. degrees from the University of Kentucky and his Ph. D. is in English for graduate work focusing on literary investigation and folklore. Since the early 1980s, he has researched, written, co-authored and edited books in many genres, in the 2007 horror film The Reaping, actress Hilary Swank plays an investigator of the paranormal.
Nickell was selected as a consultant and invited to the movie set to meet with Swank. Nickell said, I liked the first 10 or 15 minutes, but it changed into the world of the supernatural, for good or evil, has never happened to me, Ive never had frogs rain down upon upon me. Nickell is frequently consulted by news and television producers for his skeptical perspective and he was profiled by The New Yorker writer Burkhard Bilger who met Nickell during the summer of 2002 at Lily Dale, New York, where he had disguised himself to investigate Spiritualist psychics. Nickell is a recurring guest on the Point of Inquiry podcast, Nickell explained his philosophy to Blake Smith of the Skeptic podcast MonsterTalk, I dont like debunkers and I dont like dismissers, people who are just trying to say, Oh, humbug
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
Territories of the United States
Territories of the United States are sub-national administrative divisions directly overseen by the United States federal government. These territories are classified by whether they are incorporated and whether they have a government through an Organic Act passed by the U. S. Congress. Currently, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are inhabited, Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands. They are classified as unincorporated territories and they are organized, self-governing territories with locally elected governors and territorial legislatures. Each elects a member to the U. S. House of Representatives. Eleven territories are small islands and reefs, spread across the Caribbean and Pacific, the status of some are disputed by Colombia, Honduras, Jamaica and the Marshall Islands. The Palmyra Atoll is the territory currently incorporated. Historically, territories were created to govern newly acquired land while the borders of the United States were still evolving, other territories administered by the United States went on to become independent countries, such as the Philippines, Marshall Islands and Palau.
Many organized incorporated territories of the United States existed from 1789 to 1959, the United States has sixteen territories, five of which are permanently inhabited, Puerto Rico, Northern Mariana Islands, United States Virgin Islands and American Samoa. The 11 uninhabited territories administered by the Interior Department are Palmyra Atoll, Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, while claimed by the US, Navassa Island, Wake Island, Serranilla Bank and Bajo Nuevo Bank are disputed. Territories have always been a part of the United States, by Act of Congress, the term United States, when used in a geographical sense, means the continental United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States. Since political union with the Northern Mariana Islands in 1986, they too are treated as a part of the U. S, an Executive Order in 2007 includes American Samoa as U. S. geographical extent duly reflected in U. S. State Department documents.
Approximately 4 million islanders are U. S. citizens, about 32,000 U. S. non-citizen nationals live in American Samoa, under current law among the territories, only persons born in American Samoa and Swains Island are non-citizen U. S. nationals. American Samoans are under the protection of the U. S. with freedom of U. S. travel without visas. The five inhabited U. S. territories have local voting rights and protections under U. S. courts, pay some U. S. taxes, depending on the congress, they may vote on the floor in the House Committee of the Whole. S. Every four years, the Democratic and Republican political parties nominate their candidates at conventions which include delegates from the five major territories. The citizens there, however, do not vote in the election for U. S. President. S. Incorporated territories are considered a part of the United States
Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. Johnson became president as he was president at the time of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. A Democrat who ran with Lincoln on the National Union ticket, the new president favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. His plans did not give protection to the slaves, and he came into conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress. The first American president to be impeached, he was acquitted in the Senate by one vote, Johnson was born in poverty in Raleigh, North Carolina. Apprenticed as a tailor, he worked in several towns before settling in Greeneville. He served as alderman and mayor there before being elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives in 1835, after brief service in the Tennessee Senate, Johnson was elected to the federal House of Representatives in 1843, where he served five two-year terms. He became Governor of Tennessee for four years, and was elected by the legislature to the Senate in 1857, in his congressional service, he sought passage of the Homestead Bill, which was enacted soon after he left his Senate seat in 1862.
As Southern slave states, including Tennessee, seceded to form the Confederate States of America and he was the only sitting senator from a Confederate state who did not resign his seat upon learning of his states secession. In 1862, Lincoln appointed him as governor of Tennessee after most of it had been retaken. When Johnson was sworn in as president in March 1865, he gave a rambling speech. Six weeks later, the assassination of Lincoln made him president, Johnson implemented his own form of Presidential Reconstruction – a series of proclamations directing the seceded states to hold conventions and elections to re-form their civil governments. Johnson vetoed their bills, and Congressional Republicans overrode him, setting a pattern for the remainder of his presidency, Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to former slaves. In 1866, Johnson went on a national tour promoting his executive policies. As the conflict between the branches of government grew, Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act, restricting Johnsons ability to fire Cabinet officials.
When he persisted in trying to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, he was impeached by the House of Representatives, and narrowly avoided conviction in the Senate and removal from office. Returning to Tennessee after his presidency, Johnson sought political vindication, Johnson is regarded by many historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. While some admire his strict constitutionalism, his opposition to federally guaranteed rights for African Americans is widely criticized
Jonathan Edwards (theologian)
Jonathan Edwards was a revivalist preacher and Congregationalist Protestant theologian. Like most of the Puritans, he held to the Reformed theology and his colonial followers distinguished themselves from other Congregationalists as New Lights, as opposed to Old Lights. Edwards is widely regarded as one of Americas most important and original philosophical theologians, Edwards theological work is broad in scope, but he was rooted in Reformed theology, the metaphysics of theological determinism, and the Puritan heritage. Recent studies have emphasized how thoroughly Edwards grounded his lifes work on conceptions of beauty and ethical fittingness, Edwards played a critical role in shaping the First Great Awakening, and oversaw some of the first revivals in 1733–35 at his church in Northampton, Massachusetts. Edwards delivered the sermon Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, Edwards died from a smallpox inoculation shortly after beginning the presidency at the College of New Jersey. He was the grandfather of Aaron Burr, third Vice President of the United States, Jonathan Edwards was born on October 5,1703 and was the son of Timothy Edwards, a minister at East Windsor, who eked out his salary by tutoring boys for college.
His mother, Esther Stoddard, daughter of the Rev. Solomon Stoddard, of Northampton, seems to have been a woman of unusual mental gifts, their only son, was the fifth of 11 children. He entered Yale College in 1716, at just under the age of 13, in the following year, he became acquainted with John Lockes Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which influenced him profoundly. He was interested in history, and as a precocious 11-year-old, observed. Edwards would edit this text to match the genre of scientific literature. Even though he would go on to study theology for two years after his graduation, Edwards continued to be interested in science, Edwards was fascinated by the discoveries of Isaac Newton and other scientists of his age. Before he undertook full-time ministry work in Northampton, he wrote on topics in natural philosophy, including flying spiders, light. While he was worried about the materialism and faith in reason alone of some of his contemporaries, he saw the laws of nature as derived from God and demonstrating his wisdom and care.
In 1722 to 1723, he was for eight months stated supply of a small Presbyterian Church in New York City, the church invited him to remain, but he declined the call. The years 1720 to 1726 are partially recorded in his diary and he now took a great and new joy in taking in the beauties of nature, and delighted in the allegorical interpretation of the Song of Solomon. On February 15,1727, Edwards was ordained minister at Northampton and he was a scholar-pastor, not a visiting pastor, his rule being 13 hours of study a day. In the same year, he married Sarah Pierpont, 17, Sarah was from a storied New England clerical family, her father was James Pierpont, the head founder of Yale College, and her mother was the great-granddaughter of Thomas Hooker. Sarahs spiritual devotion was without peer, and her relationship with God had long proved an inspiration to Edwards and he first remarked on her great piety when she was 13 years old