Shuswap Lake is a lake located in south-central British Columbia, Canada that drains via the Little River into Little Shuswap Lake. Little Shuswap Lake is the source of the South Thompson River, a branch of the Thompson River, a tributary of the Fraser River, it is at the heart of a region known as the Shuswap Country or "the Shuswap", noted for its recreational lakeshore communities including the city of Salmon Arm. The name "Shuswap" is derived from the Shuswap or Secwepemc First Nations people, the most northern of the Interior Salish peoples, whose territory includes the Shuswap; the Shuswap call themselves /ʃǝxwépmǝx/ in their own language, called /ʃǝxwepmǝxtʃín/, but the ethnonym’s original meaning is now lost. Shuswap Lake consists of four arms, forming a shape reminiscent of the letter H; the four arms are called Salmon Arm, Shuswap Arm, Anstey Arm, Seymour Arm. Shuswap Lake connects to Little Shuswap Lake via the Little River, which flows from the end of Shuswap Lake. To the north-west it is fed by the Adams River.
The Salmon Arm of Shuswap Lake connects to Mara Lake at the Sicamous Channel. The Shuswap River connects via Mara Lake. In the south-west the Salmon River flows into the lake at Salmon Arm; the Eagle River runs down from the Eagle Pass in the Monashees to enter the lake at Sicamous, in the east. The Seymour River empties into the northern end of the Seymour Arm. In addition to these rivers, numerous creeks feed the lake, including Scotch Creek, which runs south to the north shore of the main arm, near the community of the same name. Shuswap Lake is home to at least fourteen species of fish. Of these species, the Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, Sockeye salmon, Rainbow trout, Lake trout, Burbot are of importance regarding recreational fishing. Eurasian water milfoil is most prevalent in Salmon Arm Bay. Carp may be present; the central interior plateau of British Columbia drained by the Fraser and Okanagan rivers is part of the Shuswap terrane in British Columbia and northern Washington state. It is dissected by numerous elongated, glacially-overdeepened lake basins which are formed by the same mechanisms as coastal fjords.
Like many other lakes, Shuswap Lake has a local lake monster legend attached to it. A 25-foot long serpentine creature, known as the Shuswap Lake Monster or "Shuswaggi", is reported to live in the lake. Several parks are located on the shores of Shuswap Lake, including: Shuswap Lake Provincial Park Shuswap Lake Marine Provincial Park Silver Beach Provincial Park Tsútswecw Provincial Park Cinnemousun Narrows Provincial Park Communities bordering the Shuswap Lakes include: Salmon Arm Celista Lee Creek Squilax Eagle Bay Scotch Creek Sorrento Blind Bay Tappen Anglemont Magna Bay Chase St. Ives SunnyBrae Canoe Sicamous Seymour Arm Cooperman, Jim. Everything Shuswap. Salmon Arm, BC. ISBN 9780995052208. OCLC 973043687. "Shuswap Lake". BC Geographical Names
Nootka Sound is a sound of the Pacific Ocean on the rugged west coast of Vancouver Island, in the Canadian province of British Columbia known as King George's Sound. It separates Nootka Island, it played a important role in the maritime fur trade. The inlet is part of the traditional territory of the indigenous Nuu-chah-nulth people, they called it Mowichat. John R. Jewitt is an Englishman who describes the area in some detail in a memoir about his years as a captive of chief Maquinna from 1802 to 1805. On August 8, 1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez and anchored in the inlet. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California. Pérez named the entrance to Nootka Sound Surgidero de San Lorenzo; the word surgidero means "source". When Esteban José Martinez arrived in 1789 he gave Nootka Sound the name Puerto de San Lorenzo de Nuca; the Spanish establishment established at Friendly Cove. In March 1778, Captain James Cook of the Royal Navy landed on Bligh Island and named the inlet "King George's Sound".
He recorded that the native name was Nutka or Nootka misunderstanding his conversations at Friendly Cove/Yuquot. There may have been confusion with Nuu-chah-nulth, the natives' autonym, it may have been based on Cook’s mis-pronunciation of Yuquot, the native name of the place. The earlier Spanish and British names for the Sound swiftly went out of use. At the time, the Spanish monopolized the trade between Asia and North America, had granted limited licenses to the Portuguese; the Russians had established a growing fur trading system in Alaska. The Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest; the British became active in the region. The next European to visit Nootka Sound after James Cook was the British trader James Hanna in August 1785. Hanna traded iron bars for furs, he sold the furs in China for a handsome profit. Starting in 1774 Spain sent several expeditions to Alaska to assert its long-held claim over the Pacific Northwest which dated back to the 16th century.
During the decade 1785–1795 British merchants, encouraged by Sir Joseph Banks and supported by their government, made a sustained attempt to develop British fur trade in the area, despite Spain's claims and navigation rights. The endeavours of these merchants did not last long in the face of Spain's opposition; the challenge was opposed by a Japan holding obdurately to national seclusion. In 1789 Spain sent Sub-Lieutenant Esteban José Martinez, commanding Princesa and San Carlos, to enforce Spanish sovereignty and defend its claims, he established a settlement and built Fort San Miguel. The ship Iphigenia Nubiana, under Captain William Douglas and owned by John Meares, was impounded and two other British ships, including Princess Royal, were seized by the Spanish Navy. Two American ships in the area were allowed to sail. However, the American ship Fair American, under Thomas Humphrey Metcalfe, was seized and taken to San Blas, before being released; the capture of the British ships led near war between Britain and Spain.
The British challenged Spanish claims to "un-colonized" land on the Pacific coasts of North and South America. The first Nootka Convention gave both countries the right to settle along the Pacific coasts, interrupting the Spanish monopoly for the first time in over two centuries; the British sponsored the Vancouver Expedition of exploration. Difficulties in implementing the terms led to a second, a third Nootka Convention; the Nootka Sound controversy played a part in the French Revolution. The Spanish Bourbon monarchy asked for French support in the dispute in the event that it led to war between Spain and Great Britain; the French Bourbon king Louis XVI wanted to back Spain against Great Britain, but his right to enter France into an alliance on his own prerogative was disputed by the National Assembly. The Assembly maintained that the King's right to determine foreign policy and declare war was subject to the sovereignty of the people; the Assembly ruled that a proposal for a declaration of war could be initiated by the king, but had to be ratified by the Assembly.
The Scottish political reformer Thomas Muir had been banished to Port Jackson in Botany Bay in Australia for 14 years for the crime of sedition in 1793. He managed to escape having only spent 13 months there, on board the American merchant ship Otter. After a adventurous voyage across the as yet uncharted Pacific Ocean to Vancouver Island, Otter dropped anchor in Nootka Sound on 22 June 1796. In conversation with José Tovar, the piloto of Sutil, a Spanish vessel at anchor in the Nootka Sound, Muir learned to his dismay of the presence in neighbouring waters of HMS Providence, the British sloop-of-war under William Robert Broughton; this vessel had visited Port Jackson in Australia shortly before Muir’s escape and, since Broughton had certainly become acquainted with the captain or members of the crew, his life was now in real danger. To be captured while under sentence of transportation meant immediate execution. Once again Muir’s extraordinary luck held out. While a student at Glasgow, he had acquired a fluent command of Spanish and he was now able to persuade Tovar to break his regulations regarding th
Discovery Passage is a channel that forms part of the Inside Passage between Vancouver Island and the Discovery Islands which lie off the British Columbia coast north of the Georgia Strait. It was named by Captain Vancouver for HMS Discovery. Most of the eastern shoreline of the passage is Quadra Island, with Sonora Island forming the shoreline at the northern end where Discovery Passage meets Johnstone Strait; the southern end of Discovery Passage enters the Strait of Georgia. It is 25 km in length and is about 2 km in width, less at Seymour Narrows which lies in the lower half of Discovery Passage; the passage is a significant shipping route as it is the preferred channel for vessels' entering or leaving the Georgia Strait from the north. It forms a part of the Inside Passage shipping route in the Salish Sea. Cordero Channel Campbell River, British Columbia
Fraser Canyon Gold Rush
The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, began in 1857 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton. The rush overtook the region around the discovery, was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet. Though the rush was over by 1927, miners from the rush spread out and found a sequence of other gold fields throughout the British Columbia Interior and North, most famously that in the Cariboo; the rush is credited with instigating European-Canadian settlement on the mainland of British Columbia. It was the catalyst for the founding of the Colony of British Columbia, the building of early road infrastructure, the founding of many towns. Although the area had been mined for a few years, news of the strike spread to San Francisco when the governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island, James Douglas, sent a shipment of ore to that city's mint.
People in San Francisco and the California gold fields greeted the news with excitement. Within a month 30,000 men had descended upon Victoria. 4000 of these Gold Rush pioneers settlers were Chinese. Until that time, the village had had a population of only about 500; this was a record for mass movement of mining populations on the North American frontier though more men in total were involved in the California and Colorado By the fall, tens of thousands of men who had failed to stake claims, or were unable to because of the summer's high water on the river, pronounced the Fraser to be "humbug". Many returned to San Francisco. A continuing influx of newcomers replaced the disenchanted, with more men storming the route of the Douglas Road to the upper part of Fraser Canyon around Lillooet. All these routes were technically illegal since the Governor required that entry to the colony to be made via Victoria, but thousands came overland anyway. Accurate numbers of miners on the upper Fraser, are therefore difficult to reckon.
During the gold rush tens of thousands of prospectors from California flooded into the newly declared Colony of British Columbia and disrupted the established balance between the Hudson's Bay Company's fur traders and indigenous peoples. The influx of prospectors included numerous European Americans and African Americans, Germans, English Canadians, French Canadians, Italians and French, other European ethnicities, Chinese, West Indians, others. Many of those first-arrived of European and British origin were Californian by culture, this included Maritimers such as Amor De Cosmos and others; the numbers of "Americans" associated with the gold rush must be understood to be inherently European-ethnic to start with. Anglo-American Southerners and New Englanders were well represented. Alfred Waddington, an entrepreneur and pamphleteer of the gold rush infamous for the disastrous road-building expedition which led to the Chilcotin War of 1864, estimated there were 10,500 miners on the Fraser at the peak of the gold rush.
This estimate did not include the non-mining "hangers-on" population. When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Richard Clement Moody was hand-picked by the Colonial Office, under Sir Edward Bulwer-Lytton, to establish British order and to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west" and "found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody arrived in British Columbia in December 1858, commanding the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment. Moody had hoped to begin the foundation of a capital city, but upon his arrival at Fort Langley he learned of an outbreak of violence at the settlement of Hill's Bar; this led to an incident popularly known as "Ned McGowan's War", where Moody quashed a group of rebellious American miners. Governor Douglas placed restrictions on immigration to the new British colony, including the proviso that entry to the territory must be made via Victoria and not overland, but thousands of men still arrived via the Okanagan and Whatcom Trails.
Douglas sought to limit the importation of weapons, one of the reasons for the Victoria-disembarkation requirement, but his lack of resources for oversight meant that overland routes to the goldfields could not be controlled. During the fall of 1858, tensions increased between miners and the Nlaka'pamux, the First Nations people of the Canyon; this led to the Fraser Canyon War. Miners wary of venturing upriver beyond Yale began to use the Lakes Route to Lillooet instead, prompting Douglas to contract for the building of the Douglas Road, the Mainland Colony's first public works project; the governor arrived in Yale to accept the apologies of the Americans who had waged war on the natives. Wanting to make the British military and governmental presence more visible, Douglas appointed justices of the peace and revised the slapdash mining rules which had emerged along the river. Troops to maintain order, were still in short supply. Competition and interracial tensions between European Americans and non-white miners erupted on Christmas Eve 1858, with the beating of Isaac Dixon, a freed American black.
He was the town barber and in years was a popular journalist in the Cariboo. Dixon was beaten by two men from Hill's Bar, the other main town in the southern part of the goldfields; the complicated series of events that ensued is known as McGowan's War. Its potential to provoke United State
The Skeena River is the second-longest river within British Columbia, Canada. Since ancient times, the Skeena has been an important transportation artery for the Tsimshian and the Gitxsan—whose names mean "inside the Skeena River" and "people of the Skeena River," respectively; the river and its basin sustain a wide variety of fish and vegetation. The Tsimshian migrated to the Lower Skeena River, the Gitxsan occupy territory of the Upper Skeena. During the Omineca Gold Rush, steamboat services ran from the sea to Hazelton, the jumping-off point for the trails to the goldfields; the Hudson's Bay Company established a major trading post on the Skeena at what became called Port Simpson, British Columbia, where nine tribes of the Tsimshian nation settled about 1834. Other tribes live elsewhere in BC, descendants of one group in Metlatkala, Alaska; the Skeena originates south of the Spatsizi Plateau Wilderness Provincial Park in north western British Columbia, forming a divide with the Klappan River, a tributary of the Stikine River.
It flows for 570 km before it empties into Chatham Sound, Telegraph Passage and Ogden Channel, east of the Dixon Entrance, all part of the Pacific Ocean. The Skeena drains 54,400 km2 of land with a mean annual discharge of 1,760 cubic metres per second; the Skeena River originates at the southern end of Spatsizi Plateau, in a valley between Mount Gunanoot and Mount Thule, south of the Stikine River watershed. The abandoned track of BC Rail's Dease Lake Extension runs along the river in its upper course, it flows south-east, between the shallow peaks of the Skeena Mountains, through the McEvoy and Jackson flats. It continues in this direction until it passes the Slamgeesh Range flows westwards to Fourth Cabin, when it turns south through a shallow canyon below Poison Mountain. After Kuldo it takes an eastward turn flows south again below Cutoff Mountain and Mount Pope, it continues through rolling hills to the community of Kispiox and Hazelton, where it receives the waters of Morice-Bulkley River, turns south-west.
The Yellowhead Highway and a Canadian National Railway track follow the course of the Skeena on this section. At Kitwanga, the river is crossed by Highway 37, turns south around the Seven Sisters Peaks and Bulkley Ranges, through the Skeena Provincial Forest between the Nass Ranges and Borden Glacier, past the ferry crossing at Usk, through the Kitselas Canyon, through the Kleanza Creek Provincial Park, it flows south-west through the city of Terrace, where the river widens. It continues westwards, followed by the Highway 16 and Canadian National Railway line, passes near the Exchamsiks River Provincial Park flows into the Dixon Entrance at Eleanor Passage, between Port Edward and Port Essington, facing De Horsey Island. Partial listing from Fisheries and Oceans CanadaUpper Skeena Bear River, Johanson Creek, Shilahou Creek, Slamgeesh River, Sustut RiverMiddle Skeena Babine River, Boucher Creek, Buck Creek, Bulkley River, Comeau Creek, Cullon Creek, Date Creek, Deep Canoe Creek, Fulton River, Harold Price Creek, Kispiox River, Kitseguecla River, Maxan Creek, McCully Creek, McQueen Creek, Morice River, Nangeese River, Nanika River, Nilkitkwa River, Pinkut Creek, Richfield Creek, Shegunia River, Simpson Creek, Stephens Creek, Suskwa River, Sweetin River, Toboggan CreekLower Skeena Alwyn Creek, Big Falls Creek, Cedar Creek, Coldwater Creek, Copper River, Deep Creek, Dog Tag Creek, Ecstall River, Erlandsen Creek, Exchamsiks River, Exstew River, Fiddler Creek, Gitnadoix River, Goat Creek, Johnston Creek, Johnston Lake, Kaeen Creek, Kasiks River, Khyex River, Kitsumkalum River, Kitwanga River, Kleanza Creek, Lakelse River, Lean-To Creek, Limonite Creek, Magar Creek, Moonlit Creek, Salmon Run Creek, Sockeye Creek, Spring Creek, Star Creek, Thomas Creek, Trapline Creek, White Creek, Williams Creek, Zymagotitz River, Zymoetz River The Skeena supports a wide variety of fish and wildlife.
The British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, through BC Parks, has designated a number of Ecological Reserves along the course of the river. The Skeena is well known for its sport fishing, most notably salmon; the Skeena is very important to the commercial fishing industry. For example, numbering 5 million spawning salmon a year, the Skeena is second only to the Fraser River in Canada in its capacity to produce sockeye salmon. However, in the last 40 years there has been a decrease in some of the fish species, leading to strict fishing regulations for the commercial fishery; the following types of Pacific salmon can be found in the Skeena: Chinook salmon, sometimes known as king, spring, tule, or blackmouth salmon. Chum salmon, sometimes known as calico salmon. Coho salmon, sometimes known as silver salmon. Pink salmon, sometimes known as humpback salmon. Sockeye salmon, sometimes known as red blueback salmon. Other anadromous species: Steelhead, anadromous form of rainbow trout The rare Kermode bear lives in and near the Skeena Valley from Prince Rupert to Hazelton.
The region is home to many black bears and brown bears. Grizzly bears are less common in the area but the Khutzeymateen Grizzly Bear Sanctuary is located nearby; the Skeena River watershed is the ancient homeland of the Tsimshian and Wet'suwet'en people. The Hudson's Bay Company's local headquarters were at Port Simpson, although Port Essington was used extensively as a port for its sternwheelers. While canoes played a crucial role on the Skeena for centuries, the age of the steamboat heralded a new era of boating on the Skeena; the first steam-powered vessel to enter the Skeena was the Union in 1864
Jervis Inlet locally is one of the principal inlets of the British Columbia Coast, about 95 km northwest of Vancouver, the third of such inlets north of the 49th parallel north, the first of, the Burrard Inlet, Vancouver's harbour.. It stretches 77 kilometres from its head at the mouth of the short Skwakwa River to its opening into the Strait of Georgia near Texada Island, it is the deepest fjord on the British Columbia coast with a maximum depth of 732 metres. The inlet is made up of three arms or reaches: Prince of Wales Reach Princess Royal Reach Queens ReachAt its uppermost stretch is Queens Reach, which takes a sharp right-angle seen in fjord areas, to become Princess Royal Reach. Both reaches are about 20 kilometres in length; the flanks of the fjord and the valley of the Skwakwa River, which feeds the head of the inlet, are the site of two of Canada's highest waterfalls, James Bruce Falls and Alfred Creek Falls. The most frequented and best known inlet in the area is Princess Louisa Inlet, with the Malibu Club and Young Life Camp at the entrance of the inlet and Princess Louisa Marine Provincial Park, including Chatterbox Falls, at its head.
At the mouth of Jervis Inlet a passenger and vehicle ferry operated by BC Ferries connects Earl's Cove with Saltery Bay. The mouth of Sechelt Inlet connects with Jervis Inlet in the area of Earl's Cove. Population is sparse on the shores of Jervis Inlet and there is no road access to the area. Industry includes small operations in aquaculture, commercial fishing and logging, but a substantial number of independent power projects are expected to develop in coming years; the head of Jervis Inlet was once a seasonal settlement of one of the four groups that make up today's amalgamated shishalh people, who called it xénichen. George Vancouver named the inlet after the 1791–1795 expedition to search for the fabled Northwest Passage. In the Royal Navy tradition, Vancouver named this main waterway after his friend Rear Admiral Sir John Jervis for his victory over the Spanish fleet on February 14, 1797 at Cape St. Vincent in Portugal, he named St. Vincent's Bay after the location of St. Vincent Bay; the three specific reaches of the inlet and mountains were named in the 1860 survey by HMS Plumper, which charted the known area in honor of members of Queen Victoria's family.
The waterways named during this survey mission were: Princess Louisa Inlet, Queens Reach, Princess Royal Reach, Prince of Wales Reach. Named were the main mountains of the area: Mount Alfred Mount Fredrick William Mount Arthur Mount Wellington Mount Alice Mount Victoria Mount Helena Mount AlbertIn the early 1900s, logging and commercial fishing developed in the Jervis Inlet area. Large logging camps operated at Goliath Bay, Vancouver Bay and Hotham Sound, commercial fishing was conducted by owner-operators based in Egmont, Pender Harbour and Saltery Bay, several fish-processing plants operated in Egmont, Pender Harbour and Saltery Bay. Jervis Inlet Gallery Deep Water Properties of Jervis Inlet Department of Fisheries and Oceans. CM_C2308 Fraser River to N. E. Pt. of Texada Island including Howe Sound and Jervis Inlet'Annotated' 1863.02.16 1865.08